International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

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1.Effect of High-volume Low-concentration Intraperitoneal Bupivacaine on Patients Undergoing Post-laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Analgesia
Kunda Dimble, Soudamini Gandhi, N.V. Kanase
Background: The present study was conducted for assessing high-volume low-concentration intraperitoneal bupivacaine for post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled. All subjects were kept on fasting 8 hours before surgery. Premedication in the form of i.v. midazolam, fentanyl and ondansetron were given. All the subjects were divided into two study groups as follows: Group A- Normal saline group and Group B- Bupivacaine group. All the surgical procedure was carried under the hands of skilled and experienced surgeons. After surgery, all the patients were subsequently transferred to the recovery area. Duration of analgesia and time to rescue analgesia was recorded in all the patients. All the results were recorded and assessed by SPSS software. Results: Group A and group B had mean age of 38.4 years and 36.9 years, respectively. There were 32 males and 18 females among group A and 31 males and 19 females in group B. Group A and group B had mean weight of 77.9 Kg and 81.8 Kg, respectively. Group A and group B had mean height of 174.6 cm and 171.8 cm respectively. Mean duration of analgesia and mean quantity of rescue analgesic requirement was significantly better among patients of group B. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal irrigation with high-volume low-concentration bupivacaine significantly enhances duration of analgesia.

2.Comparative Effect of 0.5% Ropivacaine and 0.5% Bupivacaine Involving duration of Analgesia and Pain Levels Specifically for Lower Orthopaedic Surgeries
Kunda S. Dimble, Saudamini Mahendra Gandhi, Naseema V. Kanase
Aim: Comparative Effect of 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.5% Bupivacaine involving duration of analgesia and pain levels specifically for lower orthopaedic surgeries. Material and methods: The study was conducted in the department of surgery. Approval from institutional ethics committee was taken. Patients who were undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery and the Patients on beta adrenergic blocking treatment were taken. Results: 50 patients were signed up for the review, 25 patients were given 0.5% ropivacaine and 25 adjusted Bromage scale was utilized. Bromage scale adjustment data is provided in Table 3 including complete term of engine block and was adjusted in each gathering. It was seen that all out length of engine block came altogether higher in bupivacaine bunch (p < 0.001). Comparably the adjusted Bromage scale was likewise altogether higher in bupivacaine bunch (p < 0.001). The postoperative aggravation VAS scores were higher in Group I patients all through the review period than Group II measurably every one of the gatherings were tantamount besides at 18 hours. Conclusion: Ropivacaine is a somewhat more current long acting provincial sedative. It creates less level of engine block than bupivacaine which is alluring in specific circumstances. Also, it has diminished the potential for CNS and heart poisonousness.

3.The Influence of Age on Sensitivity to Dexmedetomidine Sedation during Spinal Anaesthesia in Infraumbilical Surgeries
Saudamini M. Gandhi, Kunda S. Dimble, Naseema V. Kanase
Aim: The influence of age on sensitivity to dexmedetomidine sedation during spinal anaesthesia in infraumbilical surgeries. Materials and Methods: Total 120 grown-up patients planned for elective infra umbilical medical procedure under spinal sedation. Patients were arbitrarily assigned into 3 gatherings in view old enough: Young gathering (patients 20–35 years old), Middle-matured bunch (patients 35–55 years old), Elderly gathering (patients 55–75 years old). Results: The mean dexmedetomidine requirement in the young age group was 2.17 ± 0.11, in the middle age group it was 0.85 ± 0.12 and in the elderly patients, it was 0.71 ± 0.09. Conclusion: The older patients required less measure of dexmedetomidine to accomplish a similar degree of sedation when contrasted with more youthful patients without causing huge bradycardia, hypotension, and respiratory wretchedness.

4.The Antioxidant Enzymes Gene Polymorphisms (GST and MnSOD Ala16Val SNP) in Poly-substance Abuse Cases
Fathy A. Abeed, Majd Dameh, Khulood M. Alsaraf, Mohammed S. Atiyah, Ghaidaa R. L. Al-Awsi, Hajer A. Obeid, Ghadeer S. Bustani, Mona N. Al-Terehi
The poly substance abuse (PSA) becomes an important problem among the Iraqi population, several factors contributed in the poly substance abuse incidence like bad lifestyle, tensions and oxidative stress, the current study was suggested to evaluate the GSTT1and GSTM1 null genotyping and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD Ala16Val SNP) gene polymorphisms in the poly substance abuse in some Iraqi cases, GST detected by null genotyping PCR, the results showed that the GSTM null genotyping was elevated in PSA cases 41.67% while in control 6.89% in significant association (p 0.0017) (OR 9.6429, CI95% 1.8524 – 50.1971). the null genotyping of GSTT1 also significant elevation in PSA (62.5%) while in control was (17.24%) in significant differences (p 0.0013) (OR 8.0000, CI95% 2.2480 – 28.4693), the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD Ala16Val SNP) detected via tetra primers ARMS-PCR technique, the results showed that The gene polymorphism of MnSOD produced homozygote (Val/Val and Ala/Ala) and heterozygotes (Val, Ala), the homozygote (Val/Val) was more observed in PSA cases (52.38%) than control group (39.28%), in non-significant differences (OR 1.7000, CI95% 0.5416 -5.3365, p 0.3633), while (Ala/Ala) was low frequent in PSA and control (9.52%, 10.71%) respectively in non-significant differences also (OR 1.1667, CI 0.1596 -8.5259, p 0.8793), The current finding concluded that there was a strong association between GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotyping and weak assocation of the MnSOD Ala16Val SNP with Iraqi poly-substance addiction cases, its need more investigations about other antioxidant mechanisms role that contributed in the predisposed to drug abuse.

5.Substitution Mutation of eNOS gene (rs1799983 T>G) Effect in the ROS and TAO Levels in Alcohol Abuse Cases
Majd Dameh, Khulood M. Alsaraf, Fathy A. Abeed, Mohammed S. Atiyah, Ghaidaa R. L. Al-Awsi, Suhad S. Humadi, Ghadeer S. Bustani, Mona N. Al-Terehi, Kareem N. Hussain
The Current study aims to validate the association between eNOS gene variation at SNP rs1799983 and alcoholism regarding to the increment in the alcohol abuse and comorbidities in a high percent in Iraqi population in last years, and its effect in the reactive oxygen species (ROS), Total antioxidant capacity (TAO) and Alcohol level. A tetra ARMS-PCR technique used for detection T>G mutation. The results show three genotypes (TT, TC and CC) and two alleles (T and C), the genotyping distribution shows that GG was closely recurrent in alcoholism and control groups (55.26%, 54.16%) in non-significant differences (p 0.932), the GT was low frequent in alcoholism than the control group (34.21%, 41.66%) in non-significant differences (p 0.346), the TT was low frequent than other genotypes in both groups. The allele frequency shows non-significant closely frequent for T and C in both groups (p 0.622), the ROS level was low in all genotypes in non-significant differences GG (p 0.541), GT (P 0.502) and TT (p 0.175) in alcoholism than control group and non-significant differences among genotyping within the group for alcoholism and control groups (p 0.756 , p 0.171) respectively, the TAO level was non-significant decreased in the GT (p 0.135) and significant elevation in the TT in alcoholism (p 0.00), while in the GG (p 0.911) was approximately similar in non-significant between alcoholism and control group and non-significant variation within the alcoholism genotyping (p 0.807) and in control group (p 0.098). Our study concluded that a weak association of eNOS gene mutation at SNP rs1799983 and alcoholism, ROS and TAO level.

6.Formulation, Development, Evaluation and Optimisation of pH Dependent Drug Delivery System Containing Proton Pump Inhibitor
Prasad G. Ghugarkar, Preeti Khulbe
The current study was involved the formulation and evaluation of Rabeprazole pellet. In current study the pellet formulation of Rabeprazole was formulated by using Extrusion and Spherization technique. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (APIs) and excipients selected for formulation was tested for preformulation study as well as by using analytical techniques like Ultra Violet (UV) Spectoscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Initially cylindrical shaped structed mass formed by extruder then by using spheroniser it was transformed in to equal and sphere-shaped pellet. As Rabeprazole shows maximum drug absorption in basic pH condition, the strategy in current approach was used as a polymer coat. Before applying polymer, coat core pellet was coated for seal coating. Seal coat helps in protection of the core pellet from different environmental conditions as well as from another coat which applied on core pellet. After completion of seal coat polymer coat was applied by using Eudragit L 30. Polymer coat helps to release the formulation in appropriate location only. For seal coating and polymer coat Glatt instrument was used. After formulation the pellet was evaluated for all quality control parameters like Dissolution, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry study. Stability study was performed on optimised batch.

7.The Influence of MnSOD Gene Polymorphism in the Reactive Oxygen Species and Alcohol Level in Smoker Alcoholism
Samar E. Izzat, Faten K. Al-husaini, Huda S. Jabr, Azher A. Ibrahem, Saif Y. Hasan, Saja M. Shareef, Doaa A. Hamad, Rahman S. Zabibah, Mona N. Al-Terehi
The alcohol abuse and smoker habit become the most health problems in Iraq, theses habit lead to some disease incidence and complications, the present study was conducted to estimate one of the important antioxidant enzymes gene polymorphism Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) in smoker and non-smoker of alcoholism individuals, and effect in the ROS and alcohol level, tetra ARMS-PCR was used for detection Ala16Val SNP, the results showed shows two alleles (T and C) and three genotyping (TT, TC and CC), the TT was more frequent in alcoholism (76.92%) than in control group (39.28%) in significant differences (p 0.0091), while TC less frequent in Alcoholism (23.07%) than in the control group (50%) in non-significant differences (p 0.3315), The effect of comorbidity between alcohol abuse and smoker habit in the MnSOD gene polymorphism was studied in current research, two genotypes were observed (TT and TC) and CC didn’t found, non-significant differences were observed in TT and TC (p 0.335), the allele frequency shows that T allele was significant association with alcoholism and smokers, The ROS level shows non-significant differences slightly increased in non-smoker group (p 0.555), and in the TT genotype in the alcohol abuse (p 0.835), alcohol abuse with smoker (p 0.787) and low decreased in alcohol abuse non-smoker (p 0.667), the alcohol level in the study groups shows increased in the smoker group than non-smoker in non-significant differences (p 0.250), and its increased in TT genotype in all groups in non-significant differences of alcohol abuse (p 0.393), alcohol abuse with smoker (p 0.326) and alcohol abuse non-smoker (p 0.956), the alcohol level in the study groups shows increased in the smoker group than non-smoker in non-significant differences (p 0.250) and its increased in TT genotype in all groups in non-significant differences of alcohol abuse (p 0.393), alcohol abuse with smoker (p 0.326) and alcohol abuse non-smoker (p 0.956), The present results concluded that there was a strong association between TT genotype and alcoholism, but the smoker shows week association with MnSOD at the Ala16Val SNP, and non-significant association of ROS and alcohol with smoker and non-smoker of alcoholism.

8.Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Cisplatin, Capecitabine and Trastuzumab
Kiran K. Katare, Usharani Mandapati, Mohan Seelam, Srinivasa R. Gundumolu, Nagalakshmi Vedula
The reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) technology was used to produce a simple, predictable, and accurate method for estimating Cisplatin, Capecitabine, and Trastuzumab. The following chromatographic conditions were used: phase of inactivity C18, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5m., Waters symmetry Adjust the pH to 2.5 using ortho phosphoric acid and a 2.5 mL buffer of Hexane Sulphonic Acid in 1 L of water: The diluent was mobile phase, with acetonitrile (40:60v/v) and a flow rate of 1.0-mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 232 nm, the column temperature was set to ambient, and the detection wavelength was set at 232 nm. As an optimized procedure, the conditions were finalized. By injecting the standard five times, system suitability parameters were investigated, and the results were considerably below the acceptance criteria. Between 10% and 15% levels, a linearity analysis was conducted, and the R2 value was found to be 0.999. For repeatability, precision was found to be 0.2, 0.24, and 1.79, and for intermediate precision, 0.47, 0.32, and 1.73. LOQs are 0.001, 0.5, and 0.15 g/mL, as well as 0.01, 5, and 1.5 g/mL. Using the foregoing procedure, an analysis of marketed formulation revealed that 100.02 percent, 100.4 percent, and 100.6 percent were present. Cisplatin, Capecitabine, and Trastuzumab have all been studied. The purity threshold was greater than the purity angle in all cases and within the permitted range.

9.Comparison of the Efficacy of Ramosetron and Palonosetron in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients undergoing Laparoscopic Surgery
Naseema V. Kanase, Saudamini M. Gandhi, Kunda S. Dimble
Aim: To compare the efficacy of Ramosetron and Palonosetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Method and material: The present study was conducted at the department of anesthesia after taking approval from institutional ethical committee. 70 patients of either gender between the ages of 18 and 60 who have an ASA grade I status 2 were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n=35 each) by block randomization method. Group A patients were administered .075mg palonosetron intravenously (IV) while Group B patients were administered 0.3 mg intravenous Ramosetron (IV). The efficacy of both the drugs was recorded on base of parameters such as nausea, vomiting or usage of rescue medication. Results: No significant difference was observed in VRS regarding PONV, use of rescue drug or incidence of hypotension. Conclusion: Our study showed that Palonosetron and Ramosetron were both equally efficacious in controlling PONV in a patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia.

10.Effectiveness of Anaphalis triplinervis on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Injury in Rats by Interfering with the Inflammatory, Cell Death and Oxidative-stress Pathways
Mohit Kotnala, Tarun Virmani
The continuous practice of traditional medicines provides scientific validation of the use of herbal medicines, which eventually leads to widespread recognition among the socioeconomic healthcare systems. Anaphalis triplinervis, (Asteraceae) is native species being used to prevent, treat, and cure the hepatic ailment, in Chinese and Indian traditional systems of medicine. we investigated the hepatoprotective effect of A. triplinervis extracted with hydroethanolic solvent (HEEAT) a potent natural anti-oxidant against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats and elucidate the inflammatory cascade leading to apoptosis in adult rat liver. Adult Wistar rats were randomized into 6 groups and each group contains six animals, (n=6). Group I: normal control; animals treated with vehicle. Group II: toxin control; rats administered with CCl4+Olive oil 1:1 i.p., Group III: standard; silymarin (125 mg/kg), Group IV, V, and VI administered with HEEAT 100, 200, 300 mg/kg up to 14 days. The body weight and hematological assessment were performed further the antioxidant activity was determined by assay for catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in the hepatic tissue. Increased oxidative stress, cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta), NF-kappa β, and caspase-3 levels in CCl4-treated rats. Co-administration with HEEAT significantly prevented all the biochemical and molecular alterations in the hepatic tissue of CCl4-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. The hepatoprotective effect was further confirmed by examining the liver organ weight and histopathological analysis using H&E staining. Collectively the findings from the current study demonstrate the possible involvement of oxidative- stress-mediated activation of inflammatory cascade and apoptosis in chronic CCl4-induced liver injury and suggest the effectiveness of HEEAT in mitigating the liver toxicity associated with chronic CCl4 administration. Further, our study using morphological, hematological, biochemical, histopathological data analysis suggest that HEEAT may serve as an effective antioxidant and hepatoprotective candidate.

11.Determination of Nickel as an Elemental Impurity in Atorvastatin Calcium by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
Pal AKF, Raja S
According to an international conference on harmonization (ICH), elemental impurities can come into drug products from various sources. These elemental impurities thus have to be quantified in drugs. Atorvastatin calcium is a widely used drug to treat cardiovascular diseases. Nickel used as a catalyst during the synthesis process of atorvastatin calcium can cause toxicity to humans and, hence, have to be quantified. A simple, efficient, and accurate, validated method was developed to estimate nickel content as an elemental impurity in atorvastatin calcium using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) with 0.2 nm slit width with a nickel hollow cathode lamp. Acetylene and air mixture was used for flame with 232.0 nm wavelength. The system performance was evaluated by performing the system suitability parameters. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.086 mg/mL and 0.23 mg/mL, respectively. Accuracy studies recoveries were performed at three spiking levels at 50%, 100%, and 150%, and the results were found to be 92.67%, 91.33%, and 91.00%, respectively. It concludes that according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) <232>, this developed and validated atomic absorption spectroscopy method for determining nickel in atorvastatin calcium medication substance was within the permitted limit.

12.The Impact of eNOS Gene Polymorphism (rs1799983 T>G) in the Malar Rash, Sex and Treatment Types of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Sarah A. Hamood, Esmat Khaleqsafat, Faraj Mohammed, Thulfeqar A. Hamza, Fatin A. A. Muhammed, Ghadeer S. Bustani, Amer N. Alturaihi
The study aims to detect Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase gene polymorphism (rs1799983 T>G) in the Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in some Iraqi cases, tetra ARMS-PCR was used to detect T>G substitution mutation, the results showed that About 80% of patients didnot suffer from malar rash while 20% were with malar rash and patients used three types of drugs (Rituximab, Endoxan and methylperdnisolon). The rs1799983 T>G genotyping showed three types of genotypes; GT, GG and TT. Non-significant differences were observed for all genotypes. The GG frequent percent was 50% in SLE and 56% in control group (p 0.641), GT was more frequent in SLE than control (47.36% and 40%), respectively (p 0.688), and low percent’s of TT in both group (2.63% and 4%). Low T allele percentage in SLE and control, high frequent of G allele in both groups. According to malar rash, a high percent of GT frequency in the patients with malar rash (71.42%) than non malar rash group (41.93%) there was non-significant association of all genotypes with malar rash (p 0.223 and p 0.906) for GG, GT and TT, respectively. The allele frequency shows significant association (p 0.000), G was more frequent in malar rash than non-malar rash group (0.64), while T low percentage in malar rash than another group (0.35). belong to sex, significant association was observed in GG with female and GT with male (p 0.0002), the TT non-significant association with sex, the allele frequency showed non-significant association with sex despite of the high percent of G allele in both male and female, The genotyping frequency distribution according to SLE treatment, in the Rituximab the GG and GT was more frequent, then in the endoxan that the GG and GT have a same frequent, the methylperdnislon was little used as treatment and has same frequent of GG and GT. The current study concluded that no association between eNOS rs1799983 T>G and SLE, malar rash and weak association with SLE treatment, but significant association was observed in GG with female.

13.Metronidazole Resistant Bacteroides species isolated from a Tertiary Care Hospital from North India
Shubham Chauhan, Ritu Garg, Narinder Kaur, Amit Mittal, Rosy Bala, Jyoti Chauhan, Harit Kumar
Bacteroides species are the most common gram-negative anaerobic bacteria identified in surgical site infections as per our studies. Diabetic foot and burn wound infections have higher chances of surgeries and use of metronidazole for the treatment of anaerobic infections may lead to metronidazole resistance. There is a requirement for up-to-date geographical and therapeutically relevant data for Bacteroides species. The purpose of this study was to identify the rate of Bacteroides species with metronidazole resistance. We had collected 100 samples from burn wounds and diabetic foot ulcers in Robertson Cooked Meat (RCM) broth. Then it was sub-cultured on anaerobic blood agar in a gas pak jar. Isolates were identified based on culture morphology and standard biochemical techniques. Antimicrobial sensitivity was evaluated by using several frequently used antimicrobial agents as per CLSI. A total of 52 anaerobic bacteria were isolated. In gram negative Bacteroides species, there were 34.61%, while in gram positive Peptostreptococcus species, there were 42.30%. 11.11% (4/18) of Bacteroides species were resistant by to metronidazole and had the same 11.11% (4/18) were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactum. In Pepetostreptococcus resistance to penicillin was about 72% (16/22) and 18% (2/22) in Metronidazole. Eubacterium species were 50% resistant to piperacillin-tazobactum and clindamycin. Fusobactrium species were totally resistant to penicillin.

14.Removal of Amino Drug from Aqueous Solution by Clay and Study of Optimum Condition Colorimetric Determination of Amino Drug Using Reagent: Stability and Higher Sensitivity
Sadiq A. Karim, Aseel M. Aljeboree
One of the most dangerous pollutants in water are pharmaceutical, which were treated with the use of easy, simple and inexpensive. The adsorption process depends on the use of available and inexpensive surfaces. In this study, it relied on the use of clay (Bentonite), where several factors were studied, including the effect of surface weight, the effect of drug concentration and function. The acidity isotherms were also studied, and it was based on measuring the concentration of the residual from the adsorption process with the formation of the colored complex. In this paper, a fast, inexpensive, simple and highly sensitive colorimetric method was used for the determination of the amino drug (4-Aminoantipyrine 4AAP). A new azo dye was prepared by the diazanium process in the presence of acidic medium and the formation of diazanium salt, which reacts with a reagent in the presence of an alkaline medium to form azo dye with violet color. Several factors have been studied to develop the color of the compound and to obtain the best absorption and high sensitivity. Among these factors are the effect of reagent volume, effect of base volume and quality, effect of temperature, effect of addition order and type of reagent. This colorimetric method is very suitable for the determination of 4AAP in commercial pharmaceutical formulations such as.tablets and capsules to give a stable color for three hours. This method is characterized by its color accuracy and high accuracy, as well as high sensitivity for drug estimation.

15.Impact of COVID-19 and New Clinical Trial Rules, 2019 on Clinical Trial Applications in India
Nisha Kaushik, Disha Pant, K. Bangarurajan, Arti R. Thakkar
The central drugs standard control organization (CDSCO), Indian national regulatory authority under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare have revised the clinical trial regulations in 2019 and there was a tremendous change in the approach for regulatory approvals due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A tremendous strain has been observed on the clinical research activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic which involves the redirection of resources and avoidance of personal meetings. Therefore, an urgent need of innovative solution was identified to enhance the overall performance clinical research during this pandemic. The innovative solutions include involvement of digital biomarkers, digital information consent form, digital health record and digital case report form. In the present study, impact of new drugs and clinical trials rules 2019 and COVID-19 pandemic on clinical trials applications received by CDSCO and evaluated by Subject Expert Committees (SEC) have been analyzed retrospectively. The author concluded that new drugs and clinical trials rules were enforced recently by the regulatory bodies to meet the requirement of emergency medical conditions. A large number of variations in the clinical trials application were observed in terms of the types of trial and the procedure after the implementation of new clinical trial rules.

16.A Review on Antioxidants as Therapeutic in Use of Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disease
Rana K, Priyanka Gautam
Normal aerobic cellular metabolism, therefore, generates free radicals. An instinctive antioxidant device of the frame performs an influential function inside any damage due to free radicals’ prevention by the body’s antioxidant mechanism. Conversely, an imbalanced process of antioxidants, overconsumption, or assimilation of loose militants as of the environment to the dwelling device ensuing in neurodegenerative sicknesses, reasons neural cells to travel through purposeful or sensory loss. Moreover, numerous different environmental or genetic factors, oxidative stress (OS) are the primary motives for the atom assault on neural cells that contribute a ruinous function to neurodegeneration. Although oxygen is additionally a should, imbalanced antioxidants and extra reactive oxygen species (ROS) outcomes in quite a few continual problems like cancer, diabetes, coronary heart sicknesses, and neurodegenerative sicknesses similar to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), aging, also plenty more and lots of varied neural problems. Recently, Several Antioxidants are being hired upon as resounding healing towards dementia that reversing age-associated declines in neurocognitive performances and excessive neuronal loss, as they will prevent oxidative pressure via way of means of neutralizing loose radicals. Diet is a chief supply of antioxidants and plant natural flavonoids, are catching interest to be an advert supply of phytonutrients at this time. Here, we review how C. elegans has been utilized for understood oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases therapeutic. Specifically, we will discuss the mechanisms that lead to free radicals that disrupted the antioxidant system and the pharmacological therapy that has been in use for a long time, and novel therapies in an oxidative stress consequence.

17.A Review on Nickel Estimation as an Elemental Impurity by Various Analytical Techniques
Pal AK, Raja S
Nickel is a suspected immunotoxic and immunomodulatory agent and an allergen in humans in its elemental form. Also, nickel is a carcinogen that can cause multiple types of cancer in humans. According to the international council for harmonization (ICH) quality guideline ICH Q3D (R1), nickel falls under category 2A. It means that nickel has a high chance of occurring in drugs, and hence the risk assessment must be done compulsorily. The goal of this review is to summarize how various analytical methods such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy have been used to quantify nickel as an elemental impurity in various sample materials such as pharmaceutical drugs, cosmetics, blood plasma, and environmental water and soil samples, among others. This evaluation serves as a guide to determining the optimal analytical approach for estimating nickel based on several aspects such as sample type, sensitivity required, skill, and method cost.

18.Biochemical Studies in Osteoporosis of Women in Central India
Ankita Kondhalkar, Ranjit Ambad, Nandkishor Bankar, Chandrasekhar Mahakalkar
Background: Osteoporosis is a condition that can have a significant influence on many postmenopausal women’s lives. As the population ages, osteoporosis with its potentially fatal consequence of fracture is becoming more common and assessing bone health is an important part of a woman’s normal care. More tangible efforts are required for osteoporosis patient prevention, early diagnosis, and practicable and inexpensive management. We anticipated that biochemical markers could allow for dynamic and quick measurements of total body skeletal metabolism, which could be useful in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) as well as evaluating the effectiveness of antiresorptive therapy. Aim: Biochemical Studies in Osteoporosis of Women in Central India. Material and Method: The present study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Datta Meghe Medical College and Shalinitai Meghe Hospital Nagpur and JNMC Sawangi Wardha. The postmenopausal women in the age group of 45 to 60 years and diagnosed as osteoporosis by clinician were selected as study group. Results: This study demonstrates that osteoblastic activity as assessed by bone formation marker is elevated in PMO. Osteocalcin is a promising marker of bone turnover & it can provide dynamic status of bone remodeling. Simple, straightforward, low-cost biochemical markers such as blood calcium, ALP, albumin, and phosphorus could be employed as indicators of accelerated bone turnover in routine biochemical studies in osteoporosis of 150 women to enable early management to reduce fracture owing to osteoporotic changes. The combined use of bone mineral density (BMD) and these biochemical markers will be of great help to the treatment decisions and to monitor effect of therapy. Conclusion: Acute variations in bone turnover rate are reflected by biochemical indicators of bone. Bone turnover lowers in PMO women on antiresorptive medication, as evidenced by lower levels of marker. Changes in the concentration of these indicators can be used to track how effectively a treatment is working. Antiresorptive therapy-induced decreases in marker levels may be an early indicator of eventual BMD increases and a reduction in fracture risk.

19.Study on the Effects of Nicotine on Platelet Function in Chronic Nicotine Gum Users
Ranjit Ambad, Neha Bhatt, Sunita Vagha, Ninad Nagrale
Background: Chronic nicotine intake may modify the state of haematological parameters and further clarify the consequences of nicotine use on health, given the varied pharmacological properties of nicotine and additives and their widespread usage in many regions and nations. The health effects of smokeless nicotine use, regardless of form of use, have been thoroughly established. Objective: The goal of this study was to see how nicotine affected platelet count and function hematologically. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted at the department of pharmacology at a tertiary healthcare centre in Central India. A rigorous assessment was performed on 400 seemingly healthy people, 200 of whom were chronic nicotine gum users and the other 200 were non-users. Personal information, work department, history of smoking, chewing nicotine, history of exposure to nicotine smoke, history of any chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus, and medication history were all documented. Hematological tests were carried out. The platelet count was estimated using an automated blood analyzer. Results: The following platelet metrics are higher in chronic nicotine gum users than in non-users- Statistically significant platelet count, PCT is statistically insignificant. Conclusion: In contrast to nonusers, nicotine usage in healthy people was associated with significant impacts on platelet indices, such as an increase in the mean MPV and PDW values.

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