International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

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1. Evaluation of Low-Dose Gentamicin Once Daily Dosing Regimen at A General Hospital in Malaysia
Ab Rahman A F, Md Sahak N, Ali A M
Objective: Once daily dosing (ODD) aminoglycoside is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative way of dosing. In our setting it is the regimen of choice whenever gentamicin is indicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the practice of gentamicin ODD in a public hospital in Malaysia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of patients on gentamicin ODD who were admitted to Hospital Melaka during January 2002 until March 2010. All adult patients who were on ODD gentamicin with various level of renal function were included in the study. Patients on gentamicin < 72 hours and pregnant women were excluded. Results: From 110 patients, 75 (68.2%) were male and 35 (31.8%) were female. Indications for ODD gentamicin included pneumonia, 34 (31.0%) neutropenic sepsis, 27 (24.5%) and sepsis, 11 (10.0%). The mean dose and duration of gentamicin was 3.2 mg/kg/day and 7 days, respectively. Almost all patients were on gentamicin combined with other antibiotics. Clinical cure based on fever resolution was found in 89.1% of patients treated with ODD. Resolution of fever took an average of 48 hours after initiation of therapy. The evaluation for bacteriologic cure could not be performed because of insufficient data on culture and sensitivity.  Out of 38 patients with analyzable serum creatinine data, four patients might have developed nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: In our setting, lower dosages of ODD gentamicin when used in combination with other antibiotics seemed to be effective and safe in treating most gram negative infections.

2. The Higher Frequency of G Allele Found in the -152 Site of Agt Gene But was Not Aligned with the Angiotensinogen Levels
Susanto A H, Rohman M S
Pathogenesis of essential hypertension involves an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variant G-152A of angiotensinogen (AGT) promoter is thought to affect AGT gene transcription and angiotensinogen levels. Angiotensinogen is an important substrate for renin in the RAS that is finally converted into angiotensin II that plays a key role in the control of blood pressure. However, the studies that discuss the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G-152A of AGT gene are still limited, especially in Indonesian hypertensive patients. Therefore, this study was designed to detect the SNP G-152A of AGT and reported its serum angiotensinogen levels. The variants were identified in 62 patients in Malang, Indonesia with essential hypertension by PCR and further identified by automated sequencing. Serum samples were collected to analyze the angiotensinogen levels by a sandwich ELISA. The data showed that the AGT promoter in our patients had genetic variants -152G (G allele/GG genotype) and -152A (A allele/AG genotype) with a frequency of 0.92 : 0.08, respectively. There were no patients with AA genotype. In the analysis of serum angiotensinogen levels (mean ± SD), it was found that A allele had an angiotensinogen level of 371.30 ± 69.92 (ng/mL) and G allele was 343.53 ± 74.95 (ng/mL). The A allele had slightly higher angiotensinogen level than G allele with no significant difference (P=0.437). Thus, in our study is found a genetic variant G-152A of AGT gene represented the GG, AG genotypes in the (-152) site and it has higher frequency of G allele. Further research is still needed to determine that G/A allele directly affects on the occurrence of essential hypertension.

3. Bioactivities, Characterization, and Therapeutic Uses of Dracaena cinnabari
Israa Adnan Ibraheam, Haider Mashkoor Hussein, Imad Hadi Hameed
Young specimen of Dracaena cinnabari in the Koko Crater Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States The dragon blood tree has a unique and strange appearance, with an “upturned, densely packed crown having the shape of an uprightly held umbrella”. This evergreen species is named after its dark red resin, which is known as “dragon’s blood”. Its leaves are found only at the end of its youngest branches; its leaves are all shed every 3 or 4 years before new leaves simultaneously mature. Branching tends to occur when the growth of the terminal bud is stopped, due to either flowering or traumatic events (e.g. herbivory). The trees can be harvested for their crimson red resin, called dragon’s blood, which was highly prized in the ancient world and is still used today. Dragon’s blood is used as a stimulant and abortifacient. The root yields a gum-resin, used in gargle water as a stimulant, astringent and in toothpaste. The root is used in rheumatism, the leaves are a carminative. The local inhabitants of the city in the Socotra Island use the dragon’s blood resin as a cure-all. They use it in general wound healing, as a coagulant, cure for diarrhea, for dysentery diseases, for lowering fevers. It is also taken for ulcers in the mouth, throat, intestines and stomach.

4. New Chiral Normal  Phase UFLC Method for Determination of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride  Enantiomers in Pharmaceutical Formulations
Gurupadayya B M, Sreeja U, Venkata Sairam K
A simple, specific, precise, sensitive and rapid normal phase-Ultra Fast Liquid Chromatography (NP-UFLC) method was developed for determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulation. The method was developed on a Lux amylase 2  column (150 x 4.0 mm I.D., particle size 5 μ) with the mobile phase was n-hexane and ethanol (97:3 v/v); in 0.1 % diethyamine using UV detector was fixed at 254 nm with a flow rate was 1 ml/ min. The retention time (tR) of both enantiomer were found to be 4.1±0.2 min and 4.8±0.3 min, respectively. The linearity over  the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ ml for venlafaxine. The intra-day and inter-day coefficient of variation of the assay method were found to be 0.293 to 1.760 and 0.319 to 0.210 respectively for enantiomer 1 and 2, with high accuracy and precision results. The proposed NP-UFLC method is suitable for analysis of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The validated NP-UFLC method was developed for the quantification of venlafaxine in tablet dosage form.

5. Renal Function Tests Predictors in Asthmatic Patients
Shahlaa Kh. Chabuk
Background: Bronchial asthma can cause many morbidities such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, but the impact of asthma on renal function is not yet verified. This study aims to clarify the association between bronchial asthma and the risk of developing renal dysfunction. Methods: The study was conducted in Merjan Medical City in the period from April 2015 to August 2016, it included 75 patients with asthma and 70 control healthy subjects who completed medical questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, measurement of blood urea, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance in addition to measurement of oxygen saturation (SPO2) by oximeter. Hypoxic patient has level of SPO2 less than 95%. Statistical analysis was done, P values ≤0.05 were considered to be clinically significant.  Results:  There was no significant difference in mean age and gender between both groups. There was significant difference in the mean values of blood urea (Bur), serum creatinine (Scr) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) before  and  after treatment for all patients, Bur increased and Scr decreased significantly in hypoxic group in comparison with non-hypoxic group (P ˂ 0.05). In addition, the study showed a significant correlation between blood urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) with SPO2 (before treatment) (p < 0.05), while non-significant negative correlation between serum creatinine and SPO2 (before treatment) (r = 0.1, P > 0.05). The results revealed that while Ccr decreased while the Bur and Scr increased significantly in male group in comparison to female group (P˂0.05). Also there was no significant correlation between blood  urea, creatinine clearance (Ccr) and serum creatinine with forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) (before treatment) (P > 0.05). Conclusions:  The study showed high percentage of asthmatic patients admitting in the hospital wards had abnormalities of renal function tests at the first days of admission to hospital, but most patients return to normal state gradually after getting treatment. The mechanisms and clinical implications of kidney dysfunction in patients with asthma need further investigation in addition to follow up for those patients to determine who of them will get chronic renal failure at future.

6. Important Role of B2-Glycoprotien in Females with Recurrence Abortion
Ahmed Abbas Hasan, Radhia hussain fadel, Saeed hilal khudhair, Doaa Hashim Jawad
Recurrent abortion consider as one of the most common problem in world. There are different causes associated with recurrent abortion, these may be occur due to complication of microorganism infection or associated with immunological disturbance like abortion caused by Anti-phospholipid syndrome, or associated with SLE.  The anti-b2glucoprotien antibodies have a role in abortion. In this study, we wish to determine whether there is a relationship between the levels of these anti-b2glucoprotien antibodies and abortion. Thirty females patients with spontaneous abortion (10 of them with Antiphospholipid syndrome,10 of them with systemic lupus erthymatosus and final 10 with toxoplasmosis    with ages ranged between (20-46) where taken from (Al-Hussein Medical City/Kerbala). Control group consisted of 20 healthy people who were free from history of abortion  who matched in age and gender with patients. B2gp(IgM&IgG) EASIA Kit, generic assay) and was studied using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. T-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation used to analyze results by using SPSS version 24. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The patients with age range blow 30 years show high percent(63.3%) among the other groups .most of the patients have high percent of 3 times  abortion were reported in all different groups .The mean value of anti-B2gP-I IgG  (45.354) show highly a significant  difference results  in aborted  patients with APS and significant difference in patients with SLE when compared with  controls groups. the Anti-B2gPI IgM not give statistically significant difference when camper to health cases. we conclude that the Anti-B2GPI  IgG levels were increased significantly in aborted females with APS and SLE .

7. Spectra Characterization, In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial and Hemolytic Activity of Novel Ligand 5-(5-{(2Z)-2-[(2-Hydroxynaphthalen-1- yl)Methylidene]Hydrazinyl}-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-yl)Benzene-1,2,3-Triol with some its Transition Metal Complexes
Ibrahim A Flifel, Ahmed H Mohammed, Iman H Shewael
A new series of transition metal (Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II)and Cu(II) complexes of ligand 5-(5-{(2Z)-2-[(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1- yl)methylidene]hydrazinyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)benzene-1,2,3-triol were synthesized and evaluated for its biological activities. A ligand was synthesized by reaction propyl gallate and hydrazine hydrate in presence of ethanol to give 3, 4, 5- trihydroxybenzohydrazide followed by reaction with potassium hydroxide and carbon disulfide, the resultant was mixed with hydrazine hydrate to produce the ligand. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR), elemental analyses (C, H, N), mass spectral, conductivity measurement, and magnetic susceptibility data. The Hyperchem 7.51 program have been used to draw the ligand geometry optimization and then study the electrostatic potential that given right data about the active site. Antibacterial activity and hemolysis assay of prepared compounds were studied. Antibacterial activity was carried out against Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus with test compounds at four concentrations of (50,100,250,500µg/ml). Erythromycin was the standard drug utilize. Some of these compounds showed good efficacy, while others ranged from medium to small.

8. The Role of Soluble L-Selectin with Polymorphism in Iraqi Arabs Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Asmaa M Salih Almohaidi, Kebaa Ahmed Saeed
Diabetes mellitus type 2 [DMT2] is a disturbance of metabolism and complex diseases influenced by environmental, genetic agents, and linked with inflammation, happens when the pancreas either does not use the insulin as it should or the body does not make enough insulin, lead to insulin resistance [IR] alongside with gradual loss of ß-cell secretory ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients in Iraqi Arabs patient. Study includes seventy six Iraqi Arabs patients (male and female) having newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with Fifty three Iraqi Arabs healthy subjects matched in age, sex and ethnic group. Patients and healthy subjects were genotyped, by PCR-RFLP analysis, and mesure serum level of L-selectin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) test include 65 patients and 23 controls. The statistical analysis of serum level of sL-selectin in study groups showed that the mean of sL-selectin level high significantly increased in patients group (10.708±1.1007) compared to control group (7.055±0.767) respectively. Thus, our results suggest soluble L-selectin play a role in the development of DMT2 in Iraqi Arabs patients.  Present results showed that genotype PS associated with increase the susceptibility of DMT2.

9. Evaluation of Early Detection Program of Bronchial Asthma in Primary Health Centers of Al-Nasiriyah City/ 2016
Murtadha KadhimYasir, Ali Jern Hasson, Alaa Hussein Abed
One of the main important public health objectives is the prevention of childhood asthma. Evaluating the effectiveness of early detection of childhood asthmatic symptoms, followed by a counseling intervention at preventive child health centers is the corn stone of this study. Early detection and counseling is expected to reduce the prevalence of asthma symptoms and improve health quality in general. This study aimed to evaluate the early detection program of asthma through structure or preconditions of early detection program of asthma, process to be carried out to deliver this program, outcome (Intermediate and ultimate indicators) and lastly opinion of consumers and providers. Evaluation type of study had been conducted all over the 2016. Nine health care centers were involved since the 1st week of January 2016, where an early detection tool had been applied at age groups 1, 2-5, 6 and more than 6 years at the intervention centers. Children who met the intervention criteria received counseling intervention (personal advice to parents to prevent the child from exposure to smoking, and/or referral to the general practitioner or asthma nurse). The primary outcome was asthma diagnosis at age 6 years. Secondary outcomes included frequency and severity of asthma symptoms, health-related quality of life at age 6 years. Analysis was done according to the intention-to-treat principle. Data collection was completed at the 1st of November 2016. Evaluation of the present input, process of PHC for early detection program resulted in: Providing most of the human resources in terms of laboratory assistants and coordinators of the program. Providing most of the material resources such as pressure gauges, medical handset and scales and tape measure height and waist needed to work in the laboratory with the availability of a suitable place for the work program staff to do their job and appliances. The percentage for input was 60% for all PHCs. While regarding consumer satisfaction: Most of consumer are highly satisfied 149 (80.1%) while not satisfied only 8 (4.3%) and high numbers gave the reason due to good services 97 (52.5%) and no comments 71 (38.2%). Regarding the proportion of the detected cases for different non communicable diseases was 44.1% of the whole population that have alarming sign and symptoms of NCD. The lack of doctors of all spatiality (GP, graduted doctors and specialist), lack of some essential tools, following wrong guidelines for this program by general health department by abolishment many ministerial guidelines, human mistakes and lack of training of staff of program, there no feedback mechanism for referral patient from hospital to PHC, lack of some treatment and investigations and some services not free.

10. Purification and Characterization of the Glucose Oxidase from Penicillium notatum
Baydaa A Hassan, Mohammed A Jebor, Zahra M Ali
This study aims to purification and characterization of the glucose oxidase enzyme from Penicillium notatum, the enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (60%), dialysis  and gel filtration chromatography using  sephadex G-200, A trial for the purification of glucose oxidase using gel filtration technique resulted in one type of glucose oxidase with specific activity of (62.382 U/mg) with (7.385 folds) purification. the purified glucose oxidase had a maximum activity at pH = 5.5,  45 °C, glucose oxidase was stable with  pH  values ranging between (5 – 6)  and the enzyme was maintained the  activity when it incubated into (25 -35) °C  for 15 minutes,  analyses of the glucose oxidase for molecular weight was carried out by PAGE and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, which revealed 78 KDa, also molecular weight of the glucose oxidase  was achieved by gel filtration technique and was found 87 KDa  this means that enzyme consisting of only one subunit, the Km and Vmax value of glucoamylase (B) were  (19.6 mM, 7.5 mM/min ) respectively using different concentration of glucose.

11. Presence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Genes in E. coli Isolated from Farm Workers in the South of London
Mohammed Fadhil Abo-Ksour
Sixty – four isolates of E. coli were isolated from urine, stool, and skin samples of farm workers in south of London. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested by using the agar dilution protocol by using amikacin, ampicillin, aztreonam, meropenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, imipenem, ofloxacin, and cefpodoxime. Determination of ESBL of E. coli isolates was performed according to CLSI by using two discs method. PCR was used to detect of CTX-M, TEM, and SHV genes and genotyped E. coli isolates which were reported as ESBL producers in both two disks and E-test methods. The results illustrated that thirty-eight isolates (n=64, 59 %) had multi drug resistance, and the resistance results recorded as the follows; imipe­nem (0%), meropenem (0%), ofloxacin (7%), ciprofloxacin (10%), ampicillin (89%), cefpodoxime (86%), aztreonam (82%), gentamycin (70%), ceftriaxone (31%), ceftazidime (37%), cefotaxime (62%), and amikacin (65%). Twelve of E. coli isolates (n=64, 18.7%) were phenotypically ESBL producers. eleven isolated of ESBL phenotype-positive E. coli carried bla genes (n=12, 91.7 %), blaCTX-M was found in eleven isolates (91.6 %), blaTEM in eight isolates (66.6 %), and blaSHV in one isolate (8.3 %).

12. Isolation and Identification of Serratia marcescens from Suspected Late Neonatal Sepsis in Intensive Care Unit
Jabbar S Hassan, Ahmed E Salman, Ahmed S Obeid, Thana R Abdul Rhman
Background: Neonatal sepsis stays one of the main sources of morbidity and mortality both among infant in ICU, in light of the planning of the disease neonatal sepsis has been categorized into early and late-onset sepsis, where the latter occurs after one week of life and is often more insidious in onset than the former. Objective: To detect the rate of Serratia marcescens infection in neonatal sepsis in ICU by molecular technique. Methods: A total of 50 neonates with the age group 8 days to 30 days who were admitted to AL-Kadhumiya Teaching Hospital/ Baghdad during the period January to March ,2017 were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Approximately 3 ml of venous blood were obtained from each patients. These samples were examined for septicemia by blood culturing followed by API20 for quick identification of relevant bacteria. Furthermore, bacteria DNA was isolated directly from blood samples, and conventional PCR based on luxS gene, highly specific to S. marcescens, was achieved. Results: Blood culture were positive in 36(72 %) out of 50 samples; the most common bacterial causes were Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.8%) and Serratia marcescens (11.1%), Molecular method revealed specific amplification of luxS gene in 12 samples (24%). Conclusion: Serratia marcescens has risen as a most widely recognized causative agent in late onset sepsis.

13. Hematological Study to Effect Androgen Anabolic steroid (Dianabol) in Female Albino Rats
Jenan Mahdi Ghani, Hanan Jassim Hammod, Haider Salih jaffat
The present study on the Albino female rats show the effects on blood parameters induced by repeated administration of three doses of androgenic anabolic steroid (dianabol). The animals were divided in to four groups (6 animals for each group). The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. Second, third and fourth treatment groups gives orally pendent dianabol (10, 30 and 50) mg/kg/day respectively, and all groups quaff for 6 weeks.The result showed that significant increase`(P<0.05)  in RBC, WBC count, HB, HG, PCV, lymphocyte, platelet count, and percentage of lymphocyte in treatment groups compared with control. The results refer that significant decrease`(P<0.05) in mean corposclar Hemoglobin and concentration (MCHC), while the mean of corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH) and corpuscular volume (MCV) show significant increase `(P<0.05) compared with control group.

14. The Relationship Between Thyroid Disorders and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Zainab Shnewer Mehdi, Batool Abdul Wahid Hashim, Baneen Chasib Jabal
This study was conducted at the Fertility Center at Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital in Najaf Governorate from 16/10/2016 to 10/3/2017 to determine the relationship between thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome in women of reproductive age. There was no significant difference in body mass and age for thyroid function. The study as well showed not significant difference in T3 and T4 levels when comparing the two groups, but there was a significant difference (P <0.05) in the TSH level, which is higher in the patients. It is concluded that there is a relationship between thyroid disorders and PCOS due to increased TSH in women with the syndrome.

15. Solid State Analysis and In-Vitro Dissolution Behavior of Meloxicam-Hydroxy Propyl Beta Cyclodextrin-Ethanolamines Ternary Complexes
Jafar M, Salahuddin M, Kayed T S, Ahmad N, Al-Eid H A, Al-Qarross A H
The present study was aimed to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of an NSAID meloxicam by hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin ternary complexes employing ethanolamines. Initially, meloxicam (MLX) binary complexes with Hydroxy propyl β-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were formulated by kneading and solvent evaporation techniques which was followed by ternary complex preparation of selected MLX-HPβCD binary complex employing different ethanolamines by solvent evaporation method. The solvent evaporationwas used in preparing ternary complexes of MLX, because it was proved to be the best method comparatively in yielding promising binary complexes of meloxicam in the initial stage of this study. MLX formed 1:1 M stoichiometric binary and ternary inclusion complexes as demonstrated by the AL-type of phase solubility curve. An increment in the stability constant value (Kc) of MLX- HPβCD complex in the presence of ethanolamines conceded higher complexation efficiency. Solid state analysis (FTIR, TGA, and SEM studies) of ternary compounds evidenced the perfect inclusion complex formation. Ternary complexes showed significant improvement in drug dissolution compared topure MLX and MLX-HPβCD binary complex. The ternary complex containing 1:1:1 molar ratio of MLX-HPβCD-DEA exhibited 86.91% drug dissolution in 1 hour, which was significantly high in relation to ternary complexes containing mono and tri ethanolamines, and it was found to follow imperatively matrix order release mechanism. On aging studied complexes showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content and drug dissolution attributes, which clearly shows high in-vitro stability of the complexes.

16. Synthesis of Novel Phenoxybenzoyl Methane Derivatives Using Different Phenols
Mohit, S.Riaz Hashim, Sushil Kumar
Novel phenoxybenzoyl methane compounds were synthesized using different phenols to yield potential therapeutically active compounds. Melting point, yield and molecular formula are observed. Percentage of Nitrogen calculated.

17. In Vitro Anti Acne Activity of Methanolic Extract of Dried Fruit of Embelia ribes
Shyam Baboo Prasad, Meenu Bist
In current investigation, an attempt has been taken to explore the in vitro antiacne activity of methanolic extract of dried fruit of Embelia ribes. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the Embelia ribes fruits extract against test S.epidermidis, Propionibacterium acne and Malassezia furfur was found to be 500 µg/ml ,600µg/ml and 400µg/ml respectively. It clearly indicated that methanolic extract of dried fruit of Embelia ribes is promising anti-acne agent against the test microorganisms.

18. Development of Gel Dossage Form From Mulberry Fruit Extract as A Facial Treatment
Arif Budiman, Diah Lia Aulifa,  Driyanti Rahayu, Arni Praditasari
Skin care is very important in cosmetics, especially facial treatments. Black mulberry is rich in phenols and is therefor usable in the treatment of acne. It also contains anthocyanin, a well-known antioxidant and a potential source of sun protection. This research aimed to develop a gel dossage from black mulberries (Morus nigra) extracts that would function as an antibacterial, antioxidant and sun blocking facial treatment. This research started with black mulberry fruit extracted through the maceration method by using ethanol (96%). Then, the antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by the disc-diffusion method, while the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) method with vitamin C as a comparison. Furthermore, the extracts were formulated into gel formulas with variations of HPMC, Na-CMC, carbopol 934 and extract concentrations. The products were then physically evaluated for organoleptics, homogeneity, pH, viscosity, and dispersion as well as undergoing a hedonic test, an irritation test, an antioxidant activity test and determining the SPF value of the preparation. The results showed that the black mulberry fruit extract has antibacterial activity with MIC value of 0,025 g/mL against S. epidermidis and P. acnes, while MBC values were 0,025 g/mL and 0,05 g/mL, respectively. The black mulberry extract had antioxidant activity with IC50 value, i.e 146,73 μg/mL vitamin c i.e. 3,17 μg/mL. Formulation with best physical evaluation results showed ina  formula containing a carbopol gel base of 934 0,015 g/mL with an extract cconcentration of 0,075 g/mL. This formula resulted in antioxidant activity with an IC50 value, i.e 1004,6 μg/mL, antibacterial activity with inhibition zone 6.83 ± 1.4 mm against and 6.76 ± 0.9 mm  against S. epidermidis and P. acnes respectively and an SPF value of 1.9.


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