1. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Schiff’s Bases from Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid Derivatives
Fuoad S Aziz, Khudheyer J Kadem
A novel Schiff’s base have been synthesized by reaction between ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) derivatives with (2-methoxyaniline, 4-bromoaniline, 4-amino antipyrine) are successfully prepared to obtain six Schiff’s base through the reaction of the aldehyde group with compounds containing the amine group as a catalyst glacial acetic acid in ethanol under reflux in good yield (78–92%), the prepared compounds were characterized by were synthesized and characterized by (FT-IR) and 1HNMR, 13C spectroscopy, elemental analysis. The aim of this study is to use cheap EDTA to synthesize Schiff bases, which are thought to have effective biologic and antibacterial properties.
2. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles by Using Local Serratia spp. Isolate
Lubna Abdulazeem, Frial G. Abd
Biological sources of bacteria, fungi, and plants are playing a major role in the reduction of metallic nanoparticles, such as gold, as it attributed as eco-friendly and contributed to the application in nanotechnology. This study includes the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the culture supernatant of local Serratia spp. Isolate. Gold(III) chloride trihydrate ( HAuCl2) in concentration1× 10-³ M added to supernatant separately. Their respective supernatants were examined for the ability to produce gold nanoparticles. The events that happened were in a dark place at 37ºC. After 24 hours, it was observed that the color of the solutions turned from pale yellow to dark purple. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by: UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to ensure the presence of different functional groups, respectively, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), finally,scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to determined multivalent gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) size and shape. Results: The gold nanoparticles were approximately uniform in size 57.17 nm, triangle in shape, and FTIR spectra revealed the presence of various functional groups in the gold nanoparticles which were also present in the bacterial extract. Conclusion: The current approach suggests that the rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be feasible in developing a biological process for the mass-scale production of gold nanoparticles.
3. The Toxicity of Castor Beans and its Treatment with Doxycycline in Local Rabbits
Nael Mohammed Sarheed, Osamah Faisal Kokaz, Doaa Abd Alabas Muhammed Ridh
The plant of castor is widely spread in the Iraqi land and characterized by containing ricin toxin, which has a severe effect, and because the seeds of this plant scattered in the agricultural soil and rivers water, which increases the exposure of humans and animals to these beans. Objective: This experiment was designed to study the effect of high concentration of castor bean powder in some physiological and biochemical parameters and changes in some tissues of the body, as well as trying to use doxycycline to reduce the effects of ingestion of these seeds. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 24 local rabbits were raised and fed in the Animal House, Faculty of Medicine/Al-Muthanna University, then divided into four groups and treated for three weeks (21 days), Control group: treated with normal saline solution (0.9) orally throughout the experiment, G1: was treated orally with a concentration of 25 mg/kg of castor bean powder daily during the experiment, G2: orally treated 25 mg/kg of castor bean and 25 mg/kg of doxycycline, G3: orally treated 25 mg/kg of castor powder with 50 mg/kg of doxycycline daily throughout the trial period. Results: The results of the experiment showed significant changes (P < 0.05) in all physiological and biochemical blood tests when compared with the control group. There was a significant decrease in PCV, Hb, RBC, T.protein, and body weights while demonstrated a substantial increase in white blood cell (WBC), Urea, Creatinine, ALT, AST, and ALP, with distortions in liver and kidney of animals that treated with Castor beans. In contrast, the treatment with doxycycline and castor beans showed significant improvement reflected by normal proportions in physiological tests and biochemical tests with improvement in the tissues when compared to the control group. Conclusions: It can be concluded from this study that castor bean has high toxic and pathogenic effects that may be dangerous to the life of the organism. Therefore, it is advisable to be cautious of these pills and avoid exposure to them, also recommended to take high concentrations of doxycycline treatment when infected with castor bean poisoning.
4. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti Oxidant Activity of White, Red and Black Abrus precatorius L. (Gunja): Comparative Studies
Goli Penchala Prasad, Goli Penchala Pratap, Shyam Baboo Prasad, M Srinivasan, SD Pawar, AK Mangal, N Srikanth
Objective: To find the chemical and biological (Antioxidant action) variability of three verities of Gunja (Abrus precatorius L.) leaf based on its fruit colour i.e. White, Red and Black. Methods: The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of all varieties were screened for phytoconstituents using preliminary chemical test, Chromatographic fingerprinting using LC-MS, possible antioxidant activities was screened by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), FRAP inhibition method. Results: The results showed that the three varieties vary little bit in their phytoconstituents. All the extract possessed antioxidant in dose dependent manner. Conclusions: This study suggests that aqueous extract of leaves of red veriety of A. precatorius extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.
5. Cytotoxic Activity of Different Extracts from Brown Marine Macroalgae from the El Jadida Region (Morocco)
Lasky M, Nmila R, Chibi F, Oualili H, El Idrissi E, Abderrazik M, and Rchid H
The therapeutic use of extraordinary virtues of algae in healthcare is very ancient and has evolved throughout the history of humanity. However, low or high doses and/or prolonged administration of algae-derived biologically active substances may trigger adverse or even harmful effects such as hemolytic properties. In this study, hemolytic activities of the brown algae Cystoseira myriophylloides (F/Sargassaceae) from El Jadida coast (Moroccan Atlantic coast) on human erythrocyte were investigated. The toxicity of chloroform-methanolic, methanolic, chloroformic, isoprpanolic and butanolic extracts and fractions derived from Cystoseira myriophylloides on human erythrocytes was measured by in vitro hemolytic assay. The results obtained show variable cytotoxicity of C. myriophyloides against the red blood cells. Indeed, the crude extract has a fairly high hemolytic activity that is very marked when the erythrocytes are incubated in the presence of the chloroformic extract. However, the cytotoxic activity is greatly increased in the presence of the butanolic fraction derived by partitioning of the isopropanolic extract. Moreover, the hemolysis activity is dose-dependent and depending on the evolution of incubation time. Thus, these results show that the majority of extracts and fractions of brown macroalgae Cystoseira myriophylloides manifest hemolytic activity.
6. Relevant Changes in the Pharmacovigilance System in Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)
Gildeeva G.N., Belostotskiy A.V., Andreeva D.M.
The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is an international organization for regional economic integration, established by the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union, which currently includes five countries–Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, and Kyrgyzstan. The EAEU ensures the freedom of goods movement, as well as services, capital, and labor, conducting a coordinated, agreed, or unified policy in the sectors of the economy. The EAEU single drug market is a system of 35 regulations, including good practices for the circulation of medicinal products (GMP, GCP, GLP, GDP, GVP). This group of regulations contains basic documents on the inspection of production, confirmation of equivalence of reproduced drugs, the development of biological drugs, and pharmacovigilance (PV). Drugs in circulation in the EAEU are subject to efficacy and safety monitoring to identify possible negative consequences of their use, individual intolerance, warn medical staff, veterinary specialists, patients or owners of animals and protect them from the use of such drugs.1,2 In the near future, the Eurasian Union plans to “sanation” of the pharmaceutical market, from which drugs that have not shown their effectiveness, as well as unsafe drugs, will disappear, and therefore issues related to pharmacovigilance become particularly relevant.
7. Comparative Study of Medical Device Vigilance in Canada, USA, Australia
Sridhar S, Balamuralidhara V, Balamuralidara V
The medical device vigilance system was set up to minimize risks to the safety of patients, users and others by detecting the possible adverse reactions in patients, the medical device safety issues are identified and reported manufacture or health professional through identification and reporting of issues by members of the public or through information sharing with other competent authorities. Medical device reporting is important from the processing and reporting of single adverse incidents through to the removal of products from the market as part of a Field Safety Corrective Action, Manufacturers are obliged to maintain robust medical device vigilance and post-marketing surveillance systems for the maintenance of the marketing authorization in the country were the product is marketed.
8. In Vitro, Effect of Ellagic Acid on Glucose and Albumin Levels for Diabetics Type 1 in Al-Muthanna Province
Ali Tariq Hadi, Nabil Sabri Al-Habib, Riyadh Jaleel Nahi
The current study is interested in the study of the effect of ellagic acid on levels of glucose and albumin for people with diabetes of type 1. The target blood samples were collected from 52 diabetics’ type 1 (female and male). For each collected sample, the levels of glucose and albumin were firstly measured, and the obtained read was recorded as a control read. A solution of ellagic acid (45 μL) was then added, and the resulting solution was then incubated at 37oC for 45, followed by measuring the levels of glucose and albumin. The same sample was then incubated again at 37oC for a further 45 minutes, and the levels of glucose and albumin were then measured. For both incubation times, the obtained results showed that the addition of ellagic acid reduced the levels of glucose and albumin. Furthermore, varietal differences were observed in the levels of glucose and albumin, depending on the incubation time. Also, all obtained reads were studied statistically as a function for some risk factors such as age, weight, and gender.
9. Amelioration of Spermiogram and Reproductive Hormonal Changes with Nigella Sativa and Eurycoma Longifolia Treatments in Rats Exposed to Lead Acetate
Mohammed A Assi
Aim The current study was designed to estimate the influence of Nigella sativa (NS) and Eurycoma longifolia pre-treatment and Lead acetate administration on the reproductive hormonal and stereogram of rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of Sprague Dawley rats have been divided into six rats each. Distilled water was given to Group 1 (NC) and set as the negative control. Lead acetate 20 mg/kg/day orally for one month was administered to Group 2 (PC) and set as the positive control. Group 3 (T1) were administered 20 mg/kg LA and 300 mg/kg Nigella sativa both orally/day for one month. Group 4 (T2) were received 20 mg/kg LA and 500 mg/kg Eurycoma longifolia orally/day for one month. Group 5 (T3) were administered 300 mg/kg Nigella sativa, 20 mg/kg LA, and 500 mg/kg Eurycoma longifolia orally/day for one month. Results: In this study, five groups of Sprague Dawley rats have been divided into 6 male rats each and grouped as follows; Group 1(Negative control); Group 2 (Positive control; 20mg/kg lead acetate); Group 3 (LA 20mg/kg + NS 300mg/kg); Group 4 (LA 20mg/kg + EL 500mg/kg); Group 5 (LA 20mg/kg+ NS 300mg/kg + EL 500mg/kg). All administrations were given daily for 30 days. The rats were euthanized, and serum and epididymal samples were collected for reproductive hormonal assays and spermiogram determination. The estrogen concentration was less (p <0.05) in the EL treated group, whereas in the positive control (PC), the concentration of follicle stimulation hormones, as well as luteinizing hormones, were lower (p < 0.05). Testosterone concentration was found to be higher (p < 0.05) in the PC in comparison to other groups. The motility, concentration, and viability of the sperm were all low in the PC and high (p < 0.05) in the treatment groups. The sperm abnormality was higher in the PC in compared with other groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed the preventive effect of Nigella sativa and Eurycoma longifolia administration against alterations in spirogram and hormones caused by LA.
10. Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Powdered Infant Formula During Different Storage Periods after Opening
Mohammed K Al-atrash
The present study was carried out to knowing effect different storage periods of the microbial quality for the powdered infant formula (PIF) after opening the tin and ensuring from the safety note (after opening, use within 3 weeks). Thirty (30) samples of (PIF) from category 1–6 months in five different types are collected from pharmacies and local markets in Baquba city/Iraq, which are used as substitutes for breast milk during the first day of opening the tin powders such as total viable count, total coliform count, Salmonella count and yeast and molds (YM) count. These experiments repeated at each week of same samples within 5 weeks. Results were obtained at opening the tin, total viable count (< 0.05 1.0 x 103 ±1.5×10 CFU/g) were significantly higher than total coliform count (< 0.05 ± 0.3 x 10 CFU/g) and total salmonella count (< 0.05 0 x 10 CFU/g) and Yeasts and Molds (< 0.05 ± 0.3 x 10 CFU/g). while results obtained at fifth week were (< 0.05 8.8 x 103 ± 5.5×102 CFU/g), (< 0.05 0.9 x 102 ± 0.4×101 CFU/g), (< 0.05 0 x 10 CFU/g), (< 0.05 9.5 x 10 ± 1.2×101 CFU /g) respectively. All samples of (PIF) having a non-significant difference. These results compared to Iraqi Quality Standards (IQS), all the results from the opening samples to 5th week were within the range of IQS and USA Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and as indicates the hygienic condition of (PIF) without risk level for human health, also observed an increase in microbial contamination in each week because increase the moisture content for powdered milk. It can be used more than 3 weeks after opening if stored in good conditions with good hygienic practices during milk preparation.
11. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infestation in Anemic Patients Attended to Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital at Al-Qadisiyah Province/Iraq
Ghada B A Alomashi, Amal H A Al-Shabbani
The present study was conducted from November 2016 to October 2018 at Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital (Al-Qadisiyah province/Iraq) to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in anemic patients using conventional classical methods. Stool and blood samples were collected from 974 patients to detected the parasite, the RBC count, PVC, and the Hb level. The result shows that overall of anemic patients, the parasitic infestation was 64% were positives. Among positive infected patients, exhibiting multiple parasitic infestations accounted for 45 %, while patients with single parasitic infestation accounted for 55%. The wet amount and staining method were used to detect the intestinal parasite, and the results show protozoans trophozoite and cyst of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Balantidium coli, and the oocyst of Cryptosporidium while the result detects the egg of helminthes were Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis. Concerning social factors (age, gender, and residence), significant elevation (p < 0.05) were observed in groups of < 10 years (85.87%), males (69.57%), and rural areas (80.37%). Values (Mean ± Standard error) of RBCs indices showed that there were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in total RBCs count [(3.87 ± 0.23) × 106/μL], Hb [(10.62 ± 0.86) g/dL], MCH [(27.44 ± 1.36) pg], and MCHC [(27.87 ± 2.75) g/dl]; and significant increases (p < 0.05) in values of PCV [(38.11 ± 1.49) %], and MCV [(98.48 ± 3.65) fl]. Macrocytic (62.26%) and normocytic (51.73%) were the commonest types of anemia reported among infested and non-infested patients, respectively. Association between species of intestinal parasites and type of anemia were detected in this study. It showed that E. vermicularis (91.19%), B. coli(45.59%), and A. duodenale (91.67%) were significantly prevalent (p < 0.05) among macrocytic, normocytic and microcytic anemic patients, respectively.
12. Detection of Candida Albicans in some enteropathy patients using Polymerase Chain Reaction technique
Haider M Jasim, Ali H Alhamadani, Ahmed A Abbas
Laboratory identification based on DNA amplification methods by used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may provide an alternative and more sensitive method than traditional culture for the early detection of Candida albicans. This study aims to the identification and determines the prevalence of C. albicans by use PCR method. A total of 167 samples (40 controls and 127 patients) were taken. By the use of culture techniques for isolation and identification, C. albicans on Sabouraud dextrose agar are characterized by cream to white and smooth at 30C◦ these characteristics. C. albicans have been isolated from patients’ samples and these included the C.albicans was detected in 17 control subjects (42.5%), and 51 patients (40.16%). The results of this estimation revealed that the amplified DNA (PCR product) was 459bp for C.albicans.
13. Efficacy of Deferasirox Median Dose of 30 mg/kg/day in Pediatric Patients with β-Thalassemia Major during One Year Follows-up Therapy
Nashwan M Al-Hafidh, Mozahim S. Younis
Objective: To assess the efficacy of deferasirox median dose of 30 mg /kg /day in pediatric patients with β- thalassemia major during one year of follow up Patients and methods: This study was conducted at Ibn Al Atheer center of thalassemia, Mosul city, Iraq, during the period from 3rd of February 2013 to 2nd of February 2014. Serum ferritin was measured at baseline and four weekly intervals thereafter among 49 transfusion-dependent children with β-thalassemia major, who were treated with a median deferasirox dose of 30 mg /kg /day. Results: No statistically significant difference was detected between the mean serum ferritin level at baseline (2189.39 ± 85.7) ng/mL and its mean value at four-weekly intervals during forty-eight weeks of deferasirox therapy. There was significant (p = 0.027) improvement of serum ferritin at 52 weeks reading (1750.6 ± 202.8 ng/mL) compared to baseline reading. The percentage of patients with baseline serum ferritin levels of >2,500 ng/ml was 32.7% (16/49), which increased significantly (p=0.000) to 65% at four weeks of therapy, and ranged between 32.1% – 46.2 % in the remaining readings. Conclusions: There was no significant reduction of serum ferritin during the initial forty-eight weeks of deferasirox median dose of 30 mg /kg /day among patients with baseline mean serum ferritin above 2000 ng /ml.
14. Antibacterial Activity of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Calcination Method
Elaf Ayad Kadhem, Miaad Hamzah Zghair, Sarah Salih Mahdi, Hussam H. Tizkam, Shoeb Alahmad
Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) were prepared by a simple wet chemical method using different calcination temperatures. The prepared NPs were characterized by electrostatic discharge (ESD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). It demonstrates a sharp intensive peak with the increase of crystallinity and increase of the size with varying morphologies with respect to increasing of calcination temperature. Antibacterial studies were done on gram-negative bacteria (E.coli) and gram-positive bacteria (S.aureus) by agar disc diffusion method. The zones of inhibitions were found larger for gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria; this means, antibacterial MgO NPs activity more active on gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria because of the structural differences. It was found that the antibacterial activity of MgO NPs was found it has directly proportional to their concentration.
15. In Silico Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Ibuprofen Derivative as Potential Antitumor Agent
Awatef A. Ebrahim Al-Ani, Ali Naim Hussein, Zahraa A. G. Mohammed Ali
Background: Numerous animal studies and clinical trials in cancer have shown that ibuprofen reduces the incidence of and mortality from cancer. Synthesis of a novel conjugate of ibuprofen with the 2-phenyl amino pyrimidine derivative (to mimic small molecules kinase inhibitor anti-cancers) exhibits significant increase, as compared to free ibuprofen, potential to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells. Methods: The docking study was performed with GOLD software supplied by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. Thereafter, chemical synthesis was established. The chemical structures of this study were confirmed by spectral instrumentation; infrared, differential scanning calorimeter thermal analyzer, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance.Results and Discussions: The docking process was successfully conducted, and the chemical synthesis yielded a good percent. The spectral interpretations show a characteristic identification of the target chemical compound.
16. Antifungal Activity of Eucalyptus Microtheca Leaves Extract Against Aflatoxigenic Fungi
Forqan Jabbar Taher
Eucalyptus trees are evergreen, fast-growing, and widely cultivated in Iraq. Its leaves, buds, capsules, and even seeds contain several compounds that have antimicrobial activity. Fresh leaves were collected and let dry in the shade at room temperature, then alcoholic, and aqueous stock solution (200mg/ml) of leaves extract was prepared in 10% DMSO from which different concentrations were done. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method using FLU, KCA, MCL, ECN, and ITC antibiotics. Leaves extracts were also examined for its antifungal activity then the MIC and MFC were determined using the microdilution method. KCA, ECN, and MCL were the most effective antifungal drugs on most isolates. Only two isolates were resistant to all antibiotics, and one isolate showed sensitivity to all antibiotics under study. The methanolic and ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus leaves extract showed the highest inhibitory influence on fungal growth in comparison with the aqueous extract. Furthermore, Alcoholic extracts showed MIC at 50mg/mL and MFC at 100mg/ml. The aqueous extract of Eucalyptus had no inhibitory effect on the growth of all Aspergillus isolates. The results of the present research showed the potential antifungal activity of the Eucalyptus microtheca leaves extract against the aflatoxigenic A. niger and A. flavus, which is an indication of the fungicidal value of the plant extract. This research suggests that the plant extract may possess some compounds with antifungal properties against fungi, and it can be used as a safe and economical alternative against aflatoxigenic fungal food and feed contamination.
17. Presentation Uses of Amylase in Manufacturing (Review)
Intesar Ali Mezeal, Sabreen Ali Mezil, Ghanyia Jasim Shnewer
Amylases one of chief enzymes castoff in manufacturing. Such enzymes hydrolyze arrowroot particles interested in polymers collected of glucose components. Amylases obligate possible to request in an extensive amount of manufacturing procedures like diet, fermentation besides medicinal productions. Amylases jerry can remain gotten as of vegetation, animals besides microorganisms. Though, enzymes as of mycological, bacteriological foundations obligate conquered requests in manufacturing subdivisions. Creation of amylase indispensable aimed at change of starches hooked on oligosaccharides. Starch is an imperative basic of anthropoid food besides is a main storing creation of numerous frugally significant harvests. Starch changing enzymes rummage-sale in the creation of malt dextrin adapted starches, glucose besides fructose maple syrup., a great numeral of microbial -amylases consumes requests in dissimilar manufacturing subdivisions like nutrition, material, paper besides domestic productions. Construction of amylases consumes usually remained approved by inundated fermentation; nonetheless, rock-solid state fermentation methods seem by way of talented machinery, possessions of amylase like thermo immovability, pH summary, pH steadiness, imperative in an expansion of fermentation method.
18. Defensive Activity of Hesperidin against Ciprofloxacin Induced Hepatic Injury in Rabbits
Hawraa M.Murad, Tamadhur Hani Hussein, Audai Sulaiman Khudhair, Manal Muhi Murad, Jawad Kadhim Faris
This study was conducted to find out hepatoprotective activity of hesperidin (HES) 100mg/kg body weight (b.w.) against ciprofloxacin (CPX) 100 mg/kg induced hepatotoxicity in local breed rabbits. CPX is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used for the treatment of many bacterial infections. Twenty four male rabbits were divided into four groups ,group1: control, (1 ml/kg saline orally) group 2: CPX (100 mg/kg orally) for (14) consecutive days , group 3: HES (100 mg//kg) orally for (14) consecutive days group 4: CPX (100 mg/kg orally) plus HES (100 mg/kg orally) for (14) consecutive days. All the rabbits were killed on the (15) day of the experiment, and then the blood and livers samples were taken. CPX induced hepatotoxicity was proved by a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the body weight, and a significant (p < 0.01) increased serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), Malonaldehyde enzyme (MAD) and histopathological changes. Protective hepatic toxicity effect and oxidative damage caused by CPX significantly (p < 0.01) increasing in body weight and significantly (p < 0.01), decreasing AST, ALT, MAD, and improving tissue morphology in HES (100 mg//kg). These results assure that HES (100 mg/kg) antioxidant effects can protect CPX-induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits.
19. Application and Evaluation The Effect of Metallic Nanoparticles on Metronidazole Performance as a Novel Technology
Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, Furqan M. Abdulelah
Objective: The scope of this study is to evaluate the influence of metal nanoparticles application on pharmaceutical properties and biologic activity of an antifungal drug, metronidazole (MTZ). Method: Metal nanoparticles used in the study, bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) used as the nanocarriers for metronidazole (MTZ), and they were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. Drug loading on Bi2S3 nanoparticles, lattice property alteration, and average particle sizes were evaluated using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). The evaluation of the release of MTZ from Bi2S3 nanoparticles was carried out using USP type II rotating puddle apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of MTZ before and after loading was carried out by the disc diffusion method against two aerobic gram +ve and one aerobic gram –ve bacteria, in addition to two fungi. Result: This study showed a successful loading process as well as the particles size reduction of MTZ after loading on Bi2S3 nanoparticles. In vitro release study showed a significant* increase in solubility and dissolution of MTZ after loading on Bi2S3 nanoparticles. MTZ showed a significant* increase in antibacterial (against gram +ve aerobic staphylococcus aureus and bacillus subtilis) and antifungal (Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis) activities after loading process. Conclusion: Nanotechnology was applied successfully to improve both, solubility and biologic activity of the model drug used, metronidazole (MTZ).
20. Biochemical and Histopathological Changes Caused by Atorvastatin in Gentamicin Treated Rats
Fatima Adnan Alzubaidi, Radhwan M. Hussein, Zainab Sajid Mohammed, Enass Najem Oubaid
Introduction: Gentamicin is a member of the antibiotic group (aminoglycosides), it’s very effective in the management of many gram-negative bacterial infections, but its nephrotoxic effect is considered the major limiting factor. The protective role of Atorvastatin against this adverse effect in male rats was investigated in this study. Materials and methods: Thirty adult Wistar male rats were included in the study, they were divided into 3 groups randomly with ten rats in each one, rats in group (1) were given normal standard diet and considered as control. Rats in Group 2 were given gentamicin in a dose of 100 mg per kg per day, intraperitoneally for four weeks, while rats in Group 3 were given gentamicin in a dose of 100 mg per kg per day, intraperitoneally together with atorvastatin 10 mg/kg/day orally for four weeks. Results: treatment with Gentamicin elevated the level of serum urea, cystatin C, creatinine, total oxidant status, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly while decreased total antioxidant status significantly. Treatment with Atorvastatin reduced the level of serum urea, creatinine, total oxidant status, and tissue MDA significantly while increased total antioxidant status significantly. Renal damage in gentamicin treated rats was determined markedly with histopathological studies in the glomeruli and renal tubules. Conclusion: coadministration of statins with gentamicin can reduce the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin treatment.
21. Renoprotective Effect of Atorvastatin Against Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Male Rats
Samer J Sharif, Bahir Abdul Razzaq Mshimesh, Basim S Ahmed, Suzan Yousif Jasim
Contrast-induced nephropathy defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥ 25% from baseline at 48–72 hours after exposure to contrast media in the absence of another cause for acute kidney injury. Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering agent, may protect the renal functions from contrast-induced acute kidney injury by other effects not related to lipid levels termed “pleiotropic effects” such as decreasing endothelin synthesis, angiotensin receptors, expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, inflammation, and reactive oxygen species production. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of atorvastatin against nephropathy induced by iopromide, as a contrast media. Forty adults’ male Wistar rats were used in this experiment, each group contains ten rats, as follow: first group (control) received normal saline; second group (contrast-induced nephropathy) received iopromide as contrast media; the third group received atorvastatin (20mg/kg) and contrast media, and the fourth group received atorvastatin (40mg/kg) and contrast media. Renal function tests (creatinine clearance, serum urea, microalbuminuria, and lipocalin-2) and vascular endothelial function tests (nitric oxide and prostaglandin) were measured. Histopathological study and immunohistochemical staining were achieved to evaluate caspase-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The renal functions and endothelial functions notably deteriorated in contrast-induced nephropathy group; while treatment with low and high dose atorvastatin significantly improved these functions, compared with contrast-induced nephropathy group. Histopathological study showed severe tissue damage (medullary congestion and tubular necrosis) in contrast-induced nephropathy group, while treatment with low and high atorvastatin dose significantly protected the renal tissue. Immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly overexpressed in contrast-induced nephropathy group, while treatment with low and high dose atorvastatin reverse this upregulation in a dose-depended manner. In conclusion, atorvastatin may act as a prophylactic agent to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in a dose-dependent manner. Proposed mechanisms of this nephroprotective activity may involve improving vascular endothelial function, anti-apoptotic, and angiogenic effects.
22. The Association of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene polymorphism and Some Biomarkers in Hemodialysis Patients
Maysaa A Hadi, Ali H Al. Saadi, Wisam A A Rady
The Aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is clarified by constant structural abnormalities, urine abnormalities, or damaged excretory renal function indicative of a failure of functional nephrons. One of the treatments for renal failure is hemodialysis. The aim was assessing the potential association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism with renal failure and their correlation with some biochemical parameter as Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA) and kidney function test (KFT) “urea” and “creatinine” in Iraqi hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: The study was contained 60 hemodialysis patients (30 Male and 30 Female).The control group was 30 healthy subjects (15 Male and 15 Female). The ages of hemodialysis patients and control groups ranged between (11–75 years). The information was taken from a questionnaire which included age, sex, smoking, duration of disease, duration of dialysis, number of dialyzes, other diseases, and family history. Also, body mass index (BMI), urea, creatinine, IGF-1, and SDMA were measured. After extraction of DNA from white blood cells and carrying out of PCR, characterizing ACE I/D polymorphism by applying an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) technique. Results: The demographic study showed that there were more hemodialysis patients had age ≥ 50 years old (40%)when compared with the control group. The most hemodialysis patients had BMI were 18–24.9 (48.33%)in comparison with the control group, which was 18–24.9 (100 %). The smoking percentage was (16,67%) in hemodialysis patients compared to the control group (10%). The presence of another disease in the hemodialysis patients were hypertension (70 %) followed by diabetes mellitus (25 %), arthritis (23.33%), and cardiovascular disease (20 %). Concerning a family history of CKD, (25%) of hemodialysis patients have a family history while the family history of the control group was (6.67%). In the hemodialysis patients, the genotype I/I, I/D, and D/D distribution percentage were 18.33 %, 65 %, and 16.67% respectively compared with the control group which was 33.33 %, 36.67%, and 30% respectively. Conclusion: There was a high association between heterozygous genotype (I/D) with the occurrence of CKD. Serum urea level increased in hemodialysis patients had ID genotypes in comparison with II and DD genotypes. Also, IGF-1 and SADMA have importance as a risk factor or prognosis indicator in adult CKD hemodialysis patients.
23. Study of Some Biochemical Parameters in Iraqi Type II Diabetics Patients
Saddam M Abid, Shakir F T Alaaraji, Khalid F A Alrawi
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to impairment of insulin secretion, defective insulin action, or both. Aim of study: The current study was planned to determine the serum levels of some biochemical parameters FSG, Hba1c, Lipid profile, and Renal functions in type 2 diabetics (T2D). Methods: Twenty-one Iraqi T2D patients and 21 control subjects matched for age and ethnic background were also included randomly selected from those attending Diabetes Center for Treatment at Ramadi General Hospital for the period from beginning November 2017 to the end of May 2018. Result:The mean levels of Blood pressure, FSG, HbA1c, Cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and S.Cr showed highly significant increase in group B Compared to A as well as the mean levels of HDL, T.P, Alb/Cr ratio and globulin showed highly significant decrease in group B compared to A. In contrast showed no statistical significant in mean levels of Age, WHr ratio, THr ratio, urea, UA, Albumin, Ca and Mg between group B and A.The receiver operator curve (ROC) investigation of the anticipated varieties uncovered the slipping request of HbA1c, FSG, TP, TG, VLDL, HDL, Cholesterol, LDL, Globulin, Alb/Cr ratio, Albumin, Cr, UA, Alb/Gratio, Urea, Ca, WHr ratio, THr ratio and Mg respectively that showed significant variation. In conclusion, high level of HbA1c%, FSG, TG, VLDL, Total Cholesterol, LDL, SCr, SUA and low levels of T.P, HDL, S.Globulin, Alb/Cr ratio, and S.Albumin were associated with an increased risk of T2DM, especially in obese Iraqi diabetics.
24. Antibacterial Activity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa)
Haider Q Raheem, Linda H Al-Ghazali, Farah A Al-Marzook
One hundred wound swab samples were collected from wound patients who visited in the Teaching Hospital Wound Unit in Hillah, Babylon Province, Iraq. S. aureus was identified morphologically and biochemically. Total of 30 (30%) from total samples exhibited positive culture for S. aureus. Out of 30 S. aureus, 8 (26.6%) isolates were Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for eight antibiotics for MRSA that appeared sensitive toward tetracycline, rifampin and ciprofloxacin (62.5%) but (37.5%) were resistant. For penicillin G and cefoxitin, all isolates were resistant (100%). For Clindamycin, (25%) of isolates were resistant, but (75%) were sensitive. About (62.5%) were resistant to Erythromycin, but (37.5%) were sensitive. Isolates showed resistance to Gentamycin in 50% and 50% sensitive. Anti-bacterial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) against S. aureus displays excessive widespread spectrum antibacterial action against established bacteria with increase zone of inhibition diameter that is proportional to the increase in nanoparticle concentration. The MIC of CuO NPs ranged from 75–150μg/mL, and the MBC ranged from 150-300μg/mL. CuO NPs is recommended as an efficient anti-MRSA alternative.
25. Study the Effectiveness of (G-6-PhD) Enzyme and the Level of Fats in Peoples with Leukemia
Sayran Sattar Saleh
A chemo-enzymatic study of the enzyme G-6-PhD in the blood of people with leukemia and lipid level estimation and blood tests for cancer patients in the Kirkuk city. It included 80 samples, 30 of them are healthy as a control group and 50 patients with leukemia, which was collected from the center of cancer tumors in Kirkuk and the ages (1–60) years old. During this study was evaluated the level of effectiveness of G-6-PhD from red blood cells by using the diagnostic kit (BioLaBo). There is a decrease in the level of G-6-PhD enzyme effectiveness, especially in the second age group where there was a clear decrease in this category compared to healthy people. In addition, serum lipid levels were measured for people with leukemia, where they found a decrease in fat levels high-density lipoproteins (HDL), CHOL and an increase of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), TG. Also, some blood tests were conducted in people with leukemia. There was a decrease in the level of (HB, PLT, PCV) and increase at the level of both (WBC) compared to healthy.
26. Genetic Detection and Identification of Some Virulence Factors Genes Among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Samples in Kirkuk province-Iraq
Ibraheem Salih Aljebory
The study aim was to identify the prevalence of some virulence factors genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates which carried out at Kirkuk hospitals, in Kirkuk, Iraq. Totally 150 swaps were collected and cultured (110 patients suffered from burns, and 40 patients suffered from wounds) from different ages and both gender for identification of P. aeruginosa, the bacterial swaps were detect by biochemical tests, API 20 E and Vitak 2 system. 51 (34%) isolates of P. aeruginosa of total samples were identified, distributed as 39 isolates (35%) from burns and 12 isolates (3%) from wounds. Depending on groups of ages and gender, the study indicated that the rate of P. aeruginosa in the male was (53%), and in female patients was (47%) and the maximum rate (28%) was between 24-29 years comparison with the elderly. Bacterial chromosomal DNA was extracted from P. aeruginosa by QIAamp DNA mini kit. The average DNA concentration of 51 DNA samples were 85 ng/μl and the average purity were 1.9 . Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to identified the virulence factor genes (tox A and opr L). The result indicated that 50 (98%) samples were positive for opr L and 51 (100%) for tox A genes.
27. Preparation and Characterization Teeth Filling of Powder and Mixing it with Acrylic (PMMA)/N-TIO2 to Wear Resistance and Antibacterial
Fadhil K Farhan, Mohammed O Kadhim, Mohammed H Ali, Awatif S Abass
In this research, the light filling with titanium oxide was formed as an anti-corrosion and antibacterial antibiotic. The white acrylic powder was used with its solvent after mixing it with different percentages of biologically active titanium oxide using the liquid mixing method and the ultrasound technique to obtain a homogeneous mixture free of aggregates and then molded into special molds for the required examination. The hard surface hardness of the samples prepared using the hardness device was examined along with the test of dry sliding wear using a Pin-on-disk method, as well as the examination of the samples to resist the bacteria of tooth decay. Structural tests were performed on X-ray diffraction techniques, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and infrared technique. The results were interpreted based on the practical density of the prepared samples.
28. Cytotoxic Effect of Pseudomonas aurogenosa Protease on Cancer Cells
Ghanyia J.Shanyoor, Fatima R. Abdul, Nehad A.Taher, Ihsan A. Raheem
About (20) Pseudomonas rogenosa isolate was experienced for their ability of protease production by calculating the diameter of lysis area after developing on skim milk agar medium (qualitatively ). The results exhibited that only isolate no 5 was higher isolate for protease making of (26mm) of lysis area. Then, the protein concentration was also identified by the Bradford method and found of 0.16 mg/mL; then purification was done by using an ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE sephadex G-100 column. The results showed the presence of 1-peak of the enzyme with 50 Kd of molecular weight two peaks of other proteins. We tried to investigate the cytotoxic invitro effect of the purified enzyme against two human cancer lines, HeP2 (human larynx epidermed carcinoma), RD (Rabdo- Sarcoma), and one normal cell line Ref ( Rat embryonic fibroblast) . The cancer and normal cells were treated with different concentrations of protease enzyme ranging from (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4,0.8 and 0.16 mg/mL) then incubated for additional 48 hours at 370C and the results showed highest toxicity (80.28%) of protease enzyme on RD , moderate cytotoxicity (45.52%) on Hep and slight toxicity (37.12%) on normal cell line (Ref) in a concentration (0.8mg/mL).
29. Effect of the Indomethacin Drug on Kidney Histology in Male Albino Rats
Zahraa Kareem Al-Mayali, Haider Salih Jaffat, Jabbar Abadi Mohammed
The kidneys are major organs that clear the drugs. Urine is one of the primary elimination routes for drugs and metabolites to be excreted outside of the body. Most drugs are predominantly excreted via the kidneys as their metabolized products. The histopathological change of kidney in the rats that treated with indomethacin at a dose (20mg/kg)show the abnormal structure of glomerulus is more damage and bowman’s space is very swelling, distortion glomerulus and the compound inside it is shrinkage with the presence of inflammation cell and bleeding fibrosis, when compared with control . While the change of kidney in the rats that treated with indomethacin at a dose (50mg/kg) Showed abnormal structure of glomerulus is shrinkage with tubular cellular swelling and necrosis and presence of interstitial inflammation and swelling tubular. When used hesperidin show a protective effect of the normal antioxidant structure of glomerulus and renal tubule also no necrosis or swelling, the Bowman’s space and the capsule are normal.
30. Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride and Amoxicillin in a Binary Mixture using Derivative Spectrophotometry Methods
Aseel M Aljeboree, Abbas Noor Alshirifi
A simple, precise, and economical procedure for the simultaneous estimation of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) and amoxicillin (AMX) in the formulation has been developed. The absorbance values of first derivative spectrum 228,258 nm and 241 nm and second derivative spectrum 238, 277 nm and 226 nm was used for the estimation of PHE and AMX, respectively, without mutual interference. This method obeyed beer’s law in the concentration range mixing of 2-150mgL-1 PHE with 0,20,100 mgL-1 AMX and 2-240 mgL-1 AMX with 0,20,100 mgL-1 PHE and the second derivative depends on the first derivative of the ratios spectra. The proposed methods are extensively validated. All the described methods can be readily utilized for analysis of pharmaceutical formulations.
31. Genetic Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella Enteric a Serovar Typhi in Kirkuk Province
Atheer A Razzaq, Harith J F Al-Mathkhury
Around fifty isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were isolated from blood specimens of patients referring to several hospitals in Kirkuk province, Iraq. The results revealed that all isolates developed resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. However, neither sul2 nor tem genes were detected. Moreover, only ten isolates were positive for catP. Our data suggested participation of other genes or mechanisms allow these multidrug isolates to resist the antibiotics in question.