1. Development of quality standard of Ksheerabala oil: An Ayurvedic Formulation
T Jyostna kumari, G Penchala Pratap, Shyam B. Prasad, PHC Murthy, Goli P. Prasad
This contemporary study is intended to standardize the Ksheerabalatailam with respect to Sida cordifolia root powder processed with sesame oil and milk. The chief objective of this contemporary research work is to assess the various Standardization properties of the Ksheerabalatailam like saponification value, Iodine value, Acid value, Peroxide value, Total fat, weight per milliliter, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The physicochemical properties like the iodine value, saponification value, acid value, peroxide value, total fat, and HPTLC fingerprinting and GC-MS analysis were established. The results of these studies would be useful for authentication, standardization, and disclosing counterfeit deterioration of the original herbal drug of Ksheerabalatailam.
2. Molecular Docking Investigation of Compounds from Sapium Ellipticum (Hochst) Pax as Allosteric Activators of Human Glucokinase
Ajmer S. Grewal, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh
Allosteric activators of human glucokinase (GK) had shown hypoglycaemic potential in various preclinical and clinical studies. Some of the synthetic allosteric GK activators showed some serious side effects, such as hypoglycemia and elevated levels of triglycerides. This leads to an increasing demand for natural products as allosteric GK activators with fewer side effects. Sapium ellipticum (Hochst) pax ethanol leaf extract (PELE) was reported to modulate GK activity in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wister rat model. The present study aims to evaluate in silico compounds found in S. ellipticum leaf extract to explore their binding mode and interactions with the GK enzyme. The present study is designed to evaluate in silico some compounds including 5 triterpenoids (lupeol, lupeol acetate, beta-amyrin, lupenone, and acetyl aleuritolic acid), 2 flavonoids (amentoflavone and luteolin-7-glucoside), 2 sterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol) and 1 phenolic compound (alpha-tocopherol) found in S. ellipticum leaf extract in order to explore their binding mode and interactions with the GK enzyme. Lupeol, alpha-tocopherol, amentoflavone, and luteolin-7-glucoside showed analogous binding pattern in the allosteric site of GK as that of co-crystallized GK activator. These compounds displayed good binding free energy and significant binding interactions with the allosteric site residues of GK enzyme supporting the in vitro GK activity of S. ellipticum extract. This information can be utilized for the development of potent and non-toxic natural allosteric activators of human GK for the diabetes therapeutics.
3. Irrational Prescribing Habit of Omeprazole
The primary aim of the study is to examine the frequency of omeprazole prescription from all the prescriptions received by a pharmacist in a single day. Besides, the author examines the cost of dispensed omeprazole. This research is inspired by the fact that medication errors were the leading cause of severe physical injury and death to patients. Additionally, such preventable errors are also associated with intense financial, emotional as well as psychological stress to both healthcare providers and the healthcare organization in general. The study adopted a cross-sectional study through collecting as well as the screening of all the prescription orders undertaken in one day from 7:30 am to 1:45 pm. The research found that a prescription error leads to wastage of the resources with estimated annual cost of 336,415.56 for omeprazole as well as 431037.984 USD for ranitidine while at the same time necessitates the rational prescription habit to suppress the detrimental effects of omeprazole and ranitidine.
4. RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation For Simultaneous Estimation of Paracetamol and Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical Suspension
Venkata N. K. Kopparapu, Poornima Kasula, Ajay K. R. Ankinapalli, Venkateswarlu M
Paracetamol (PCT) and mefenamic acid (MFA), in combination, is recommended widely for the treatment of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory conditions. The present works carry a new simple, rapid, precise, accurate, and sensitized method of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection for simultaneous quantification of PCT and MFA. The samples are eluted in isocratic mode using a Phenomenex ODS 3V C18 (4.6mm × 250 mm i.d, with a particle size of 5μm) with the mobile composition of methanol: phosphate buffer pH 7.1 (70:30) delivered at a flow rate of 1ml/min with the detection wavelength of 254 nm. It shows good linearity response in the concentration range of 15-35 μg/mL and 6-14 μg/ml for PCT and MFA with the retention times of 3.0 min and 4.8 min, respectively. The quantities of PCT and MFA in pharmaceutical suspension were found to be 99.01% and 101.02%, respectively. The method was quantitatively evaluated according to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) guidelines taking into consideration the required parameters, and the results obtained are within acceptable limits. So, the proposed method can be employed in the routine analysis and evaluation of MFA and PCT in both bulk and suspension dosage form.
5. Molecular Docking Guided Screening of Phytoconstituents from Artemisia iwayomogi as Potential Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) δ Agonists
Ajmer Singh Grewal, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh
Metabolic syndrome is a disease condition characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and myocardial diseases, primarily related to a high-fat diet and lack of physical exercise. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ stimulation changes the body’s energy fuel preference to fats from sugar. PPARδ is expressed universally in all tissues of the human body, particularly those involving lipid metabolism. PPARδ is an evolving pharmacological target for the pharmacotherapeutics of diseases linked to metabolic syndrome. Artemisia iwayomogi ethanol extract was reported as PPARδ agonist and reduced diet-induced overweight via stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscles. The present study is designed to evaluate in silico some phytoconstituents, including 4 coumarins, 12 flavonoids, 5 phenolic compounds and 7 caffeoyl-quinic acid derivatives found in A. iwayomogi to explore their binding mode and interactions with the PPARδ protein. A total of 28 compounds evaluated in silico, 16 compounds displayed good binding free energy, and significant docking interactions with the binding site residues of PPARδ protein supporting the in vitro PPARδ agonistic activity of A. iwayomogi extract. Amongst these, scopolin, patuletin, patuletin-3-glucoside, 1,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-1,3-diol, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, and 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid displayed most significant binding interactions with binding site residues of PPARδ. This information can be utilized for developing potent and non-toxic natural PPARδ agonists for the management of disorders related to metabolic syndrome.
6. Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method For The Estimation of Finasteride Drug
Divya Sanganabhatla, R Shyam Sunder
A simple, accurate, precise, reproducible, highly sensitive, an economic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of finasteride. UV spectrophotometric method is based on the measurement of absorption at a maximum wavelength of 255 nm. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy (recovery), precision (inter and intraday variations), Limit of Detection (LoD) and Limit of Quantitation (LoQ). Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 5–25 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9933. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery study. Hence the developed and validated method can be used for estimation of finasteride.
7. Comparative Study of Hormonal and IL-6 Levels Among Infertile Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women
Lamees M. Al-Janabi
Background: The most common endocrine illness that affects older women with childbearing age is Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The prevalence ranges from 8%-13% according to the definitions used and residents utilized. Materials and methods: Illness with the infertile ovarian syndrome and a medical referral were studied to Al Hussain Educational Hospital to the infertility center during the period from August to November 2017. The diagnosis of the illness was serene under the supervision of gynecologists and according to clinical indications. Laboratory discovery. This project investigated 80 healthy people and 90 illness with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hormone levels, including prolactin, TSH, FSH and TSH, and blood samples were measured, and the IL-6 level concentration was examined. Results: Results exemplify that there was no important alteration between illness and controls regarding age, TSH, and prolactin, while the LH and estradiol were suggestively advanced in illness in comparison to controls, P-value <0.001. The FSH and progesterone were suggestively lesser in illness as compared to controls, p-value ≤ 0.001. Results displays that there was an important difference of IL-6 altitudes in illness comparison to controls, P-value < 0.001. Conclusion: This indicates the close connotation between the ovary and pituitary axis. The polycystic ovary syndrome is an inflammatory illness that will lead to the rise of many inflammatory cytokines such as; IL-6.
8. Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin C: An Overview of Various Biological Activities
Lata Rani, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh, Ajmer S. Grewal
Vitamins are vital nutrients that are required for different body functions properly, and they are provided to the body externally through diet. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential nutrient that is required for the proper running of different body functions. It is a water-soluble vitamin and lost during the processing of food. The main sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits (kakadu plum, acerola cherries, guavas, kiwi, lemon, lychees, kale, oranges, peaches, tomatoes, black currant, thyme, parsley, rose hips, kale and strawberries), green leafy vegetables (chilli peppers, tomato, sweet yellow peppers, parsley, brussel sprouts, potatoes, mustard spinach and broccoli), fortified cereal and some animals. Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy, which mainly affects older, malnourished adults. Vitamin C acts as a strong antioxidant, and this property enriches various biological activities. It is believed that high dose of vitamin C may help in reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, blood pressure, respiratory syndromes, common cold, reproduction, cognitive diseases, skin problems, age-related muscular degeneration, cataract and may enhance immunity. This mini-review article has been planned to discuss sources, deficiency symptoms, daily requirements, therapeutic potential, and various biological activities of vitamin C. Various therapeutic and pharmacological activities of vitamin C will be discussed in detail with suitable examples.
9. Hypolipidemic Effect of Portulaca oleracea and Salvia officinalis Comparing to Atorvastatin in Rats
Rana J. Tarish, Ali M. Ghazi, Jamela K. Abd-Alhassen
Non-communicable diseases (NCD), mainly cardiovascular diseases, are considered the major reason of mortality universally. A high blood level of lipid, which also is known as hyperlipidemia, is mostly the main etiological factor in those diseases. Therefore, there is a persistent need to develop a strategy to cure this symptomless killer. Consequently, we aimed to investigate the effect of Portulaca oleracea P. oleracea and Salvia officinalis leaves ethanolic extract in mitigating hyperlipidemia in the rat. To achieve this aim, we divided 30 Wistar albino rats into 5 groups as follow; negative control group (-ve) received no treatment, positive control group (+ve) received 100mg/kg BW of triton, 1st treatment group (T1) received atorvastatin, 2nd treatment group (T2) received P. oleracea 200 mg/kg BW, 3rd treatment group (T3) received S. officinalis L. extract 200 mg/kg BW. All treatments were given orally. The results reveal that the tested plant extracts show significant hypolipidemic effect, which is statistically equal to that of the atorvastatin. In conclusion, this study suggests employing such herbal remedies to deal safely with hyperlipidemia instead of relying on chemical medicines.
10. Identify Bioactive Compounds by Gc-Ms From the Highest Antimicrobial Extract from Roots and Leaves of Elephantopus Scaber
Mustafa. R. Al-Shaheen, Mahmood Ali Al Shaheen, Mohammed Fadhil Abood
Medicinal plants are used traditionally in the treatment of various kinds of diseases since time immemorial. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of roots and leaves of Elephantopus scaber. The ethyl alcohol extracts of roots and leaves were subjected to phytochemical analyses, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, coumarins, quinones and glycosides in most of the selected of roots and leaves. Roots and leaves were investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albican by well diffusion method by using a different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100)mg/mL. Roots extract showed promising antimicrobial activity against all test organisms. The root has the best activity against all test organisms compared with leaves extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the roots and leaf extracts were also determined against different test organisms. The MIC value of roots and leaves extract ranged from 100 mg/mL to 500 mg/mL. This study showed the extract which gave higher efficacy is roots extract where it was detected the bioactive compounds in this extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis of the active samples confirmed the presence of compounds containing -OOH, -OH, -N, and –S groups, which are associated with bacterial inhibition in conventional antibiotics. The 10 major constituents obtained from samples suspected to contain antibacterial activity include Methanehydrazonic acid, N-[3-(methylthio)-1,-2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl]-,ethylester (8.87%); 2-Butenoic acid, 3-methyl-, methylester (0.60%); Ethanone,1-cyclopropyl-2-[3-pyridinyl]- (0.73%); 6-Octen-1-yn-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl- (1.11%); 1,5-Dimethyl-2-pyrrolecarbonitrile (0.61%).
11. Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Effects of Thymus vulgaris Ethanolic Leaf Extract Combination with Partially Purified Lipopolysaccharide from Proteus mirabilis in Mice
Ali M. Al-Dahbi, Ihsan D. Awad
The current study was carried out to study a high injection dose of the ethanolic extract thymus vulgaris leaf (500 ug /Kg) against the immune response combination with partially purified extracted lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) from Proteus mirablis.Study groups were included four groups; Group I :treated with normal saline. Group II : treated with LPS antigen, Group III: injected subcutaneously ((500 ug /Kg) from ethanolic extract thymus vulgaris, group IV : injected subcutaneously (500 ug/Kg) from ethanolic extract thymus vulgaris leaf and LPS antigen, the immunological assays were measured through the phagocytic activity as (non specific immunity) after day 8 by using the phagocytic activity index. After day I4 the lymphocyte proliferations was estimated by MTT index. For delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction,the result was measured at 24, 48 and 72 hours after LPS antigens injection.While for Humoral immune response, after day 21 and day 28 the antibody production was estimated by indirect immunoflourescent and by Gel electrophoreses.The results were showed no significant difference in the NBT index between Groups but noticed Group III had a value lower than Group II, While the MTT results were revealed, Group IV had the highest value. In the other side of the study the DTH results showed Group IV had the highest value after 48 hr with significant differences (p ≤ 0.05), in addition, the humoral immune response results were consisted gel electrophoresis and indirect immunoflourescent results showed after day 21 and day 28 Group IV had the highest value. The result was showed the ethanolic extract thymus in a high concentration combination with LPS from P. mirabilis had effects on the immune response particularly Humoral immune response and Cellular immune response but still act as anti inflammatory role as revealed in many previous studies.
12. Synthesis and Characterization of Some 4- Substituted Thiazolidinone Derivatives
Zainab R. Magtoof, Mahmood S. Magtoof
This study is concerned with the synthesis and characterization of 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (3a-3e). These compounds were prepared by reacting mercaptoacetic acid with the appropriate Schiff bases (imines) by heating at 50-60 °C in chloroform with moderate yields (51–75 %). The structures of these 4-thiazolidinone derivatives were established on the basis of spectral studies using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and13C-NMR DEPT.
13. Relationship Between Hyperviscosity and Sex Hormone in Azoospermia and Oligozoospermia Patients Compares with The Control Group
Hayder L F AL-Msaid, Waleed A.H., and Alaauldeen S M AL-Sallami
Background: Seminal fluid is important factor for successful fertility, Sperm dysfunction is the most common cause of male infertility. Aim of study: To compare the sex hormone in patient with azoospermia, Oligozoospermia and Normospermia fertile men as a control To find out the causes of semen viscosity. Patients and methods: Data analysis from azoospermia patient (n = 35) and Oligozoospermia (n = 35) and Normospermia fertile men as a control (n = 13). Results: The results of this study revealed significant reduction (p < 0.05) semen was reduced in azoospermia infertile patient (mean ± Std. Error 0.76 ± 0.21 also reduced in Oligozoospermia 0.71 ± 0.23 while showed no significant FSH & LH level between azoospermia & Oligozoospermia compare with Normospermia fertile men. Conclusion: The viscosity in semen has a strong relationship with low sperm counts is an important factor with sex hormones therefore it is the cause affecting the motile spermatozoa.
14. Method Development and Validation For Determining Stability of Omadacycline In Biological Matrices By Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
Satya Prasad B, Jaya Kumari S
The validated protein precipitation method was applied for the estimation of Omadacycline (OM) in human plasma with Omadacycline-D9 (OMD9) as an internal standard (ISTD) by using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18, 2.1 x 50 mm, 3.5 μm, was selected as the analytical column. The column temperature was set at 45°C. Mobile phase composition was 0.1% formic acid: methanol (80:20 v/v). Source flow rate of 300 μL/min without a split. An injection volume of 10 μL. Omadacycline and Omadacycline-D9 mesylate were eluted at 1.2 ± 0.2 min, with a total run time of 3.0 min for each sample. The mass transitions of Omadacycline and Omadacycline-D9 obtained were m/z 557.6 ® 456.6 and 566.7 ® 456.6, respectively. The standard curve shows a correlation coefficient (r2) greater than 0.9983 with a range of 5.00 to 12000.00 pg/ml using the linear regression model.
15. Human Adipose Tissue: Purinergic Receptor Involvement
Khalfa H. Muhsin, Al-Msaid Haider L. M.
Adipose tissue is derived from the pluripotent mesenchymal cells and further on from cells of the reticular connective tissue, which can produce lobes of fatty tissues like grapes. The reticulum cells store fat droplets that will finally conjoin to one large drop. In the process, the cells become rounder. Extrinsic signaling mechanisms control the cell fate and determination of progenitor cells. Extrinsic signals such as neurotransmitters and neurotrophins have a significant impact on the production and fate or progenitor cells. In addition to intrinsic regulators, extrinsic signaling systems such as neurotransmitters, play a fundamental role in the control of cell proliferation. Purinergic receptors are actively seen at an early stage of development in the germal layer at the embryonic stage. Aim: This project aims to investigate the presence of purinergic signaling on human adipose tissue. Examine the essential histology of the human adipose tissue through routine histology and scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Human adipose tissues were obtained from routine autopsy at AL-Hilla mortuary. Hematoxyline and eosin staining were processed on microtome sectioned slides. Tissues were also examined using scanning electron microscopy SEM. Immunohistochemistry of purinergic receptors (P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4) was examined in human adipose tissue. Results: Histological examination/n of adipose tissue shows mature adipocytes with the lateral location of the nucleus. Purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2y4 are seen on membranes of adipocytes. PCR product of digested adipose tissues also shows clear bands for all three purinergic receptors in human adipose tissue. Conclusion: This study shows that mature adipocytes are an excellent source of pluripotent stem cells that are capable of proliferating and differentiating into other cell lineages through purinergic receptor activation using various purine pharmacology. Purinergic receptors are a good indicator of the presence of mesenchymal stem cells.
16. Production of Melanin from Aspergillus fumigatus as an Avirulence Factor
Anmar Sael Hussein, Saja Jamal Noman
In this quantitative examination of melanin was detected in 41 isolates of fumigatus. It was found that the significance of the difference in which the production of melanin (p ˂ 0.001) was the range of melanin extracted from fumigatus between (1.2 – 3.1 mg/mL). The isolates AFU1, AFU14, AFU29, AFU30, and AFU41 indicated that the maximum production ranged between (2.9-3.1 mg/mL). 2 hours at 100°C. It has similarities with standard melanin characters, and the same chemical characters of melanin extracted from the hymen of Bjerkandara adusta have been achieved according to a study (14) meaning there is similarity with standard melanin. The overlay of IR spectra of synthetic melanin extracted from fungal cultures showed a high degree of similarity. Purification of melanin from A. fumigatus. Wave numbers shown in 3381, 2927, 1867, 1531, 1404, 1073 and 651 cm-1 The wave range can be traced to the following chemical groups: 3381 cm-1 attributed to OH bonds, 2927 cm-1 to HC or HC = 0 bonds 1404 (C-CH3), and 651 cm -1 to (acyclic) CH2 bonds.
17. Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus by Polymerase Chain Reaction
Zainab H. Abood AL-Asadi
Aspergillosis refers to fungi infections of the respiratory tract caused by Aspergillus species, especially Aspergillus fumigatus. Infection of A. fumigatus was increased in the last few years due to either resistances to antibiotics or the influence of other factors such as other fungal infections. The present study aimed to review the impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in Aspergillosis cases, and study the role of Singleplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for amplification of internal transcribed space (ITS1), ITS4 of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in the detection of fungal isolate. In this study, One hundred sputum samples were collected from patients admitted to the specialize chest and respiratory diseases center / Baghdad who were suffering from respiratory problems. During these studied, molds were isolation and identification based on Conventional method (Direct microscopy by using 10% KOH, and fungal culture was done on Sabouraud Dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and on Czapek-Dox agar incubated at 37°C and examined for 3–7 days then macroscopic, microscopic examination of the colony by(lactophenol cotton blue stain) and molecular methods by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for identification. The 10% KOH examination was positive for 35 cases, while laboratory culturing was positive for 53 cases. Aspergillus sp were isolated from 44 (83%) patients; A. fumigatus was isolated in 23 (42.4%) patients while A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus were isolated from 11 (20.08%), (13.2%) and 3 (5.7%) patients respectively, also isolated Penicillium spp. at percentage 1(1.9%). In this study. The ages of participants ranged from 10-70years with a mean age of 34years, the males were more susceptible to fungal infection, were recorded 35/53 (66.3), compared to females were 18/53 (33.96). The infection of fungi was more prevalent in ages 30-40recorded 26(53.06%) followed by ages 40-50, 13(26.5), while the lowest infection recorded in the age group 10- 20 years was 2(2.04%). DNA isolated from twenty-three A. fumigatus isolates was used as a template, and the specific of oligonucleotide primer sequences were used in conventional PCR to detect the presence of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene for Aspergillus fumigates. The results of the PCR amplification of the rRNA gene showed that this gene was present in 19 samples out 23 positive samples which isolation with a PCR product size of approximated 385 bp, while 4 samples out 23 positive samples showed negative results for the presence of this gene as indicated by the absence of the PCR products in their relevant lanes. Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 95.1% in the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus in Aspergillosis cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid, specific, and sensitive method to detect Aspergillus fumigatus in aspergillosis cases of humans.
18. Beneficial Role of Taurine on Biochemical Parameters of Diabetic Female Rats
Alyaa Majid, Mohannad A. Gata, Khalid G. Al-Fartosi, Sarah S. Sayer
For studying the positive effects of taurine (TAU) on lipid and glucose metabolism. Moreover, the present paper examines the positive roles of glucose and lipid on the correction of oxidative stress diabetes-related complications in alloxan diabetic rats. To acheive the objective of study, 24 of female rats ((Rattus norvegicus) have been used. The division of animals was done in 4 groups (6 each). Diabetes was enhanced by injected intraperitoneally with alloxan at a single dose in body weight; 125 mg/kg. Diabetic rats go through a specific rise (p ≤ 0.05) in the glucose levels, triglyceride, total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and malondialdehyde and an important noticeable decrease in high-density lipoprotein, glutathione, and albumin. In addition, taurine supplementation caused a significant reduction in the glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein levels. The obtained results revealed that taurine exhibited an inhibitory effect on oxidative stress indices (MDA) and improved antioxidant levels. Taurine could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for diabetes mellitus (DM), and this invites further studies in this field.
19. Molecular Physical Properties of Cryogloblin in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus in Al-Najaf Province
Ahmed Aleiwi Al Hassani, Adil Ibadi AL-Luhaiby, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti
Cryoglobulins (CGs) are cold precipitating abnormal immunoglobulins. The incidence of hepatitis B was discovered to be greater in age groups (46-55 years) relative to other age groups. CGs were detected in 50 (33.3%) out of 150 patients with Hepatitis B. Three types of CGs precipitation nature were identified. Gelatinous (76%), flocculate (20%), and crystalline (4%). No relation was found between the patient’s age and CGs molecular physical properties. The cryoconite test of 50 serum samples revealed that their reversible precipitation characterizes cGs at 4ºC between 12 hours to five days, and solubility time at 37ºC ranged between half an hour and three hours.
20. Identification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Clinical Isolates of Iraqi Patients (Zq Strains), Using Whole-Genome Sequencing
Zainab J Qasim, Haider Sabah Kadhim, Ahmed Sahib Abdulamir
Background: The recent emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii ) has raised concern in health care settings in Iraq. This is the first report of the whole genome sequence of A. baumannii ZQ isolated from Iraqi patients. To better comprehend the repertoire of MDR genetic elements and organization, we compared the genome sequences of eight extended drug-resistant (XDR) and two less drug-resistant A. baumannii ZQ strains with that of other completely sequenced A. baumannii from divergent worldwide distributed isolates. Results: In consistence with their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, ZQ genomes harbors high to moderate numbers of genetic determinants, including β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, efflux pumps, modifications of target sites. Several strains showed nearly identical genome sequence, frequent structural variation was detected even between the closely related strains. Conclusion: In general, the shorter the genetic distance among strains, the less insertion/deletion events proceed. However, frequent genomic changes was observed even inside the closely related strains of A. baumannii. Antimicrobial resistance genes are likely to be the target accumulating such variations, suggesting that the resistance elements respond actively to the selection pressure in the hospital setting. Besides the lateral acquisition of genetic material from resistant bacterial strains, the drastic issues is associated with continuous presence of intrinsic resistance genes in the genome of A. baumannii, which are ready to be boosted by exposure to sub-inhibitory levels of the antibiotics in the environment and might also play an important role in the evolution of resistance to the new derivatives of different antibiotic classes.
21. Efficacy of Follitropin-A (Gonal-F) Versus Follitropin-B (Puregon) for Controlled Ovarian stimulation in Women Undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)
Hayder Abdulhafedh Kurji, Qutaiba Ahmed Al Khames Aga, Myasar Jasim Mohammed Al- Taie, Yazan A. Bataineh, Mohammed Khudhair Hasan, Ahmed Hazem Abdulkareem, Najlaa Saadi Ismael
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on pregnancy rates in infertile patients. Material and Methods: between 2015-2017, 387 females intended to have in vitro fertilization (IVF) for infertility treatment (226 patients use Gonal-F and 161 using Puregon. Results: Serum E2 concentration at hCG time was higher with follitropin-a treated patients, and a larger number of retrieved oocyte result in a large number of the transferred embryo, and high pregnancy rate than Follitropin-b treated patients. Conclusions: Gonal-F (Follitropin-a) is associated with a potential stimulatory effect on ovaries. Puregon (Follitropin-b) was associated with a lower clinical pregnancy rate (PR). E2 level 5-7 days after stimulation can be used as an indicator of the success of IVF.
22. The Utilisation of Standard Addition Method for The Determination of Ibuprofen in Liquid Dosage Form
Rajwan A. Alazawy, Awatef A. Ebrahim Al Ani, Sura L. Alkhafaji
Objective: The use of the standard addition method is common in drug analysis protocols. This study aims to quantify the ibuprofen within a pharmaceutical liquid preparation with the aid of a standard addition method relying on robust studies employing the UV-Visible spectrophotometric techniques. Methods: The oral pediatric syrup liquid dosage form of ibuprofen (Brufen®), wear diluted and inoculated with predetermined spikes of the ibuprofen standards. Consequently, these prepared samples were analyzed, employing UV-Vis techniques. Results: The absorbance versus concentration standard curve was plotted for Brufen®. This curve shows good linearity. The regression coefficient of 0.9942. The Limit of detection (LoD = 3SD) and Limit of quantification (LoQ = 10SD) were found to be 0.00755 and 0.02517, respectively. The percent amount was found to be 101.533% of ibuprofen content. Conclusion: In conclusion, the researchers find the standard addition method as a reliable method to acquire rapid, economy, and validated the method for the quantitation of ibuprofen oral pediatric syrup dosage forms, thus, can be utilized in routine laboratory drug-analysis works.
23. Adsorption of Albumin and Creatinine on Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles
Mayes A Kadhim, Hamida E Salman, Hana’a A Ali
This study focused on the adsorption of albumin and creatinine on the surface of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Factors affecting adsorption, like contact time, adsorbent dose, concentration, temperature, PH, and shaking rate, were studied. The best conditions for adsorption were found at 298k, pH = (7), the concentration of (2.25, 0.5×10-3)g/dL, (30, 2.5)min, and weight of zinc oxide NPs (30, 10)mg for both albumin and creatinine respectively. We found that adsorption corresponds to Langmuir adsorption isotherms for albumin and Temkin adsorption isotherms for creatinin. Thermodynamic parameters were determined (average of ΔG = -12563.57(J/mol.K), ΔH = 25.740(kJ/mol), average of ΔS = 126.37(J/mol)) for albumin and (average of ΔG = -3348.45(J/mol.K), ΔH = 36.731(kJ/mol), average of ΔS = 132.22(J/mol)) for creatinine, Through the results of (ΔG), the system is spontaneous because of the negative values. Positive) ΔH (value clarify that process is endothermic. While ΔS value refers to the system is more random, the results also show that the adsorption type was physical, which means that it is multilayered. The type of bonding force between the molecules is Vander Waals force.
24. Allelic Loss of 1Q32.1 The Kiss-1 Metastasis Suppressor Gene Locus in Iraqi Patients with Breast Cancer
Alyasiri N S, Alzubaidi L K
Experimental cell lines provide evidence on Kiss-1 gene as a regulator of metastasis in many kinds of cancers, including breast cancer. However, there is scarcity in data for kiss1 gene expression profile in many malignancies, and to date, no effort has been made to explore kiss-1 gene-associated microsatellite markers in many types of tumors, including breast cancer. The present study aims to investigate the microsatellite markers associated with Kiss-1 gene and the current loss of Heterozygosity LOH in Iraqi patients with breast cancer; this was further correlated with immunohistochemical Kiss-1 gene expression. One hundred and three breast carcinoma samples were collected after mastectomy. Kiss-1 gene expression was analyzed using immunostaining. Three microsatellite marker sites: SHGC-76112, SHGC-76186 intragenic, and SHGC-33412 in chromosome 1q32.1 were selected to define allelotyping of kiss-1 gene in paired DNA samples `from tumor cells and control blood cells of each patient. The loss of Kiss-1 gene expression was significantly correlated with the clinical tumor stage (p-value < 0.01). Loss of heterozygosity (LoH) occurs in 60 (60%) samples. Seven of the examined samples show LOH in two markers; none of the samples show LoH in the three markers. Seven samples show LOH for both intragenic markers (SHGC-76112 & SHGC-76186). The highest LoH percentage was 28%, which occurred within the intragenic microsatellite marker (SHGC-76186), and the lowest was 14% within the flanking region microsatellite marker (SHGC-33412). Interestingly, a statistically significant relationship was found between the LOH and Loss of Kiss-1 gene expression (p-value = 0.0005). This study convinced us to consider the vital role of this gene in the progression of the carcinoma in Iraqi patients with breast cancer.
25. Phylogeny of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Patients with Cholera Disease in Babylon Province
Hussein T. Abdulabbas, Ilham Abbas Bunyan, Lamees A. Abdul-Lateef
In the present study, a total of 35 stool samples were collected in the Central Health Laboratory of Babylon Province from patients presenting invasive cholera disease. The period of collection was from November 2017 to December 2018. Identification of Vibrio cholerae species was carried out by conventional methods, biochemical tests, diagnostic kits and then confirmed by PCR-based assay targeting the ompW gene. The results of this study reported that O1 serogroups were the predominant serogroup among all clinical samples with a high rate of 94.3% (N = 33), while only two isolates of non-O1/non-O139 (NAG) (5.7%) were documented as a causative agent to cholera or cholera-like disease. The phylogenetic relationship among all 35 studied strains elucidated by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fingerprinting assay (ISSR-PCR). The results of this assay showed grouping of Inaba strains into different clusters indicating that these strains were genetically diverse. Furthermore, V. cholerae El Tor O1 Ogawa strain (OG1) was closely related to strains of Inaba serotype. In contrast, NAG strains (NAG1 and NAG2) were not genetically similar to any of Inaba or Ogawa strains indicating different clone origin.
26. Metformin Contributed with Lactic Acidosis in The White Male Rats
Afyaa S Nasir
Metformin treatment associated with development lactic acidosis (MALA) is a clinical problem. Recently, not found any drug to decrease or prevent MALA. The present study is designed to evaluate the advantage and disadvantages of metformin drugs in white male rats. A sample of 30 white male rats were randomly divided into three groups each group contain ten rats.: Group one administrated distal water to kept as control group for two months, Group two administrated metformin at dose 250 mg/kg for two months, and Group three administrated metformin at dose 500 mg/kg for two months. After the end of the experiment, two months, the rats were sacrificed to obtain the blood and tissues for analysis. The results show no significant change (p > 0.05) in the final weight of rats and the weight of the kidney and liver relative to the bodyweight as well as, the results show no significant change (p < 0.05) in the levels of urea and creatinine in the serum of rats treated with metformin drug. Also, the results appear no significant change (p > 0.05) in the liver enzymes include aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and total bilirubin in the metformin-treated groups relative to controls. In conclusion, the present study recorded not found harmful effects in the liver and kidney after taking metformin against diabetes except lactic acidosis state after using a drug for a long time.
27. Relationship Between the AMHR2 SNP (–482 A >G) with the Level of Hormone, Oxidative Stress Status and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) in PCOS Iraqi Woman
Roaa M Jabbar, Batool A Ahmed, Enaas S Jawad
The polycystic ovarian syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that affected young women in child-bearing age and has severe consequences on women’s health. Many studies on the polycystic ovary syndrom (PCOS) found that genetic variation is an essential factor that leads to the development of PCOS. The genetic variation in the AMHR2 and their association with PCOS gives inconstant results. The current study revealed an increment in concentration of AMH among the PCOS, and this elevation may reflect a disturbance in the normal signaling of AMH and thereby, the genetic polymorphism of Anti-mullerian hormone type 2 receptor and their potential association with the pathogenesis and phenotype of PCOS. This is the first study in Iraq concerning AMH receptor-related- PCOS. IL-18 and oxidative stress have a great impact on the severity of PCOS.
28. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New (Tetrazole, Thiazolidin-4-one) compounds derived from Drugs and Evaluation of their Biological Activities
Inas S. Mahdi, Selvana A Yousif, Sameaa J. Khammas
In this paper a new series of substituted tetrazole and Thiazolidin-4-one compound were synthesized by three steps. The first step involved the reaction of p-hydroxy benzaldehyde with dichloro ethane to result compound (1) . The second step includes reaction of compound (1) with various amino drugs producing the corresponding Schiff bases (2-7) , whereas the third step, involved preparation new tetrazole (8-13) and Thiazolidin-4-one (14-19) derivatives through reaction of the Schiff bases with sodium azide , mercaptoacetic acid respectively. The prepared compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and their physical properties in addition of study the biological effect for some of them.
29. The effect of Silver Nanoparticle Induced Diabetic on Wound Healing Full Thickness Pseudomonas aeruginosa Contaminated Mouse Skin Wound Models
Thamer M Jasim, Abas A Latif, Mohammed Redah
This research was considered to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of silver nanoparticle (AgNps)and following experimental diabetic. In the present study. Thirty healthy swiss mice aged between 7–8 weeks, old male mice and divided into six groups of five animals. Diabetic induced mice by using intraperitoneal (IP) injection of alloxan (180 mg lkg). Group 1 included non diabetic control, Group 2 Diabetic, Group 3 Diabetic +0.01 mg AgNps Group 4 Diabetic +0.05 AgNps, Group 5 Diabetic+ wound contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Group 6 ( diabetic +contaminated wound + silver nanoparticle (Ag Nps). Silver nanoparticle show ample antibacterial activities. The result of the current study introduced an invivo silvernanoparticle accelerate by effects on the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected skin wound. The present study was conducted to synthesis the AgNps biologically and evaluate its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa diabetes induced by Alloxan in mice. Adminstration of silver nanoparticle resulted in significance antidiabetic effects that is is improved glucose tolerance higher source. The current study results are presented for the first time which suggest for the development of AgNps as anantdiabetic factor in future. The broad spectrum of bioactivity of AgNPs makes them promising agent not only to fight infection, but to sterile the wound and accelerate wound healing. There were significant higher wound healing scores in Nanoparticle treated group. Compared with control group. These result suggest that nanoparticle may be useful in diabetic wound healing. Treatment with asingle dose of AgNPs produced amild reduction in blood glucose and some reduction in plasma insulin at 2 h.The present results revealed the potential of the synthesized Ag-NPs as safer bactericidal agents for the treatment of diabetes induced wound contaminated with P.aeruginosa.
30. Psychiatric and Socio Demographical Profile of Substance Abuse Offenders, In Al-Rashad Training Hospital, Forensic Department, Iraq
Basheer F. Humadi, Ghada K. Adeeb, Ali H. Alamery
Background: Substance use disorder and mental illness are a major burden within the criminal justice system and within the general health services. It is difficult to study this relationship outside of prisoners’ populations, as both mental disorders and severe drug dependence are risk factors for violent actions and crimes. Aim: To detect the substance abuse offenders and assess the psychiatric illnesses among them and to study the socio-demographical characteristic of the selected sample. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in AL Rashad Hospital, Forensic Department in Baghdad. It is a descriptive retrospective study. Case files of (40) offenders with different charges concerning substance crimes, examined by the forensic committee in 2017 were studied. Comprehensive data were collected and analyzed by the SPSS 23. Results: The study showed that offenders with Substance use disorder (SUD) mainly of the young age groups (20–29) and (30–39) were married with unstable financial resources, illiterate, and related to urban regions. The personality disorder had significant comorbidity with SUD, the use of the CNS stimulant group and multiple substance abuse was the bulk of the problem. The past psychiatric history was positive 75% of the sample, while the forensic psychiatric history was positive in 25% only. Najaf, Baghdad, and Basra were the most affected governorates. Conclusions: The result of this study doesn’t represent the SUD problem in Iraq; the problem may be bigger than this, and substance abuse-related crimes are increasing rapidly. The study only describes some of the psychiatric and socio-demographical characteristics of substance abuse offenders who were sent by the court for diagnosing and assessing the culpability by the Forensic committee.
31. The Role of Bacteria in Urinary Tract Infection Incidence in Students University
Mytham A Makki
This study was carried out from November 2016 to March 2017. One hundred sixty study samples were collected from the students of the university weekly, which were studied by conducting bacteriological tests on them within 24 hours from the date of collecting the sample, the results of the study showed the isolation and diagnosis of different bacterial species with varying prevalence rates. The Escherichia coli showed the highest incidence of 50% followed by Enterococcus fecalis 36.2%, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa 34.8%, Enterobacter cloacae 26.8%, Staphylococcus aureus had a prevalence rate of 22.5%. Salmonella typhi had a prevalence rate of 16.6%. Proteus mirabilis showed an average prevalence of 12%. Klebsiella pneumonia was 9.4%, while Vibrio parahaemolyticus and showed the lowest incidence of 0.7%. The results of the study showed that the total number of infected cases was 138 of the studied samples, 86.2%, distributed among 80(50%) in female infection cases, and In males 58 infection cases, a rate of 36.2%.
32. The Relationship Between the Use of L-Carnitine Supplements and the Male Sub-infertility
Mazin A Hasson
The assignment involves four chapters. The first discourses the institution of infertility in rapports of types, causes, pathophysiology, and dealing, as well as some statistics about L-carnitine, its use in the treatment of infertility in males and literature review on this subject. Theme. This study discusses the material, illness statistics, and data collected in this work. Chapter 3 discusses the results of this work and compares with the same work. Chapter Four discusses the results of this study and recommends future trials.
33. The Effect of Boric Acid on Immune Response in Mice Vaccinated by Proteus Vulgaris Antigen
Saif M. Abed, May A. Hamed, Hussein T. Abdulabbas
This study was carried out to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of the Boric acid on the immune responses of mice that vaccinated by Proteus Vulgaris antigens. The study was included six groups; the first group (I) was treated with distilled water. The II group was mice treated with Proteus Vulgaris antigens only, (III) group: injected subcutaneously with a dose of (600 ug/Kg), IV group was injected subcutaneously with a dose of (400 ug /Kg) boric acid. The V and VI groups were treated with p. Vulgaris and boric acid. All these groups were carried out at day 1; then, the mice were killed on day 8 to estimate the parameter. The phagocytic activity index was estimated by Eliza reader. While on day I4 the lymphocyte transformation was estimated by Lymphocyte Transformation Test (MTT) index and by Eliza reader. In this regard, all groups of mice showed different significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in the Nitro blue Tetrazolium (NBT) index as compared with group I, the control group, which was injected with distilled water and group 5 and 6 showed increasing significantly compared with group II. III. IV. On the other side of the study, the results of the lymphocyte transformation index in mice of all groups were showed different significant as compared to group I. The best treatment efficiency was recorded in-group V, VI compared with treated groups II. III. IV). The results demonstrated a clear immunomodulatory effect of boric acid (enhancement of nonspecific immunity, and adaptive immunity) of the treated mice immunized with P. Vulgaris.