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Medication non-adherence is one of the biggest causes of leftover medicines. Up to 50% of patients worldwide do not take their prescribed medicines as recommended. Optimising the use of medication is beneficial to improving clinical outcomes for patients with chronic disease. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of drug therapy, evaluate patient adherence, and identify of the patient's non-adherence behavior for oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). Methods: This study using non-experimental design, with mixed-methods (explanatory sequential design). A total of 32 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in referral program of national health care security system (BPJS Kesehatan) were included in this study from Primary Health Care in the north region of Surabaya. There are 6 domains of adherence behavior developed in this study. Results: The effectiveness of drug therapy in this study was 56,25%. About 68,75% of patients experienced to hypoglycemia and 6,25% had gastrointestinal problems caused by drug therapy. The adherence assessment found that 43,75% patients non adherence to medication. Leftover medicines found in the patient's home comes from multiple visits to health care facilities (53,12%) and patient non-adherence (37,5%). Conclusion: Follow-up evaluation as the continuous process in medication management services, led pharmacist in the strategic position to evaluates the patient's response to drug therapies in terms of effectiveness, safety, adherence and also avoiding unnecessary leftover medicines.
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