International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Quantitative Determination of Zileuton from Spiked Human Plasma Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction Followed by RP-HPLC and UV Analysis
Karia P. Pradeep, Ayre A. Pandurang, Bhagyawant P. Baburao, Nair D. Divakaran
A rapid, cost-effective and simple “RP-HPLC method with UV detection” was developed for the determination of zileuton from human plasma. The method involved spiking human plasma and validation. Phenacetin (internal standard) and zileuton samples were prepared using LLE in diethyl ether which was used as solvent for extraction. “HiQsil C18 column (250 mm*4.6 mm* 5 m) was used for separation with tetrahydrofuran: water (45:55, v/v) as mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1-mL/min and UV detection was done at 230 nm. Zileuton showed excellent separation from the internal standard and no interference was observed in plasma samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the 500 to 10,000 ng/mL range. The relative error (RE) and relative standard deviation (RSD) were found to be less than 15% for both within the run and between the runs. At lower zileuton concentrations, “weighted least square regression with a weighting factor of 1/X was used to reduce the heteroscedastic effect”. Extraction efficiency of LLE method was confirmed by the recovery of zileuton from samples. The stability data showed that “zileuton was stable in human plasma for 6 hours at room temperature for 30 days at -20°C after freeze thaw cycles”.

2. Standardization and Evaluation of Herbal Antihypertensive Sarpagandha (Reserpine) Tablet Formulations
Dipak P. Mali, Snehal P. Kamble, Dinanath T. Gaikwad, Ganesh H. Wadkar, Mangesh A. Bhutkar, Firoj A. Tamboli, Vijaykumar T. Pawar
The need for herbal medicines is rising day by day tremendously all over the world. Many pharma industries are nowadays directing their studies on herbal material for their probable therapeutic values. In various scientific journals, a growing volume of research publications relied upon plant-based drugs and formulations. Hypertension is an important chronic disorder in economically developed as well as developing countries. According to WHO guidelines, it is necessary to standardize the herbal products that reach patients. Hence, standardizing the herbal antihypertensive formulations is necessary to give safe and effective medicines to the patients and society. The herbal antihypertensive formulation was standardized according to Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia and WHO guidelines. Various parameters such as botanical, physicochemical, pharmacological and toxicological were studied. A pharmacological study was carried to screen the selected marketed formulations for hemolytic and antihypertensive activity. The study showed that all formulations pass most of the standardization parameters and can be recommended for human beings. The outcome of present study will support the process of regulatory agencies and help in maintaining the quality of herbal medicines.

3. Environmentally Friendly Activated Carbon Derived from Palm Leaf for the Removal of Toxic Reactive Green Dye
Aseel M. Aljeboree, Shaimaa M. Essa, Zeina M. Kadam, Farah A. Dawood, Dumooa Falah, Ayad F. Alkaim
Activated carbon (palm leaf): low-cost sorbents, successfully used for dye adsorption from wastewater preparation of palm leaf, obtained from the grower in Iraq and dry in sunlight and im-pregnated to 3% HNO3 and then dried for 24 hours at 90°C. The adsorption was proved via way of utilizing the (FTIR) and (FE-SEM) analysis, it was observed that there is no change in the beam before and after adsorption only shifts in intensity, evidence of physical adsorption, and FESEM appear image before adsorption contains many smaller granules that are not clustered together and spread on the surface, but after the adsorption we notice the swelling of these particles and they form irregular clusters, evidence of loading the dye inside these granules, which led to swelling. The kinetic model experimental result was carried out via two models first and second order, utilized to describe the adsorption process. Second model kinetic by greater than R2= 0.9864. The study discusses the thermodynamic Factors having changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Through the results, it was found that the adsorption process is an endothermic and spontaneous reaction.

4. Liquid Chromatographic Approach for Analysis of Favipiravir–A Repurpose Drug for COVID-19
Ramreddy Godela, Durga P. Beda, Rajini Kolure, Sheerisha Bhavani, Rajendar Yagnambatla
Favipiravir is a potential repurpose moiety to treat COVID-19 by depletion of virus load in infectious patients. To analyze and separate Favipiravir with remarkable efficiency, X-Bridge C8 column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 μ) and a solvent phase of 0.1% TEA and acetonitrile (40:60 v/v) with 1-mL/min flow rate were used. The eluted favipiravir and possible degradants were detected at 225 nm. Further, the process was validated by using ICH (Q2R1) guidelines to ensure the method’s suitability in the pharmaceutical sector. The RT of Favipiravir was observed at 3.7 min with good linearity of 2 to 30 μg/mL. %RSD of both system and method precision was assessed in the series of 0.32 to 0.98. The mean percentage recovery of Favipiravir was in the range of 99.0–100.4%. The limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) were assessed to be 0.024 and 0.084 μg/mL for favipiravir. The outcomes confirmed that the projected approach was economical, insightful, simple and precise with better sensitivity. Investigation of Favipiravir in the incidence of a variety of stressed or forced degradation environments ensures stability indicating quality of the developed approach.

5. An Investigation on the Release Rate from Tramadol HCl-Loaded Microspheres made Using Various Polymers
Ritesh Bathe, Audumbar Mali, Sunayana Mali, Jitendra Pande, Dipak Bathe
Tramadol, an opioid analgesic, is used to relieve mild to moderately severe pain. It initially binds to the opioid receptor, and then it lessens the reactivity of norepinephrine and serotonin. The polymers EC, HPMC K4M, and CAP were encapsulated using the emulsion solvent evaporation process, and formulation characterization was completed. The obtained microspheres were round and white. The phosphate buffer with a pH of 6.8 was used for the in vitro investigations of the microspheres, which were carried out for 8 hours at a temperature of 37°C and 100 rpm in a 900 mL USP basket-type dissolution rate test equipment. Formulation F3 entrapped the most medication, but Formulation F6 displayed a greater yield.
The impact of the polymer’s type and composition on the medication release was evident. The tramadol hydrochloride microsphere’s regulated drug release results in increased plasma drug content as well as better-quality bioavailability.

6. Synthesis and Evaluation of In-vitro Anticancer Activity of Novel Pyrimidine Derivatives
Machchhindra R. Holam, M. Komala
A series of substituted 1-methyl-6-oxo-2-[(4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl)amino]-4-phenyl-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile were synthesized by multicomponent type of reaction using ethyl cyanoacetate, thiourea and aromatic aldehyde. The anticancer potential of every produced substance were evaluated through HT29 and A549 cell lines. In the given series, compounds 7m and 7r showed the highest anticancer potential on HT29 and A549 cell lines with IC50 of 10.0 and 17.2 μg/mL. The in-silico ADME of 7m and 7r showed good pharmacokinetic properties.

7. Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Estimation of Olmesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide by RP-HPLC in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Forms
Sufiyan Ahmad, Tabrej Mujawar, Jayashri Pawara, Vijay Sable, Khushabu Patil, Harshal Tare
New medication combinations are introduced every day. As a result, various diseases and disorders are treated using a combination of several therapeutic medicines that each have a somewhat distinct mechanism of action. Therefore, it is crucial to develop methods of analyzing medicines employing a range of methods that may be utilized. A UV 730d (dad) absorbance detector, a 20 L injection loop, a sp 930d pump, a 4.6 by 100 mL C18 column (Agilent), and Chemstation software are all included in the setup: approximately 60 water and 40% methanol (pH 3.0 adjust with OPA). Maximum efficiency was achieved when the system was operated at a wavelength of 233 nm. The procedure’s efficacy was confirmed by testing it against ICH guidelines. These techniques were found to be linear, precise, broad, and stable. The procedure was found to be easy, accurate, exact, affordable, and easy to use again and again. This means that olmesartan and hydrochlorothiazide, in both bulk form and finished products, can be tested for quality using the proposed methodologies.

8. Pre-clinical Evaluation and In-silico Docking of Coriandrum sativum on Stress and Cognitive Deficits in Rodents
N.V.L.S.R. Vanukuru, Ganga R. Mudunuri, Prathyusha Bhimasani, Niharika Malipatel, Mahesh Thorat, Harshal Tare
Ethanolic extract aerial portions of Coriandrum sativum (EECS) were tested for their anxiolytic effects on the cold-resistant stress test after seven days of treatment and their cognitive boosting effects after eight days of therapy (EECS). Total phenolic content and flavonoid compound levels were calculated. C. sativum showed anti-stress efficacy in a cold-resistant stress animal at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. The plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, as well as the weight of the adrenal glands are all affected by the stimulation of the HPA in stressful situations. Pre-treatment with EECS and Geriforte, which contain secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, glycosides, triterpenoids, and phenolic compounds, significantly reduced stress-induced changes in these biochemical levels in cold stress animals. Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity in-vitro using Ellman’s approach increased AChE inhibition dose-dependently in the brains of mice. The data proved that the extract’s potential to reduce pain in-vitro is what led to the observed cognitive benefits in-vivo. Animals given EECS at 200 and 400 mg/kg had their inflexion ratio improved as a result of the memory deficit being reversed. The scopolamine-induced amnesia group of mice showed degeneration of vacuolated cells, pyramidal cells, pyknosis, loss of architecture and the creation of lesions in the hippocampus; however, these characteristics were restored by EECS and standard therapy. Effective docking scores in mcule software were observed for interactions with receptors PDB: 4K5Y (CRF-1) for adaptogenic and PDB: 1E66 (AChE) for cognition, according to in-silico research. The ethanolic extract of C. sativum has been shown to have positive and scientifically-supported effects on human health when used as a nutraceutical, with the in-vitro acetylcholinesterase Inhibition assay, anti-stress, and cognitive enhancement activities, and in-silico studies all corroborated by this study.

9. A Stability Demonstrating HPLC Method Development and Validation for Related Substances in Oxtriphylline using Quality by Design
Ashish K. Pal, Raja Sundararajan
A new reverse phase HPLC procedure, stability demonstrating for estimating related substances in oxtriphylline, was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines by applying Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) principles. The three critical method parameters identified were mobile phase flow rate, column temperature, and mobile phase pH. Based on these factors, the resolution between oxtriphylline and theophylline related compound F and the tailing of oxtriphylline peak were selected as critical method attributes. XBridge BEH C18 with measurements 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 μ was used to achieve peak separation. The mobile phase flow rate was at 1.0 mL/min and 40°C was the column temperature. The injection volume was 10 μL, the autosampler temperature was 25°C, and UV detection was done at 270 nm. The elution was a gradient. Analytical method validation parameters like precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and solution stability of solution were proved. The linearity of the method was established from 0.05 to 1% of sample concentration. The correlation coefficient was more than 0.999. The percentage recoveries for all impurities were from 100.71 to 102.45%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was as less than 1% proving the procedure is precise. The recoveries of all impurities were proven from LoQ to 150% level of sample concentration. The recoveries ranged from 98.40 to 101.70% at LoQ, 101.56 to 101.88 at 100% level, and 101.28 to 102.54 at 150% level of spiking. Robustness studies proved that small and deliberate changes to flow (± 0.2 mL/min), column temperature (± 5°), and mobile phase pH variation (± 0.2 units) does not impact the method. Also, the stability-indicating feature of the method was demonstrated by performing forced degradation studies. The method developed by AQbD approach was accurate, precise, linear specific, robust, and stability-demonstrating to quantify oxtriphylline and its related substances.

10. Development of Nasal In-situ Gel Formulation of Fexofenadine HCl Using Gellan Gum (Gelerite®)
Tadavi S. Amarsing, Pawar S. Pandit
This study aimed to develop and assess an in-situ nasal gel containing fexofenadine hydrochloride for nasal administration by employing polymers with in-situ gelling characteristics. Formulations containing Gelerite, HPMC K4M and β-cyclodextrin were used to formulate in situ nasal gel. Formulations were liquid before administration and quickly converted to gel after nasal administration. The FTIR studies of drugs, polymers and physical mixtures of drug polymers were carried out. These research results indicated that, in comparison to pure drugs, there have been no considerable modifications in the drug bands. Hence, the FTIR study revealed that the formulation doesn’t have any drug-polymer interaction. In order to estimate rheological studies, a Fungilab Brookfield viscometer was used to test the formulation’s viscosity. The ranges of the rheological properties of the solution and gel were shown to be 91 ± 1.73 to 125 ± 0.77 and 2740 ± 1.55 to 4675 ± 1.43, respectively. The gel strength of formulations F1 to F9 was found to be in the range of 34 ± 1.00 to 51.23 ± 1.77 seconds. It was shown that the viscosity of the formulation decreased at increasing shear stress, exhibiting shear thinning behavior. A viscosity of formulation increase was noticed with an increase in polymer ratio. All formulations were subjected to an in-vitro diffusion analysis, which will demonstrate the impact of various factors on the formulation’s ability to release the drugs.

11. In-vitro Anticancer Activity of Various Plant Extracts
Sagar K. Mishra, Sribatsa L. Dash, Ranjit Mohapatra
Herbal medicinal plants have been explored for a variety of pharmacological properties but still a large number of phytoconstituents are still unexplored. The manuscript aims to assess the anticancer property of Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng, Acalypha indica L. and Lantana camara L. extracts on MDA-MB-231, A-549, PC-3 and Hep-G2 cell lines. The ethanol extract of the selected plants was explored for anticancer activity by SRB assay. Since L. camara exhibited promising activity, this plant’s successive extraction in different extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol and hydroalcoholic) was further studied. All the extracts were screened for anticancer activity by SRB assay on MDA-MB-231 and A-549 cell lines. Additionally, the apoptotic assay was carried out on n-hexane and chloroform extracts on A-549 cell lines. GCMS also analyzed both extracts for characterization of the phytoconstituents. Obtained data indicate that n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of L. camara showed promising anticancer activity on MDA-MB-231 and A-549 cell lines. Both extracts also induced apoptosis in A-549 cell line. GC-MS data of L. camara extracts revealed the presence of 25 and 19 compounds in n-hexane and chloroform extract, respectively. The present study shows that L. camara has strong anticancer properties against lung cancer cell lines compared to breast, prostate, and hepatoma cancer cell lines.

12. In-silico Docking and Toxicity Analysis of N-acetyl D- glucosamine with Antimicrobial Proteins- A Novel Targeting against Antimicrobial Resistance
Pathakota Roja, V. Santhosh Kumar
Nutraceuticals are popular health-promoting agents for various disease ailments such as food supplements, health promoters, etc. The rising antimicrobial resistance concerns are a serious challenge to researchers and need of the hour to be addressed by developing novel antimicrobial agents. One prospective nutraceutical that has been chosen as a candidate for development as an antibacterial agent is N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. GlcNAc is a monomer of chitin, a substance found in the cell walls of several fungi, mollusks, and cephalopod beaks. The present study aimed to evaluate NAG’s antimicrobial potential by in-silico docking using Molegro virtual docker MVD 2013.6.0 as a novel approach. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine was tested against various targets like penicillin-binding protein (PDB3UDI) ligase (PDB2zdq), isomerase/isomerase inhibitor (PDB3TTZ), transferase (PDB2VEG), thymidylate kinase (PDB5UIV), dihydrofolate reductase (PDB3SRW), rifampicin-resistant, RNA polymerase (PDB6VVT) in different confirmations. Based on the docking scores obtained NAG was found to have potent activity against Acinetobacter baumannii, Thermus thermophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida albicans proving the therapeutic approach that can develop the NAG as antimicrobial agent. The toxicity analysis was performed using TEST software using different methods proving there no report of endotoxicity of GlcNAc molecule that tend to be promising for developing the GlcNAc as lead for antimicrobial resistance. The future lies in evaluating the in-vivo antimicrobial potential studies of NAG.

13. Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Spectrophotometric Estimation of Hipuuric Acid Prodrug(Methenamine Hippurate)
Vaishali Patel, Mansi Patel, Niralee Velhal, Kinjal Parmar, Janki Patel
Hippuric acid, pronounced as n-benzoyl glycine, is utilized in the study of nutrition, small bioactive molecules, amino acid derivatives, peptide synthesis, chemical synthesis, cell biology, and chemical biology. It can be found in urine and is produced when glycine and benzoic acid combine. Treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is challenging due to the development of resistant bacterial strains brought on by repeated use of antibiotics and chemotherapy. Methenamine hippurate as a pharmaceutical dosage form hasn’t been the subject of any published research, hence a UV-visible spectrophotometric analytical method development has to be created. Hippuric acid (10 g/mL) solution was made, and when it was scanned at 200–400 nm with distilled water as the green solvent, it was discovered that the maximum absorbance was at 228 nm. The linearity concentration range was found with an R2 = 0.998 correlation coefficient. The recovery experiment, which was conducted at three levels of 80, 100, and 120%, was used to evaluate the procedure’s accuracy. The recovery rate was discovered to be between 90 and 120%. The % RSD < 2 it proves that the method is Precise. The results confirmed the approach’s high capacity to detect Hippuric acid and were consistent with industry standards. LoD and LoQ were discovered to be 0.169 and 0.048, respectively. This approach results in hipuuric acid in formulations.

14. Formulation and Evaluation of Venlafaxine HydrochlorideOsmotic Tablets
Ashwini Bansode, Nitin Devhadrao, Vijay Sable, Manoj Tare, Dwarkadas Baheti, Ganesh Dama, Harshal Tare
Sustained-release tablets of venlafaxine HCl were designed using a controlled porosity osmotic formulation. This study aimed to develop and test an osmotic pump tablet with controlled porosity containing venlafaxine hydrochloride. Because of its excellent water solubility and near-to-one bioavailability, the antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride (VH) is placed in Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class 1. Its short elimination half-life of 5 hours means that patients rarely take it as directed because they have to take two doses each day to make up for it. As a result, there is a high clinical and economic potential for a VH controlled administration dose form that can increase patient compliance. We looked on the dynamics between pharmacological excipients using FTIR. The core of the tablet was made using wet granulation, and the tablets were then covered. After 24 hours of in vitro testing, the drug’s release profile was consistent with expectations. It was discovered that the rate of drug release increased with increasing pore former concentration, however, the percentage weight gain of the tablet coating inversely associated with the amount of pore former used. Drug release was investigated in relation to pore past weight development and weight percentage. SEM confirmed optimised (F7) batch’s micro porous structure.

15. Incidence of Human Scabies in Babylon Province, Iraq
Mohammad J. Al-Jassani, Noor A. Al-lamy, Abed J. Kadhim, Ghufran A. Hammood
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of scabies in humans in Babylon province. The study comprised a total of 740 individuals who complained of skin disorders when they visited the clinic. There were 740 cases in all, 320 women (43.2%), 282 men (38.1%), and 138 kids (18.7%). The prevalence of scabies in Babylon province was 14.32%. This study showed that males 25.5% were significantly more infected than females 41.5% and children 33%. The infection with scabies in the spring season is significantly higher than in the other seasons of the year, where the temperature is between 20–35ºC. In conclusion, the prevalence of scabies was significantly higher in males and children than in females and the spring season was the most prevalent season for infection.

16. Phyto-therapeutic Potential of Aerial Part of Sida rhombifolia for Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive, and Antioxidant Activity
Amit Kumar, P. Ganesh Mishra, S. Dimple Tomar, Manish Pathak, K. Rupesh Pandey, Lubhan Singh
Background: To investigate the potential of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activity of different extracts of Sida rhombifolia. Materials and Methods: The successive extraction of dried aerial parts of S. rhombifolia was performed with the help of the soxhlet apparatus by pet. ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water were used as a solvent. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed using the carrageenin-induced edema model in the rat paw method. Antinociceptive activity was performed using the mouse writhing and hot plate tests. Antioxidant activity was determined through the ability of hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Result: The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg.) oral showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity 51.42 (maximum, %inhibition) after 2 hours. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg.) oral showed maximum % inhibition of writhing 57.74 for writhing test and 2.15 ± 0.02 time (sec) of jumping for hot plate test. The ethanolic extract of the drug showed high scavenging (59.25%) of hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion: On successive extraction process of aerial parts of S. rhombifolia reported that different ethanolic extracts are more effective as anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activity, respectively.

17. RP-UHPLC and HPTLC Method Development and Validation for Analysis of Andrographolide from Herbal Hepatoprotective Formulation
Sufiyan Ahmad, Tabrej Mujawar, Bhushan Batewal, Priyanka More, Asmita Gaikwad, Deshraj Chumbhale, Harshal Tare
This work aimed to create a speedy, precise, and selective HPTLC and RP-UHPLC method for analysing andrographolide in finished products and raw materials. Asian medicines are using Andrographis paniculata since long. It’s used to treat skin eruptions, boils, scabies, and chronic, unexplained fevers, all of which are caused by blood “abnormalities.” Liquid chromatographic methods were developed to separate andrographolide and its herbal dosage form. HPTLC chromatography employed a 10 by 10 cm aluminum plate coated with 0.2 mm of silica gel 60 F254 (E. Merck, Germany). Camag Linomat 5 applicator with 100 μL syringe was used to apply samples in 6 mm bands (Hamilton, Switzerland). 14 mm separated the two bands, and 150 nL sec-1 was applied. Mobile phase was dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, and formic acid (6:4:1:0.5). This chromatogram runs 80 mm. Camag TLC scanner measured density at 254 nm. Mean RF=0.69. The linear calibration curve covers 500–3000 ng/spot and has a 0.996 correlation coefficient. Limit of Detection: 31.5 ng; Limit of Quantitation: 95.48 ng. A validated RP-UHPLC method for quantifying andrographolide in extract and formulation has been established. UHPLC analysis was performed in isocratic mode, at room temperature, using acetonitrile: Water (0.2% acetic acid) (85:15, v/v) as mobile phase on a 250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm Cosmosil C18 column. Detection was at 230 nm. Andrographolide has a 4.1 minute half-life. Between 10 and 60 g/mL, andrographolide was linear. The approach met or exceeded ICH’s linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness.

18. Effectiveness of Menthol and Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinses on Reduction of Plaque, Gingivitis, and Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva
Vidya G Doddawad, Maji Jose, Shivananda S, Akhil Shetty, Aditya Shetty, Ravi MB
Introduction: Menthol is a new product made from mint that is the most effective approach to avoid infections. There has been little human research on using menthol as a mouth rinse ingredient, and there is little information on the subject. Aim: This study aimed to know the effectiveness of menthol and chlorhexidine mouth rinses in reducing plaque, gingivitis, and Streptococcus mutans in saliva among 21 to 45 years old subjects. Material and method: The study is a placebo-control, parallel-group blind randomized clinical trial consisting of a 2-week period. Forty subjects were selected and randomized into 2 groups consisting of 20 subjects: group A (menthol) and group B (chlorohexidine). The subjects were clinically examined for plaque accumulation using the plaque index (Turesky et al.) and gingival inflammation using the gingival index (loe and silness). The saliva samples were collected for estimation of S. mutans count on the first day of baseline and after the 14th day using an assigned mouth rinse. Results: Menthol mouth rinse showed lower scores in plaque index, gingival index, and S. mutans count compared to the chlorhexidine mouth rinse which was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Mouth rinse with menthol is better compared to mouth rinse with chlorohexidine. Conclusion: Menthol mouthwash has therapeutic potential and can be prescribed by a dentist as part of routine oral hygiene practice.

19. Effects of Non-standard Storage Conditions on the Stability, Safety and Suitability of Drug Consumption
Alsammarraie, Harith J. Mahdi
Drugs are distinctive and sensitive products. It should pass specific tests and have specific criteria for human use. The disparity of any of the acceptance criteria will influence the product’s effectiveness, despite the product being still in validated expiry date. The stability study and manufacturing of many drugs were done at specific climatic zones, but marketed and sold at different climatic zones. In a hot poor country or country that suffers from a power supply shortage (like in Iraq), it is impossible to provide standard storage conditions as the manufacturer recommends. The research aims to study the effects of non-standard storage conditions on the official and non-official acceptance criteria for stored tablets compared to the same newly manufactured tablets. The results showed that the physical appearance, tablet hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of weight, assay was not affected.
On the other hand, the dissolution profile of the stored products showed a change in the solubility behavior. From the results, we can conclude that storage conditions may not affect the content of the active substance. Still, it may affect other characteristics of the active substance, such as solubility. The research recommends the necessity of scrutiny of the storage conditions of drugs and not being lenient with them. Also recommends the necessity to study the dissolution profile and stability of excipients when conducting a drug stability study and determining the expiry date.

20. The Effect of Precursors and Elicitors on the Production of Oleanolic Acid in Suspension Culture of Lantana camara
Pallavi Kamarapu, Sailaja Bandhakavi
Oleanolic acid (OA) is an important pentacyclic triterpenoid. Traditionally used by Asian medicine, OA for anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, and hepatoprotective. This study used triterpene precursors at 1 to 5 mg/L and elicitors in different concentrations at 2, 5, 10 mg/L to enhance OA production in Lantana camara suspension cultures. Treated cells were evaluated for their OA contents by using HPLC and compared with the nontreated cells as a control. The results showed that FPP at 2 mg/L influenced the biomass and OA production more over the phytohormone combination, other precursors, and elicitors in Suspension cultures of L. camara.

21. Identification of Bioactive Niaziridin in Horseredish Tree Extract by Analytical Tool
Chhaya Singh, Rishi K. Saxena, Pawan Tripathi
Moringa oleifera Lam. is mostly known as the „potent medicinal flora“ in terms of enormous therapeutic efficacy due to the availability of certain biologically active molecules. This has dual characteristics: it can be used as food and an active ingredient in many pharmaceutical formulations. Flavonoids, phenols, and alkaloids are some of Moringa‘s most abundant bioactive compounds, and they are responsible for its significant therapeutic properties. The current study is based on extracting and identifying major bioactive molecules from M. oleifera leaf and seed parts using a high-performance liquid chromatography technique to formalize its therapeutic potency of bioactive compounds. M. oleifera leaves and seed extracts in methanol were successfully analyzed in a single run using the HPLC method designed for this purpose. A Sunfire C18 column measuring 4.6 x 250 mm was used for the 220 nm HPLC analysis, and the solvent system consisted of 0.1% acetate buffered by acetonitrile (65:35 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The peak observed at 3.269 minutes in leaf extract and 3.289 minutes in seed extract shows the presence of niaziridin. The recovery values of niaziridin in M. oleifera leaves and seed extracts were 45.90 and 66.85%, respectively. Chromatograms show that seed extract has a larger amount of nitrile glycoside than leaf extract. The present investigation used an HPLC process to investigate the characteristics of niaziridin. This research is useful for standardizing M. oleifera leaf and seed extracts and producing pharmaceutical drugs from M. oleifera.

22. Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Palladium Content in Tapentadol Hydrochloride by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
Gaddey P. Krishna, Raja Sundararajan
A validated method for determining the palladium concentration in tapentadol hydrchloride was devised using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) with a 0.7 nm slit width and a high speed deuterium lamp (D2). The integration time was set at 5.0 seconds with a wavelength of 247.6 nm. The system performance characteristics were used to evaluate the system performance. The limits of quantification and detection were determined to be 0.30 and 0.10 mg/l, respectively. The percentage recovery for LoQ level, 50, 100 and 150% levels of spiked concentrations of palladium in tapentadol hydrochloride were found to be 100.09, 100.13, 100.11 and 99.78%, respectively. This article discusses the status of trace elements and heavy metals in bulk pharmaceuticals, as well as AAS method which is convenient and simple that may be used for quality control and standardization of bulk drugs and other related items at the industrial level.

23. Preclinical Evaluation of Efficacy of Processed PRP and Fresh PRP in Diabetic Wound Healing
Vyas Pooja U., Khobragade Deepak S., Mundhada Dharmendra R., Shrivastava Sandeep P., Vyas Ujwal B., Pethe Anil M
Background: One in four people with diabetes will experience diabetic wounds at some point in their lifespan, which is among the diabetes complications that have the worst effects on quality of life. The study’s objective was a comparative preclinical study of the efficacy of fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) Vs L-PRP in diabetic wound. Methods: Twenty four rabbits were used to study the efficacy. Diabetes was generated in the rabbits, and the diabetic wound’s perilesional region received PRP treatment. The comparative evaluation by done by counting the wound area and rate of healing. Results: There was more than three folds rise in growth factors in lyophillised-PRP than compared to fresh PRP. The rate of wound healing was much fast in lyophilised PRP group. In the control group the wound was unhealed by 30th day and also showed pus cell formation and symptoms of infection. However, it was completely healed on 25th day when treated with L-PRP stored at 8℃. Conclusion: The outcomes prompted clinical research to compare L-PRP to fresh PRP’s efficacy.

24. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of Prepared MWCNT/ZnO Nanocomposite as a Model of Dyes and Pharmaceutical Compounds Removal
Aseel M. Aljeboree, Diana M. Obaies, Zayneb M. Ali, Salah H. Z. Al-Abdeen, Ayad F. Alkaim
The photocatalytic decomposition of brilliant green (BG) dye under several conditions was studied using MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposite. Nanocomposites were prepared via utilizing a hydrothermal process. The MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposite properties were studied using techniques (FESEM, and EDX). The most important factors affected the photocatalytic process were studied, like mass of MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposite, concentration of brilliant green (BG) dye, light intensity. The results showed that the photolysis process was low at first and then increased with time. From the results, the photocatalytic decomposition efficiency increased with the surface weight MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposite of (0.1–0.4) g. This also showed that with an increase BG dye concentration, the photolysis efficiency decreased, and showed that the photolysis efficiency was improved by increasing the light intensity.

25. Preclinical Estimation of Effect of Piperine on Anti-Parkinsons Activity of Berberine Estimated by Behavior Modification Scale
Jirwankar, D. Khobragade, S. Agrawal, R. Agrawal, N. Chambhre
Objective: Parkinson’s disease (PD) leads to involuntary and uncontrolled muscle reactions. Berberine (BBR) is a quaternary ammonium compound of herbal origin. As it prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss and brain damage, especially related hippocampus, it can be explored in the treatment of PD. This study aimed to assess how BBR affected the behavior of rats with a PD model. Method: A 2 μg/mL solution of 6- hydroxydopamine-Hbr (6-OHDA) prepared with ascorbic acid 0.2 mg/mL added to put off auto-oxidation. It was kept on ice until it was injected. Rats were grouped into six groups of six rats, each at random. Animals in group 1 were given double-distilled water. (i. e.); group 2, received 6-OHDA, group–3, received BBR (50 mg/kg, oral), group 4 received BBR (50 mg/kg ) and 1% piperine (PIP); group 5 received BBR (50 mg/kg ) and 2% PIP and group 6 received BBR (50 mg/kg) and 3% PIP for 14 days. Result: BBR therapy has been shown to protect rats from numerous behavioral and metabolic changes caused by 6-Hydroxydopamine and to improve Parkinson’s symptoms. The results show a significant improvement in the behaviour of rats with Parkinsonism caused by 6-OHDA when treated with BBR and PIP. The results indicate that PIP’s co-administration improves BBR’s therapeutic activity in treating PD markedly. The incorporation of 2% PIP shows the best results, as there is not much difference between the 2 and 3% doses, though the activity increases significantly when compared with that of 1% PIP. Conclusion: According to reports, BBR has a strong anti-effect against Parkinson’s, but due to its low bioavailability, it is challenging to use it clinically. The presence study suggests that adding a bio enhancer like PIP may improve the bioavailability of BBR and thus improve its efficacy. The results show that co-administration of piprine greatly enhances the effect of BBR in treating Parkinson’s.

26. New Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Estimation of the Drug Molnupiravir
Mahesh Deshpande, Farhat Shaikh, Vijay Sable, Khushabu Patil, Machchhindra R. Holam, Harshal Tare
Background: Molnupiravir was granted approval by the UKS medicines and health product regulatory agency on 04 November 2021 and on 23 December 2021, granted emergency use of authorization by FDA. Objective: Provide a technique for measuring Molnupiravir in active pharmaceutical ingredients and formulations. Method: The wavelength maximum was found to be 236 nm. ICH guidelines were followed. The forced degradation study in the form of acidic, alkali, thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions was carried out for Molnupiravir. Results: The method was linear, as measured by a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.9991 in the 10 to 50 μg/mL range. The %RSD for precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ), ruggedness, and robustness was within acceptable limits per ICH Q2 (R1). Conclusion: HPLC equipped with a UV detector is used to create and verify the proposed method. An acetonitrile mobile phase component of 20% was used, demonstrating the more cost-effective technique. The extensive data of mobile phase optimization gives a complete idea of final chromatographic conditions, which can be further implemented for future analysis. Molnupiravir shows less than 4% degradation under different stress conditions. The forced degradation data helps show stability, indicating the behavior of Molnupiravir.

27. Development of the Formulation and Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory Activity of Vitex negundo Gel and Latex
Jeevan R. Rajguru, Mrunal K. Shirsat, Sampat D. Navale
Essential oils include Vitex negundo Linn. It is used in the treatment of eye diseases, toothache, redness, white spots, splenomegaly, skin ulcers, catarrh, rheumatoid arthritis, gonorrhea and bronchitis. It is also used as a tonic, insect repellent, emulsifier, menstrual aid, antibacterial, antipyretic and antihistamine. Preparations from plant parts of V. negundo treat a variety of ailments, including rheumatic diseases, arthritis, gout, cervicitis, inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system, hemorrhoids (thousands), rheumatic pains, sprains and toothaches.
It has been used commercially for miles in various Ayurvedic remedies and ointments to treat wounds, burns, and fungal skin infections. We concluded from in vitro drug delivery studies that latex composed of HPMC polymers facilitates controlled release of drugs over long periods of time, avoids further fluctuations, and reduces treatment costs. This new class of drug delivery is gaining popularity due to the spreadability, adhesion, viscosity and extrudability properties of emulgel, which makes topical application of hydrophobic pills desirable for every near and systemic effect.

28. Centrifugal Melt Spun Microfibrous Solid Dispersion of Diclofenac Sodium with Enhanced Solubility
Rodge Priya, Shirolkar Satish
A lower dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs is the prime factor affecting their bioavailability. The centrifugal melt spinning method is a simple, affordable and scalable technique to prepare microfibers with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate. This study aimed to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug diclofenac sodium by centrifugal melt spinning technique. Microfibrous solid dispersion of diclofenac sodium 10% w/w with sucrose were prepared to utilize a cotton candy device. The dissolution studies revealed that the drug-loaded microfibers released 98.10 ± 0.52% of drug within 5 minutes as compared with pure drug and physical mixture. The drug-loaded microfibers were bead-free with uniform morphology and diameter of 13.25 ± 4.4 μm. The centrifugal melt-spinning process converted the drug and carrier to amorphous state, which was further confirmed from the calorimetric and crystallographic study results. The results indicated that the centrifugal melt spinning process rapidly produced microfibers with improved solubility and dissolution rate. The results of this study have shown that the centrifugal melt spinning technique may provide an easy, highly scalable, and adaptable fabrication technique to increase the solubility and rate of dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

29. Role of SA-g-(PAA-co-AM)/CdS Hydrogel: As Photocatalytic for Decolonization Methyl Red Dye as a Pollutant from Aqueous Solution
Aseel M. Aljeboree, Rose W. Fared, Haneen M. Abd Al-wahed, Mohammed A. Jawad Ayad F. Alkaim
The photocatalytic method to remove the color of methyl red (MR) dye from aqueous solutions in the presence of SA-g-(PAA-co-AM)/CdS hydrogel has been studied with the utilization of artificial UV-A light source. The properties of the hydrogel /Csd were studied using techniques (FESEM, TEM, and TGA).The effects of several factors, like time of irradiation, amount of SA-g-(PAA-co-AM)/CdS hydrogel, initial concentration of MR dye onto photo-catalytic degradation, were studies . The rate of de-colorization was found to increase remarkably with increased time of irradiation. Under best conditions from pH=5.4 and temperature at 25°C , the extent of removal color of MR dye was 100% after 1hr of irradiation at a concentration 15 mg/L. And found the initial rise in rate of MR degradation with increase in quantity of SA-g-(PAA-co-AM)/CdS hydrogel is due to an increase in number of active sites on the hydrogel of photocatalyst the rate of degradation, and photodegradation capacity is rising with increasing light intensity.

30. Comparative Extraction and Quantification of Myricetin from Leaves of Madhuca longifolia Using RP-HPLC
Nutan Kendre, Pravin Wakte
Background: This study’s purpose was to develop a sensitive, repeatable reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for extracting the main flavonoid Myricetin from the leaves of Madhuca longifolia and quantifying it. Materials and Methods: Different leaves extracts were prepared using various solvent systems, including ethanol, ethanol: water (50:50), and water, through various extraction methodologies, including hot and cold maceration and soxhlet-assisted extraction, in order to optimize the best solvent system and ideal extraction methodology (SAE). Myricetin was separated by chromatography using a C18 column. Results: According to the findings, the hydroalcoholic extract had the greatest content of myricetin at 2.524 ng. This study reports the presence of flavonoid content in M. longifolia leaves extract that can be extracted using, water:ethanol and ethanol. The best solvent system was water:ethanol, and the best extraction technique was cold maceration. Conclusion: M. longifolia extracts were produced by hot and cold maceration, SAE techniques, and their flavonoid concentrations were measured using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Water: Cold maceration and ethanol were shown to be promising solvent systems. While trying to extract myricetin from M. longifolia leaves, the extraction approach was more effective than other traditional extraction methods.

31. Antimicrobial Foot Deodorizing Spray
Patankar Prashant, Chopade Vitthal, Chaudhari Praveen
Background: Sanitizers are used to sanitize our hands to make them germ-free. However, it is found that people either forget or neglect to sanitize their feet. This act may lead to carrying germs to home or passing from one person to another, possibly spreading infection. Additionally, sweaty feet and foot odor have been found to be common nowdays. The presence of foot microflora like Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus subtilis and Propionibacterium Acnes can lead to the formation of isovaleric and propionic acids, which are responsible for the characteristic odor of feet. Objectives: This paper is aimed to develop a natural antimicrobial foot spray that exhibits a high evaporating rate, high antimicrobial activity, and an appropriate spray pattern. Methods: An antimicrobial formulation containing alcohol and natural active/s having antimicrobial activity is developed, which controls foot odor and infection or sanitizes feet. Results: The spray formulation of the present research contains lemon oil, neem oil and tulsi oil which have antimicrobial activity as well as being oil, they help in long-lasting skin moisturization. Regular use of foot spray deodorizes and prevents foot odor from, ensuring clean and healthy feet. The spray can be used anywhere with the ease of application which covers the feet area susceptible for odor generation and germ deposit. Conclusion: The spray exhibited the potential application as a rapidly dried antimicrobial spray for foot deodorant. It showed desired properties such as clarity, consistency, spreadability, quick absorption post-application, non-stickiness, non-dryness, and stability. The spray demonstrated antibacterial efficiency against the bacteria responsible for producing a strong foot odor.

32. Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Degradation Studies of an Acrylic Acid-acryl Amide based TiO2 Hydrogel Nanocomposite: Real Samples of Pollutants Dyes
Noor A. Hayder, Ayat S. Kadhim, Aseel M. Aljeboree, Farah A. Dawood, Ayad F. Alkaim, Ayad F. Alkaim
In this study, preparation of (AAc-AM)/TiO2 hydrogel nanocomposite. This hydrogel was prepared by copolymerization. Acryl amide (AM), acrylic acid (AAc) is an absorbent material of great use in the preparation of hydrogels, Where hydrogels based on acrylate are characterized by being hydrophilic and having the ability to retain water. The properties of nanocomposite were studied using several techniques (FESEM, XRD, and TEM). The photocatalytic degradation of Congo red (CR) under UV irradiation has been studied. The utilization of (AAc-AM)/TiO2 hydrogel nanocomposite as a catalyst in the photocatalysis process under several optimum conditions. The effect of the parameter contains the mass of the (AAc-AM)/TiO2 hydrogel nanocomposite catalyst and the concentration of Congo red (CR). Through the data, the photocatalytic activity increases by increasing the hydrogel nanocomposite mass from 0.1–0.3 g. Also, a decrease in photocatalytic efficiency was observed with an increase in dye concentration. Observed that after re-use, (AAc-g-AM)/TiO2 hydrogel nanocomposite paper photocatalytic efficiency from of the 1 cycle use 77.99 to 60.12% of 6 cycle use repeated to show that (AAc-g-AM)/TiO2 hydrogel nanocomposite surface appear good stability.

33. RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for an Estimation of Empagliflozin from Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form
Chavan Avinash, Gandhimathi R
The objective of a recent investigation was to develop an RP-HPLC technique for assessing empagliflozin in both bulks and pharmaceutical dosage forms. An Agilent Eclipse XDE C-18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5.0 m particle size) column for separation, a mobile phase of 0.1 M TEA pH 5.5 corrected by methanol and OPA in a proportion of 4:96 percent v/v at a flow rate of0.7 mL/minwas utilized towards achieving the desired peak resolution. Diagonal array detectors (DADs) are utilized to measure the eluent at a wavelength of 270 nm. The regression equations for empagliflozin in bulk were y = 58.924x-5.693 and the regression equations for empagliflozin in tablet dosage form were y=57.927x+5.027. The calibration curve shows that the peak size was proportionate toward the concentration. In the precision study, the % of the amount was found in the 100 to 101% range. In %accuracy, %RSD was found to be 99.18 to 99.84 for empagliflozin in bulk and 99.29 to 99.53 for empagliflozin in the tablet dosage form. The limit of detection (LoD) for empagliflozin was determined to be 0.309143 μg/mL, while the limit of quantitation (LoQ) was determined in the direction of 0.936798 μg/mL. Based on the findings of the robustness experiments, it was determined that the method’s accuracy and specificity remain within acceptable ranges when subjected to minor adjustments to flow rate, wavelength, and mobile phase. The established technique was suitable for use in quality control labs to determine the quantity of empagliflozin present in bulk and tablet formulation.

34. Computational Investigation of the Impact of the Ghrelin Hormone Gene Variation (R51q) on the Hormone-receptor Binding Pattern
Baraa Adil, Saleha Shahar, Syazwani I. Amran, Mohd S. S. Omar, M. Abu Naser
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone made up of 28 amino acids. It is involved in various biological processes, including the stimulation of growth hormone release, control of food intake, and metabolic and cytoprotective effects. In 1999, this hormone was identified as a ligand for the GHSR1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin hormone-receptor complexes have been modeled in a few previous in-silico studies, but none of them have investigated the effects of the gene variation rs34911341/(R51Q) on the full-length ghrelin model and on the hormone-receptor binding. It was established that the full-length ghrelin model’s secondary structure was unaffected by the R to Q amino acid substitution. Additionally, the mutant hormone-receptor complex exhibited better outcomes and altered the molecular interactions between the mutant ligand and the receptor by creating novel interactions, according to the post-molecular dynamic simulation analysis.

35. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Linagliptin Drugs in Pharmaceutical Dosage form by RP-HPLC
Chavan Avinash, Gandhimathi R
The objective of the current research was to develop and validate the reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for linagliptin from formulation and bulk material. The development was performed on C18 stainless steel column using 0.1 M TEA pH 5.5 adjusted with OPA and methanol (30:70% v/v) at 0.7 mL/min flow rate. Samples were analyzed by 1024 DAD detector at 238 nm. The developed method complied with the system suitability study with acceptable asymmetric factor and number of theoretical plates. The linearity was observed between 10–50 μg/mL concentrations (R2 = 0.999). The mean %recovery of 99.33 to 99.88% with %RSD between 0.13 to 0.24 was observed. The drug content was found within the acceptable limit in interday and intraday precision study. The method was fond robust and small changes in flow rate, mobile phase and wavelength did not hamper the accuracy and specificity of the method and all results were found within acceptable limit. Limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantitation (LoQ) of 0.17854 and 0.54105 μg/mL, respectively, were observed. This research confirmed the development of simple, robust, sensitive, accurate and cost-effective methods that can be used to analyze Linagliptin using RP-HPLC from tablet and bulk dosage.

36. Improving the Drug Loading of Ondansetron Mouth Dissolving Film by the Use of Mix-Solvency Concept and In-vitro Evaluation
Mahesh M. Thakare, Sarita Karole
The ondansetron oral solution film was successfully prepared by the solvent casting method. The combination of HPMC E16 as a film former with honey as a film modifier and PEG400 as a plasticizer produced a uniform, transparent, hard and easy to peel film. The design of experiments has proven to be a very useful tool for understanding the effect of excipients on film properties. The recipe kit powered by Stat Ease Inc. uses Design Expert 11 software trial version. The R1 formulation was found to be the best optimized group with a disintegration time of 68.0 ± 2.16 seconds and a drug release of 104.49 ± 1.06% Hanger 9 minutes.

37. Effect of Gymnema sylvestre in the Control of Diabetes: A Review
Aditi, Luxita Sharma, Priyanka More, Gauri Ghangale, Harshal Tare
Gymnema sylvestre is a plant of the Asclepiadaceae family that grows worldwide. It is one of the most potent medicinal plants. G. sylvestre leaves are commonly utilised in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.In Indian herbal medicines, it is used as a diuretic drug. The most important active chemical ingredient taken out from the Gymnema plant are gymnemic acids which help prevent glucose absorption. This herb is famous for its antihelmentic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic and stomach-friendly qualities. Leucoderma, constipation, hemorrhoids, jaundice, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and dyspepsia are said to be treated with this plant. The Gymnema leaves are chewed to reduce the appetite for sweet and bitter items and applied on the affected body regions to heal a variety of illnesses. An examination of the literature found that the plant has anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, free radical scavenging and antibacterial properties. According to literature reviews, Gymnema is an extensively used plant for the cure and management of a lot of disorders and is a key constituent in numerous ayurvedic formulations. However, scientists have not made much effort to prove its efficacy. The current review focuses on G. sylvestre’s folk and ayurvedic usage and pharmacognostic, pharmacological and phytochemical research. G. sylvestre may aid weight reduction by reducing sweet cravings and controlling blood sugar levels. This review highlights the plant description, literature and phytochemistry of G. sylvestre. It also talks briefly about diabetes mellitus and how G. sylvestre can be useful in the treatment of it. We also discuss about the side effects and toxicity of it

38. The Role of Ketogenic Diet in the Management of Diabetes and Overcome it’s Effect: A Review
Versha, Yashika Jangra, Luxita Sharma, Abhishek Meher, Harshal Tare
The ketogenic diet, which is low in carbohydrates, may help diabetic people reduce their medication and improve their glycemia. Obesity and diabetes are two of the most well-known metabolic diseases connected with unfortunate dietary patterns and a stationary way of life. In the direst outcome imaginable, metabolic issues are a contributing reason to a wide range of diseases. The ketogenic diet replaces glucose with ketone bodies and is useful in various conditions, including metabolic disorders, epileptic seizures, peripheral neuropathy, kidney cancer, and skeletal muscle atrophy. Obesity is connected to a higher risk of type two diabetes. In obese people with glucose intolerance, it has been discovered that successful weight management and dietary adjustments, particularly in terms of carbohydrate content and glycemic index, have favorable benefits. We’ve already demonstrated that a ketogenic diet could help you to lose weight.
Furthermore, even in hyperlipidemic obese people, it improves cardiac risk factors. For a period of 56 weeks, the effect of low carbs or ketogenic diet was evaluated in patients having obesity with high glucose levels of blood to those with moderate blood glucose levels in this study. In many circumstances, excess insulin treatment and protein limitation slow the onset of diabetic nephropathy, and very few therapies are known to reverse nephropathy. The Keto diet regulates glucose and insulin levels in the body, making it an efficient diabetes treatment. As a result, the keto diet can be used to demonstrate the gap between diabetes treatment and obesity. Obesity is connected to a higher risk diabetes of type 2. In obese people with glucose intolerance, it has been discovered that successful weight management and dietary adjustments, particularly in carbohydrate content and glycemic index, have favorable effects. Diabetic nephropathy was entirely restored after two months of following a ketogenic diet, as measured by albumin/creatinine ratios and stress-induced gene expression.
On the other hand, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partially reversed. This shows that diabetic nephropathy can be restored with a relatively straightforward dietary change. It’s still unclear if the ketogenic diet’s beneficial effects are mediated by lower glucose metabolism. Glycemic levels are affected by dietary changes. The low-carb ketogenic diet was found to be quite promising in managing diabetic mellitus in preliminary investigations.

39. The Effects of Nutritional Deficiency During Adolescence and the Need for Supplementation: A Review
Preety Thokchom, Luxita Sharma, Dhananjay Sharma, Gauri Ghangale, Jayant Bidkar, Harshal Tare
Adolescents are the greatest group of a young star in history, ranging in age from 10 to 19. Around 1.8 billion young people live on the earth, with 90% of them in low- and middle-income countries. Even as obesity is on the rise in many contexts, infectious and injury-related disorders are the leading causes of disease in children. However, dietary deficiencies, poor linear development, and under nutrition are serious public health challenges. Girls are particularly in danger due to developmental and gender roles that differentiate them adversely. Adolescent fitness and nutritional well-being are influenced by dietary and physical activity choices, education, and competing for social demands for early marriage. It is necessary to meet all nutrient requirements. Expand for energy, protein, iron, calcium, and other nutrients early in life to aid proper growth and development. Anemia and vitamin shortages are common in areas where food consumption is insufficient. Endocrine factors are affected by poor diet and play a role in adolescent growth. Once top peak velocity is reached and catch-up is possible, growth speed accelerates throughout adolescence; in girls, roughly 15–25% of the adult peak is achieved. Premature birth can lay off linear to direct growth and add the chance of a poor birth result. Massive data gaps in nutrition and growth during adolescence must be filled, as well as interventions tested during the second window of a good time to perfect the growth&development in children.

40. The Nutraceutical Role of Pumpkin Seed and its Health Effect: A Review
Anishka Arora, Luxita Sharma, Dhananjay Sharma, Gauri Ghangale, Jayant Bidkar, Harshal Tare
Pumpkin seed also known as pepita in North America, is highly nutritious and beneficial for the body. It is also called as little seed of squash. They are included among the edible parts of the pumpkin. They belong to the family Cucurbitaceae as they are extracted from pumpkins. As nutritious as they are, they provide a lot of health benefits. It has an outer shell that is highly rich in fiber. They are highly nourishing and are packed full of antioxidants. The major components recognized to provide health benefits are omega-3, omega 6 fatty acids, fiber, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. They provide a substantial quantity of healthy fats, magnesium and zinc. Eating small amounts of pumpkin seeds can provide substantial health benefits. They are known to improve heart and prostate health, and it protects against certain cancers. They are high in minerals, including manganese and vitamin K, both of which aid in wound healing. They are also high in zinc, which helps to increase immunity. They’re high in protein and include a good amount of healthful fats. Omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids are abundant in them. The fatty acids in the pumpkin seeds contain a range of beneficial nutrients, such as sterols, squalene and tocopherols. Sterols may help to reduce the risk of heart attack and heart stroke. Also they might help lower the cholesterol levels of the body by inhibiting the outer cholesterol to enter the body. Squalene mimics skin’s natural oils. Also, it is a natural antioxidant. Provides certain conditions like eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis etc. Tocopherol promotes healthy skin. Since ages, pumpkin seeds have been used in folk medicine to treat kidney, bladder, and prostate problems.
As rich in antioxidants, they reduce inflammation and protects the cells from harmful free radicals. They promote healthy glowing skin. Diets rich in pumpkin seeds are related to reducing the risk of stomach, breast, lung, prostate and colon cancers. Lignans in pumpkin seeds may play key role in preventing breast cancers. According to the research, people who consume more lignans are less prone to cancer. Pumpkin seeds may help with benign prostate enlargement and overactive bladder symptoms. Pumpkin seeds can be eaten as usual because they have a mild flavor and a nutty, crunchy texture.

41. Nutritional Management of Celiac Disease: A Review
Riya Chugh, Luxita Sharma, Dhananjay Sharma, Gauri Ghangale, Harshal Tare
Food allergy can cause pain, but it’s going to occur in obvious illnesses that entail hospital treatment. The popularisation of allergen nutrition greatly impacts customers, food companies, and healthcare professionals. Market expectations have pushed the food business to constantly modify and improve gluten-free important and postprocessing. The diet’s nutritional adequacy, including its efficiency in trying to manage casein disorders and other conditions, has piqued the interest of health experts. In this evaluation, we hope to provide an insight into the current motivating factors for using casein dietary habits and the technical and nutrient challenges the diet faces as a whole. Option carbs and white flour, hydrocolloids, and fiber sources were discovered to significantly affect allergen products’ usable and tactile impacts. On the other hand, allergen options are frequently inadequate to casein products in terms of performance. Furthermore, while dietary disparities have been revealed, the gluten-free diet has shown advantages in managing some gluten-related disorders. Shoppers are urged to be aware of the multisensory constraints and dietary insufficiencies of allergen nutrition, despite continued strategies to improve them, since there is restricted empirical evidence to support its use outside its role in maintaining allergen disturbances.

42. A Narrative Review on Drug Loaded Nanosponges as a Carrier for Drug Delivery
Anuradha Salunkhe, Smita More, Shashikant Dhole
Long-term attempts to create efficient, targeted medication delivery systems have been delayed by the complexity of the chemical interactions required to build drug delivery systems. Colloidal nanosponges may be adapted to operate with hydrophilic or hydrophobic medicines. This implies that issues with medicine toxicity, reduced bioavailability, and widespread drug release might all be addressed. A nanosponge is a microscopic sponge that can navigate its way to the required location within a living organism. The drug is gently released as the patch clings to the skin of the afflicted region. The nanosponge’s porous construction allows it to trap drug molecules and release them gradually. Perhaps the most exciting development in the pharmaceutical industry is the nanosponge drug delivery device (NSDDS). This review aims to give readers an in-depth look at how nanosponges are made, evaluated, and put to use in the medical field.

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