International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

Disclimer: Scopus and Crossref are registered trademark of respective companies.

This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Development of an RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Encorafenib and Cetuximab in their Bulk Form
Mukthinuthalapati M Annapurna, Shanthi Priya DK
The primary goal of this investigation was to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatograophy (HPLC) method that is straightforward, reliable, sensitive, and accurate in quantifying the concentrations of encorafenib and cetuximab in bulk form. A Waters HPLC system with an autosampler and a PDA detector was used to create the HPLC technique. With a particle size of 5 μ and dimensions of 250 x 4.6 mm, a Waters X-Terra RP-18 column was used for the separation. A combination of acetonitrile and 0.1% triethylamine (TEA) at a pH of 2.5 makes up the mobile phase. Acetonitrile to TEA is 40:60 in ratio. A 240 nm wavelength, a 10 μL injection volume, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min were used for the chromatographic procedure. Analyte serial dilutions will be evaluated in order to establish linearity. The stock solutions with concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 7.50 μg/mL for cetuximab and 18.75 to 112.50 μg/mL for encorafenib were used to generate these dilutions. The dilutions were made by adding the mobile phase to the stock solutions to create a series. Encorafenib and cetuximab were found to have limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantitation (LoQ) values of 0.225 and 0.015 g/mL and 0.75 and0.05 g/mL, respectively. The method that was developed showed a high level of accuracy, as evidenced by the relative standard deviation (RSD) being less than 2%. The developed analytical method for estimating encorafenib and cetuximab is both straightforward and accurate.

2. Cosmetovigilance in India: Industry Expert Perspective
Manjula Nayak, Pradeep M Muragundi, Manthan Janodia, Virendra S Ligade
Many cosmetic and cosmeceutical products and brands are available in the Indian market. The number of new and innovative cosmetic product categories available in India are on the rise for last two decades. The cosmetic industry ranges from local small-scale businesses to multi-crore international branded ventures. Most of the local ones are often not under any rules or regulations. There is a dearth of research on cosmetovigilance despite the growing popularity and demand for cosmetic items among consumers of cosmetics. “The term “cosmetovigilance” refers to the processes involved in assessing and keeping track of unprompted reports of unfavorable outcomes during or following regular or reasonably anticipated use of a cosmetic product.” Objective: The purpose of the study is to understand the cosmetovigilance system from industry experts’ perspectives with special reference to regulatory aspects in the Indian context. Method: This is a cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative study; the data was collected through a structured questionnaire and through a questionnaire guide from selected industrial regulatory experts (targeted respondents). The purposive sampling and convincing methods were used for the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Result: Around 73% of regulatory experts said that companies should follow the regulatory guidelines for ensuring the safety and labeling of cosmetics. Around 66.6% responded that they have not come across any ACE reporting form by CDSCO. Conclusion: From the point of view of consumer safety, the establishment of cosmetovigilance practises and a reporting form is essential. Nevertheless, the companies try their best to control the safety aspects of cosmetic products.

3. A UPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Trastuzumab and Hyaluronidase in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form
Alapati Sahithi, Asha Deepthi Choppala
Objective: The proposed research aimed at establishing a quick, accurate, and exact ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) methodology for contemporaneously analyzing trastuzumab and hyaluronidas in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation, with a focus on the stability-indicating properties of the assay. Method: Using a Water X-Bridge C18 column (50 mm x 4.6 mm x 2.5 μ) and a mobile phase of ACN: Buffer (pH 2.5) [50% v/v], pushed at 0.5 mL/min, compounds were separated chromatographically. An ultraviolet (UV) detector fixed at 260 nm was employed to identify the isolated compounds. Results: The findings showed that 1.3529 and 2.404 minutes were optimal for separating Trastuzumab and Hyaluronidase, correspondingly. The current procedure has been verified in accordance with ICH standards Q2 R1, and stability-indicating tests have been performed in accordance with ICH standards Q1A R2. Both the intra- and inter-day precisions were determined to be satisfactory. The suggested approach showed linearity between 30 to 180 μg/mL of trastuzumab and between 12.50-75μg/mL of hyaluronidase. It was determined that the limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantitation (LoQ) for trastuzumab were 0.36 and 1.2 μg/mL, correspondingly, whereas those for hyaluronidase were 0.15 and 0.5 μg/mL. The approach was shown to have a recovery rate around 98.6 to 99.7%. Conclusion: The suggested approach successfully separated the chemical compounds from their by-products. Therefore, trastuzumab and hyaluronidase routine evaluation and stability-indicating tests were both effectively implemented using the approach.

4. Quality by Design Approach for the Stability Indicating Method Development and Validation of Selpercatinib Drug Formulation by using RP-HPLC
Geeta Nhavale, Rahul Godge, Arshu Patel, Kailas Barde
In method development quality design approach is useful for method goal identification evaluation, method selection and risk assessment. Selpercatinib is a drug used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. The method development includes selecting appropriate chromatographic conditions such as the mobile phase composition, column, and selection wave length. The aim is to achieve optimum separation and quantification of selpercatinib in the dosage form. Optimizing chromatographic conditions by using design expert software. The mobile phase methanol and 0.1% Acetic acid are used. The mobile phase range is 80:20 v/v. The range of this mobile phase is 80:20 .0.7 mL/min found flow rate. The retention time of selpercatinib is 3.20 minutes. The assay was found to be 99.01% for selpercatinib. Optimization was performed. Factorial design performed, i.e., flow rate and percentages of methanol. Analysis of variance confirmed that method parameters. UV detection at 220 nm. The International Council of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines ensure the accurate, precise and reliable results to validate the parameters is an acceptable range. Stress studies reveal that drugs were degraded acidic conditions, alkaline conditions, neutral conditions, oxidative conditions, and photolytic conditions. Hence the proposed method was stability, indicating using quality by design (QbD) approach all the method parameters were better understood. This systematic approach ensures a thorough understanding of the assay, facilitates process optimization, and enables effective control strategies to reduce variability and enhance product quality.

5. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Stem and Leaves Parts of Cissus woodrowii (Stapf ex Cooke) Santapau
Pallavi N Patil, Ritu M Gilhotra, Shweta Sharma, Kiran A Wadkar
The contemporary investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective potential of Cissus woodrowii (Stapf ex Cooke) Santapau against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Through evaluating antioxidant levels in liver tissues and blood marker enzymes, it was observed that administration of the plant extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly mitigated liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride. The study found that carbon tetrachloride-induced reductions in total protein, catalase, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, while increasing levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation, and aspartate aminotransferase. However, rats treated with varying doses of the plant extract exhibited restoration towards normal levels of serum marker enzymes and antioxidants, contrasting with those solely exposed to carbon tetrachloride. These findings collectively suggest that C. woodrowii (Stapf ex Cooke) Santapau possesses antioxidant properties and exerts a hepato-protective effect against CCl4-induced liver impairment in rats.

6. Development and Validation of Stability Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Method for Vandetanib: Application to Degradation Studies by LC-MS
Asia, RB Nalanda
Objective: The central goal of this research was to formulate and validate a stability-demonstrating assay approach using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for the assessment of vandetanib, its primary degradation products, and their respective degradation pathways, which were identified and characterized using liquid chromatography-electrophore spray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Methods: The method was designed and developed by employing a Grace C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm x4.0 μm) and deploying a mixture of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in H2O (in a proportion of 90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase, with a flow rate maintained at 1-mL/min. The analytes were detected at a wavelength of 249 nm. Additionally, vandetanib was subjected to various stress conditions, including acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal, and photolytic degradation, to unearth the degradation paths for the principal degradation products. Results: The approach was meticulously formulated and validated to ensure robustness, linearity, precision, accuracy, and linear regression analysis data. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9985 was obtained in the 2 to 12 μg/mL concentration range, demonstrating a robust linear relationship. Moreover, the limit of detection (LoD) and the limit of quantification (LoQ) were found to be 0.166 and 0.503 μg/mL, respectively. In the stress degradation studies, we noticed that vandetanib degraded in alkaline and acidic mediums. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique was used to characterize the degradation products. Conclusion: The devised method demonstrated itself to be quick, sensitive, precise, accurate, and robust for the vandetanib analysis, thereby facilitating its routine testing.

7. LC-MS/MS Bioanalytical Procedure for Atrasentan in Human Plasma: Method Development and Validation
Konatham TK Reddy, M Akiful Haque
Objectives: The objective of this work is to establish a bioanalytical technique for the quantification of atrasentan. The employed methodology for the detection and quantification of atrasentan in human plasma has a high degree of specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity. Methods: Shimadzu pumps were utilized in conjunction with an Autosampler Agilent Zorbax XDB C18 2.1 × 50 mm, 5 μm column employed as a stationary phase to achieve the chromatographic separation. Acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) and 5 mM ammonium formate made up the mobile phase, which was optimized to have a 70:30% v/v ratio. Isocratic elution was employed in the experiment, with a flow rate of 0.150 mL/min. The entire cycle took 3.0 minutes, using a 10 μL injection volume. Results: The detection procedure is executed utilizing positive ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry under atmospheric pressure. For atrasentan, the precursor to product ion transitions used for quantification was m/z 511.623 to 354.15 and for the internal standard, verapamil, m/z 455.22 to 165. 02. The retention times for atrasentan and verapamil were found to be 1.68 and 0.96 minutes, respectively. Conclusion: In accordance with the recommendations of the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and EMA, it was ascertained that the remaining validation parameters remained within the specified range.

8. Prediction of Warfarin Dosage Based on Genotype (VKORC1) – 1639 G>A – rs9923231 In South Indian Populations
Ankani Bala, Sivaraj R
Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), characterized by thrombus formation in veins, ranks as the third most prevalent vascular disease globally after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are common clinical manifestations of VTE, with potentially fatal consequences. In this study, the mean daily warfarin dose using VKORC1 (-1639 G>A) rs9923231 genotyping will be established in order to categorize warfarin treatment into high, moderate, and low-dose groups within the South Indian population. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 192 patients was enrolled, and genotyping was conducted using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Results: In our study sample, the A allele frequency was 23.9%, and the AA genotype frequency was 12.5%. The mean daily doses required by AA homozygous (1.54 ± 1.05 mg/day) and GA heterozygous (2.93 ± 2.03 mg/day) genotype carriers were considerably lower to attain the optimal international normalized ratio (INR) than those of GG genotype carriers(4.07 ± 1.75 mg/day), with a p-value of 0.866. Conclusion: Our findings strongly advocate for incorporating VKORC1 polymorphism analysis in South Indian patients with DVT to guide the initial warfarin dosage genetically.

9. Utilization of Box Behnken Design for the Development and Evaluation of Luliconazole-loaded Nanoemulgel
Pawar Saish, Kuchekar Ashwin
Pharmaceutical research is always looking for novel ways to distribute drugs and developing these methods to increase the effectiveness of existing medications. The physicochemical characteristics of the drug determine the dose form. Lipophilic API development is a result of recent discoveries in high-throughput screening. A topical broad-spectrum antifungal agent is luliconazole. Due to its lower water solubility, topical administration is limited, and topical absorption is confined. The stratum corneum’s lipid phase’s solubility of the medication also serves as a rate-limiting step for penetration. Because fungal infections impact the skin’s epidermis, dermis, and deeper layers, medicine administration must be tailored to target high drug concentrations at the layers of the epidermis and dermis.

10. Estimation of Glyoxylic Acid in Emtricitabine by a New Validated RP-HPLC Method
Ramreddy Godela, Kranthi Kumar Pola, Mukund Panukanti, Anusha Kusuma, Shaik Shireen, Martha Srinivas
To establish a simple, sensitive, as well as specified method for the separation and quantitative determination of glyoxylic acid in emtricitabine by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A superior separation of glyoxylic acid in emtricitabine was done by using a C8 column and a mobile system of (0.1% OPA and ACN: H2O) with 1-mL/min flow rate in gradient mode and a wavelength of 210 nm. The glyoxylic acid was eluted at 5.37 minutes with good efficiency and system suitability. The method has shown good linearity ranges from a limit of detection (LoQ) to 150% level of glyoxylic acid standard solution (0.1% or 0.001 mg/mL). ICH principles validated the suggested approach, and every parameter met the requirements for the International Council of Harmonization (ICH) Q2 recognition. %RSD of System, method precision, and precision at LoQ were in the range of 0.46 to 1.91. The developed method was sensitive, specific, and precise in estimating the trace levels of glyoxylic acid in emtricitabine.

11. Bio-analytical Methodology for Exploring Ripretinib’s Pharmacokinetic Profile in Rat Plasma Employing Bosutinib as an Internal Standard Utilizing LC-MS/MS
Sandhya Pilli, Sri N Kalakonda, Vijayalakshmi Rajendran
A robust, consistent, straightforward, swift, and precise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was tailored for the bioanalytical analysis of ripretinib, with bosutinib serving as the comparative standard. This article provides a synopsis of recent developments in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS techniques utilizing a phenyl column (150×4.6 mm, 3.5 μ) and an eluting agent composed of ammonium formate at a pH of 2.5, which was altered in a 50:50 ratio with formic acid and acetonitrile. The chromatogram was utilized to analyse ripretinib, and the MS detector was equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) method functioning in positive ionization conditions with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). This allowed for the recording of transition m/z values of 531.4465→170.9638 for ripretinib and 511.4230 → 160.7133 for BTB. In the chromatographic analysis, ripretinib was retained for approximately 2.433 minutes, whereas BTB was retained for around3.608 minutes. The validity of the approach extends across a linearity scale of 5 to 100 ng/mL for ripretinib, boasting a correlation index of 0.9999. In the realm of biological matrices, the extraction procedure employing the protein precipitation technique yields recovery rates of 99.6, 99.2, and 98% at the lower, middle, and higher quality control levels, respectively. The obtained results for accuracy, precision, matrix effect, and stability were determined to be within the acceptable range. To observe the investigated analyte in bodily fluids, pharmacokinetic studies yielded key parameters, including a half-life of 10 hours and a time to reach a maximum drug level of 4 hours. This thorough assessment affirms that the method satisfies rigorous criteria for system suitability and specificity well within predefined acceptance limits. Such performance positions it as an indispensable asset in the realm of bioanalysis, significantly broadening its clinical applicability.

12. Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Lepidagathis pungens Nees Extracts as Novel Therapy Options in Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetes in Albino Wistar Rats
Jothilakshmi R, Srinivasan R
Diabetes mellitus remains a global health concern, necessitating innovative therapeutic approaches. This study explores the antidiabetic potential of aqueous and methanol extracts from Lepidagathis pungens Nees in albino Wistar rats induced with diabetes. Diabetes induction involves the administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NIC), mimicking pathological conditions observed in human diabetes. The study employed aqueous and methanol extracts of L. pungens Nees alongside a standard drug, glibenclamide. Diabetes induction was achieved through intraperitoneal injection of STZ and NIC. Extracts and the standard drug were orally administered, and various parameters, including blood glucose levels, body weight changes, insulin and hemoglobin levels, as well as liver and lipid profiles, were monitored at specified intervals. Furthermore, liver and pancreas tissues were evaluated histopathologically. In comparison to the diabetic group, both aqueous and methanol extracts demonstrated significant antidiabetic activity (p <0.001), with effects comparable to or better than the standard drug. A remarkable improvement in insulin and hemoglobin levels was observed, along with significant improvements in blood glucose levels and body weight changes. Furthermore, the extracts demonstrated positive effects on liver and lipid profiles, exhibiting potential to mitigate diabetes-induced complications. Histopathological studies revealed protective effects on liver and pancreas tissues, supporting the extracts’ therapeutic efficacy. In STZ- and NIC-induced diabetic rats, L. pungens Nees extracts show promising antidiabetic activity. The extracts demonstrated significant improvements in various physiological parameters, suggesting their potential as alternative or adjunctive therapies in the management of diabetes. Further research and clinical investigations are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and translate these findings into practical therapeutic applications.

13. Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Quantification of Capivasertib in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form
Bavita Gaur, Sandeep Sahu, Mohan L Kori
The quantification of capivasertib has been achieved using a Waters Symmetry column with UV detection at 260 nm through a novel stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method that has been established and verified. The analysis can be completed in just 5 minutes. The separation and collection of capivasertib occurred at a retention time of 3.3475 minutes. The concentration range of capivasertib was shown to be linear, ranging from 50 to 300 μg/mL.The regression equations for capivasertib were determined as y = 13485.85x + 1723.04. The detection limit for capivasertib was determined to be 0.6 μg/mL, while the quantification limits were established at 2.00 and 0.5000 μg/mL, respectively.

14. Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of the Piper longum Dried Fruit Extract on the Experimental Animal Model
Neha L Zod, Rahul G Ingle
Predominately, in the Indian tradition, the species Piper longum could play a significant role in the management of several severe disorders such as asthma, tuberculosis, rheumatism, and epilepsy. Mostly, the plant root would be responsible for treating insomnia, rheumatism, and epilepsy, as well as plant leaves for a prevailing stimulant for both the digestive and the respiratory systems. The alcoholic extract of P. longum fruits showed antiamoebic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory potential in experimental animals. In addition to these benefits, the current study concluded that the examination of the ethanolic extract of P. longum fruits as an anti-hyperglycemic in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animal model (Wistar rats). A diabetic condition could be induced in an animal model by dissolving STZ in a 0.1 M citrate buffer of pH 4.5. It was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight in the animal test model. All the test animals were fed with a 5% dextrose solution to control overnight hypoglycemic conditions. Subsequently, 48 hours of hyperglycemic test animals were selected for the study. The observed anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of P. longum dried fruits should correspond to that of the reference standard, i.e., glibenclamide. The study reveals that the ethanolic extract of P. longum fruits has a promising potential as an anti-hyperglycemic in the STZ-induced diabetic animal test model. So, it is presumed that the ethanolic extract of P. longum could be a promising alternative for severe diabetes complications such as hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, etc., in the near future.

15. An In-vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Vitis vinifera Leaf Extract
Ashok Kumar, Amit Sharma, Pragi, Varun Kumar
Background: Vitis vinifera (Flame red grape) is known for its hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and cardioprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts has been reported but, due to presence of polyphenols, glycosides, saponins and alkaloid, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity yet not to evaluated on salad plant and bacteria, respectively. Aim: This research examined grape (V. vinifera flaming red) leaf ethanolic extract (EE) as a bioactive resource. Methods: Ethanolic extract test, primarily to calculate the overall phenolic content by using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique and gallic acid taking as a reference. Similarly, flavonoid content measured using quercetin as a calibration curve. Antioxidant properties was confirmed by getting positive responses from different methods (DPPH, H2O2, FRAP and Phospho-Molybdenum). Antimicrobial activity tested against gram-positive bacteria (Lactobacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus enterica ser. Typhimurium) in a broth microdilution test. The ethanolic extract (EE) are rich in antioxidant-rich phenolic compounds show minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for every given bacterium on beetroot and spinach leaves. Results: We investigate this extract’s total phenol, total flavonoid, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties. We also identify its main phenolic components, revealing its phytochemical diversity. We found that the EE had 39.29 gGAkg-1 dw of phenol and 96.05 gQE kg-1 dw of flavonoids. The EE scavenges DPPH, H2O2, FRAP, and PM radicals at 142, 168, 275, and 172 g TE kg-1, respectively. We reveal the complex character of this extract by revealing catechins, flavonoids, tannins, malic acid, enzymes, resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonols, procyanidins, and anthocyanins. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus are all inhibited by EE with a MIC range of 16 to 18 gL-1 (E. coli). The extract affects bacterial growth at different stages. The EE reduces spinach and beetroot leaf total bacterial load by 1.159 to 2.456 log drop when used as a sanitizer at 25 gL-1 (1.156–2.858 log reduction). Conclusion: This research work highlights grape leaf EE as a novel and appealing source of bioactive components with its strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities against common foodborne infectious agents. Our research reveals that leaf ethanolic extract could reduce human pathogenic microorganisms in fresh green vegetables, improving food safety.

16. Ethnobotanical Exploration and Formulation Development of Cream Containing Ammi majus Linn and Portulaca oleracea Linn
Swapnil Shinde, Shrinivas Mohite
Stearic acid served as the emulsifier in the preparation of an O/W emulsion-based cream that also included oil-soluble components and water-based extracts of Ammi majus Linn and Portulaca oleracea Linn. The cream was evaluated for color, appearance, presence of foreign particles/grittiness, pH, viscosity, phase separation, and extrudability. A skin irritation study was conducted on Wistar rats, with intact skin and hair removed three days earlier experiment. Cream-containing extracts were applied to test animals, and the backs of animals were scrutinized for erythema and edema. To study psoriatic skin cells in-vitro, researchers used the HaCaT cell line. Researchers also used the SRB assay to look for antipsoriatic effects in-vitro. Cultures of human keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT were carried out in a medium that included 10% fetal bovine serum and was otherwise identical to Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium. In order to reach a concentration of 10%, 25 μL of 50% TCA was added to each well after 72 hours, creating a thin layer of ended drug dilutions. Phytochemical evaluation revealed that the extracts of A. majus Linn and P. oleracea Linn were soluble in water and had a yellowish solid color. The cream formulation showed good emulsionability, no foreign particles or grittiness, and no phase separation. The skin irritation test on Swiss albino rats showed that the standard drug (Retino A 0.05% cream) was free from irritation. The cream’s acceptability for topical use was also observed.

17. Promising Natural Approach: Caesalpinia bonduc Seed Extracts for Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis in Rats
Sunil Mathapati, Mallinath Kalshetti, Rudramuni Kore
Background: It is essential to identify a therapy for hyperoxaluria that specifically focuses on reducing oxalate excretion since current therapies for urolithiasis have drawbacks. It is noteworthy to observe that the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) have been historically used by several Indian tribes for the purpose of treating renal diseases.Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of C. bonduc seed extracts as therapeutic agents in rats with experimentally generated calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methodology: The experimental animals were given 0.75% of ethylene glycol orally for fourteen consecutive days in order to produce calcium oxalate lithiasis. C. bonduc seed extracts, 400 mg/kg of body weight in aqueous and ethanolic forms, were administered in the same way for a further 14 days in succession. The standard antiurolithiatic medicine used was cystone, administered at a dose of 750 mg/kg of body weight. The research primarily examined the quantification of serum biochemical markers and the elimination of salt constituents from urine and renal deposits, which were shown to be challenging. Results: Ethylene glycol administered orally caused hyperoxaluria and augmented calcium, phosphate, and oxalate excretion in the kidneys. Nevertheless, the administration of C. bonduc seed extracts effectively decreased the elevated levels of oxalate in the urine, showing an inhibitory effect on the synthesis of oxalate inside the human body. The renal accumulation of components that cause stone formation in rats with calculogenic conditions decreased considerably after the administration of curative treatments with aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the findings, it has been shown that C. bonduc seeds have lithontriptic action, which deserves further investigation as a potential remedy for urolithiasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the specific phytoconstituents present in seeds that are responsible for their antiurolithiatic activity.

18. Investigation of Phytochemical Composition and In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Canthium parviflorum Leaf Extract
Kalaivanan S, Srinivasan R
This study provides a thorough investigation of Canthium parviflorum leaves, integrating macroscopical, phytochemical, and in-vitro antioxidant analyses to unveil the plant’s therapeutic potential. The preliminary phytochemical analysis identifies a diverse array of bioactive compounds in C. parviflorum, encompassing alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, gum, and mucilage, known for their potential pharmacological activities. Physico-chemical parameters characterize the leaves, with a moisture content of 6.9% w/w indicating water content and ash values providing insights into the inorganic composition. The hydroalcohol extract exhibits an extraction efficiency of 26.91%, emphasizing the success of the extraction process. The focus extends to the quantification of phenolic and flavonoid content in the hydroalcoholic extract. The substantial phenolic content at 76.13 mg GAE/gm suggests antioxidant potential, and the quantified flavonoid content of 4.95 mg quercetin equivalents per gram extract further underscores the presence of bioactive compounds. The study seamlessly integrates in-vitro antioxidant analyses, revealing concentration-dependent scavenging activities against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. These findings support the plant’s potential therapeutic applications, emphasizing its antioxidant capabilities. The comprehensive exploration of C. parviflorum’s macroscopical and microscopical features, phytochemical composition, and in-vitro antioxidant properties contributes to a robust foundation for its potential integration into herbal medicine. The identification of bioactive compounds underscores its significance as a valuable natural resource. In conclusion, this study not only enriches our understanding of C. parviflorum but also paves the way for future investigations into its medicinal applications, fostering advancements in herbal medicine and natural product research.

19. Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Using UV-Spectroscopy Method
Dipak P Mali, Anjali V Waghmare, Dinanath T Gaikwad
The simple, precise and accurate UV spectroscopic method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium. The developed simultaneous equation method is reproducible and economical. The wavelengths selected for measuring the absorbance of both drugs were 365 and 246 nm, respectively. In a concentration range of 2 to 10 μg/mL, amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium exhibited linearity at their respective λmax of 365 and246 nm as well as at the isoabsorptive point at 238 nm. Recovery studies showed recovery of >99.78% for amlodipine besylate and >99.36% for atorvastatin calcium, indicating method accuracy. The developed method is suggested for routine analysis because it is quick, easy, accurate, as well as sensitive and specific. The validation studies were carried out in accordance with the International Council of Harmonization (ICH) recommendations.

20. A Comparative Study of Epidural 0.75% Ropivacaine with Dexmedetomidine and 0.75% Ropivacaine Alone in Infra Umbilical Surgeries
P Abdul Rahaman, Anusha M, S Prem Kumar, VA Sabapathy
Background: Different adjuvants are currently being employed alongside local anesthetics to extend the duration of pain relief during and after epidural block procedures for infra-umbilical surgeries. Dexmedetomidine is a recently popular neuroaxial adjuvant that acts as an extremely specific α2 adrenergic agonist. The purpose of this research is to evaluate and contrast the impacts of combining epidural giving of 0.75% ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine to the effects of using 0.75% ropivacaine alone. The focus was on evaluating the cardiovascular, sedative with analgesics potentiating The facets of these treatments. Methods: The research was randomized and studied in a double-blind, prospective fashion. It comprised 50 patients from the The individuals included in this study were classified as undertaking lower limb procedures were those who met the following criteria: Female, the age from 20 to 65, and holding American Society of Anesthesiologists Grades I and II. Informed agreement was given before the start of the study. Randomly, participants were divided into two groups, each consisting of 25 individuals. A 15 mL ropivacaine solution containing 0.75% was utilized to administrate epidural anesthesia to a group I (n = 25). In contrast, group II (n = 25) received the same 15 mL ropivacaine solution supplemented with 0.6 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine. The study compared two groups in terms of their hemodynamic changes and block characteristics. These characteristics included the time it took for analgesia to start at T10, the peak level of sensory perception analgesia achieved, the time it took for the sensory and motor block to reach their maximum levels, the time it took for the block to regress at the dermatome S1, and the time required to administer the initial quantity rescue effort analgesics to be administered within a 24-hour period. Results: Sedation score (p = 0.001), motor block intensity (p 0.001), and onset of action (p 0.001) were all significantly greater in the dexmedetomidine group. Additionally, motor block duration (p 0.001) was significantly longer. No significant differences were observed in the occurrence of maximal pain relief, low BP, or slow HR (p > 0.05), according to the study. There was a negligible and comparable occurrence of adverse effects (such as vertigo, tremor, and SpO2<90%) across all categories (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The research revealed noteworthy distinctions commencing with the inhibition of neural functions differs between the dexmedetomidine and ropivacaine groups, with dexmedetomidine producing more intense sustained motor block and sensory block. Both groups had greater sedation scores.

21. Effect of Omega-3 Adjuvant Therapy on Cognitive Improvement and Levels of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) in Schizophrenia Patients Receiving Risperidone Therapy
Syamsuddin Saidah, Nadya Andi Nurul, Limoa Erlyn, Idris Irfan, Syauki Andi Suheyra, Liaury Kristian, Bahar Burhanuddin, Muis Abdul, Suhuyanli Indrawaty, Lisal Sonny Teddy
Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with severe and persistent psychotic manifestations accompanied by cognitive impairment. Treatment with atypical antipsychotic therapy (APG-2) provides only minimal benefit for the cognitive impairment of schizophrenia patients. Many efforts are currently being expanded to find new treatments that can serve as “co-treatments” to improve neurocognition from aspects of neurobiology and neuroplasticity. Several studies found that omega-3 fatty acids can improve cognitive function in schizophrenia patients. Objective: The objective is to assess the impact of omega-3 adjuvant therapy on improving cognitive function and elevating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia who are undergoing risperidone treatment. Method: A research study utilizing experimental analysis, including pre-tests and post-tests with non-random group selection, was conducted at Dadi Regional Special Hospital in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, between May and July 2023. Sample testing was carried out at the HUMRC Research Laboratory. The study involved 44 participants divided into two groups: a treatment group comprising 22 individuals who received 4 mg/day risperidone along with Omega-3 supplements for eight weeks and a control group of 22 individuals who received only 4 mg/day risperidone. Cognitive function was evaluated using the MoCA-Ina tool, while GDNF serum levels were determined through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Significance was assessed through the Chi-square, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. Results: There was an improvement in cognitive function and a significant increase of GDNF serum levels in schizophrenia patients who received omega-3 adjuvant therapy over 8 weeks compared to individuals with schizophrenia who solely received the antipsychotic risperidone. Conclusion: Supplementing standard risperidone therapy with omega-3 adjuvant can enhance cognitive function and elevate GDNF levels.

22. Evaluation of Antiviral, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Morinda tinctoria Roxb., Abroma augusta L. Educes and Myristica fragrans Houtt. Ethereal Oil in Microcapsules
Garima Verma, Priyanka Verma, Ashish Srivastava, Anil K Yadav
Viruses and bacteria can interfere with human functioning; scientists are always looking for new ways to harness the healing power of plants. There is potential for a new type of medicine to be developed from plant materials rich in biologically active chemicals. The purpose of this research was to create microcapsules and scrutinize the biological outcomes of a variation of plant educes and ethereal oils. Using chromatographic techniques, we identified the primary components of the educe and ethereal oil, measured the antioxidant activity spectrophotometrically, tracked the development of 09 different infectious agents, and calculated the antiviral result on coronavirus-contaminated avian cells. The extract of Abroma augusta L. demonstrated the highest levels of antioxidant and antiviral activity (27.28 – 0.32 and 642.54 – 9.12 g TE/g dw via DPPH and ABTS techniques, correspondingly). The FRAP assay found that Morinda tinctoria Roxb. extract had the highest antioxidant activity (685.72 – 4.65 mg FS/g dw) and showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive pathogens. Excipients and their quantities were crucial to the emulsion’s consistency. The diameter of the enlarged microcapsules containing educes and ethereal oil was greater than twice in intestinal media and less than half that in gastric media, with a starting diameter of 1.86 mm.

23. Enhancement of Solubility by Hydrotropic Techniques of Lercanidipine HCl: In-situ Nasal Gel Development
Shinde Sanket, Jagdale Swati, Dargude Shrikant, Polshettiwar Satish
Lercanidipine HCl is a novel, third-generation, potent, vasoselective 1, 4- dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist and a Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug that aids in preventing hypertension. The final aim of the present work was to promote the solubility of lercanidipine HCl via hydrotrophy and then include it in the in-situ gel formulation. This enhancement of drug solubility was carried out by using citric acid as a hydrotropic agent. Simultaneously, using a mixture of two polymers, namely Poloxamer 407, a thermosensitive polymer with reversible thermal characteristics. Carbopol 940P is a high-viscosity builder exploited for developing in-situ gel. The optimization of preliminary batches of mixtures of both polymers was highly accepted by using 32 factorial designs. F4 was found to be highly optimized, according to all the evaluation parameters and Poloxamer 407 (18% w/v) and Carbopol 940P (0.2% w/v), with drug release of 93.23%. Goat mucosa ex-vivo investigation yielded a value of 79.14% flux at 6 hours. According to ICH guidance, the in-situ Lercanidipine HCl gel has turned up to be stable following a 6-month stability investigation. Thus, the subsequent thermoreversible in-situ gel was scouted to act as a potent nasal distributor with greater bioavailability and patient compliance for the nasal medication

24. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Anthelminthic Activities of Traditionally used Ocimum basilicum L., and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Extract Loaded Emulsion
Annanya Gangopadhyay, Suvendu Sekhar Panda, Budumuru Padmasri, Nageswar Panda
The demand for cosmeceuticals is rapidly expanding. Various phytoconstituents are identified from Ocimum basilicum and O. tenuiflorum and have several pharmacological properties. The present study aimed to formulate a novel alternative herbal formulation for topical administration with natural antioxidant properties for the treatment of inflammatory conditions with the destructive capacity of parasitic worms. The egg albumin denaturation technique was used to evaluate the test formulations’ and the standard’s in-vitro anti-inflammatory properties, and the hydrogen peroxide assay was used to measure the extracts’ antioxidant properties. Eudrilus eugeniae was the target of the investigation into in-vitro anthelmintic action. The pH of the cream was 6.8 (average), it was easily spreadable and washable, no gritty particles were found and the dye test confirmed that it was an o/w type of cream. The egg albumin denaturation technique was utilized to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties. The results cleared those herbal formulations (F1 and F2) and protein denaturation was decreased by diclofenac sodium (Standard) in a dose-dependent manner. Test samples exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activities than the standard with their percentage inhibitions being 41.5 ± 0.5 (F2), 39.1 ± 0.4 mg/mL (F1), and 37.3 ± 0.3 mg/mL (F-Standard), respectively. Antioxidants are compounds that either completely stop or significantly reduce the harm that free unstable radicals. F2 showed a higher concentration-dependent anthelmintic activity than F1 and standard albendazole. Increasing the concentration decreases the paralysis and death time of earthworms. Finally concluded that F2 indicates higher anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activities than others with high natural antioxidant power.

25. Discovery of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase for Melanoma Using Melphalan Based Hybrid Classic 3-Point Pharmacophore Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Approach
Pravin Tajane, Swapnil Deshmukh, Amit Lunkad, Manoj Tare, Manish Bhise
Melanoma, a highly aggressive type of skin cancer, poses a significant health risk due to its proclivity for metastasis and poor response to conventional treatments. Mutations in the MEPK are one of the key molecular alterations driving melanoma progression, resulting in constitutive activation of the MAP2K signaling pathway. Targeting this pathway, specifically the MAP2K, has emerged as a promising approach to melanoma treatment. This study investigates the therapeutic potential of Mitogen-activated protein kinase, which are compounds designed to inhibit the abnormal activity of mutated MEK, disrupting the oncogenic signaling cascade and stopping melanoma progression. The ChEMBL 2D database was used to conduct a comprehensive pharmacophore-based screening to identify potential mitogen-activated protein kinase with the desired molecular properties. Afterwards the initial screening, selected compounds underwent rigorous molecular docking studies to verify their binding affinity and interaction patterns with the MAP2K substance. Among the compounds tested, CHEMBL852 (Melphalan), CHEMBL250892(R)-Melphalan and CHEMBL1200863 (Metyrosine) had particularly high binding affinities, indicating potential efficacy as mitogen-activated protein kinase. Toxicity tests were carried out to assess the safety profiles of these compounds. Notably, metyrosine had a favorable toxicity profile across multiple endpoints, including hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, and cytotoxicity, indicating its potential as a safer therapeutic candidate. Metyrosine pharmacokinetics were further evaluated using ADME studies, which demonstrated its high water solubility and moderate lipophilicity, indicating favorable drug-like properties. These findings suggest that metyrosine may have higher bioavailability and fewer side effects than other potential inhibitors. Subsequently, this study identifies promising lead compounds, specifically metyrosineas, potential candidates for the research and development of novel mitogen-activated protein kinase for melanoma therapy. These compounds require additional experimental validation, optimization, and preclinical research to determine their therapeutic efficacy, safety, and potential for clinical application. This study highlights the importance of targeted therapies in the growing melanoma treatment landscape, paving the way for the development of novel strategies to combat this devastating disease.

26. FDA Approved Niraparib-based Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies to Discover Novel 6NRF Protein Modulator for Ovarian Cancer
Siddartha Bethi, Swapnil Deshmukh, Amit Lunkad, Manoj Tare, Manish Bhise
The abstract summarizes the findings of a comprehensive analysis of chemical compounds, focusing on their potential therapeutic relevance in ovarian cancer treatment. Utilizing data from the ChEMBL database, pharmacophore-based screening identified compounds with promising activity against ovarian cancer, with notable catching scores ranging from 0.556 to 1.000. Crystallographic refinement metrics highlighted improvements in structural accuracy and quality following PDB-REDO refinement, with reductions in R and R-free values and significant enhancements in bond length RMS Z-scores. Molecular docking studies revealed predicted binding affinities ranging from -9.6 to -8.4, indicating strong interactions with target proteins. ADME analysis of niraparib, a lead compound, demonstrated favorable physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic profiles, with Lipinski, Ghose, Veber, and Egan’s rules for drug-likeness and bioavailability met. Toxicity prediction models identified potential organ toxicity endpoints, with neurotoxicity, respiratory toxicity, and immunotoxicity showing active involvement. These findings underscore the complexity of structure-activity relationships and the importance of predictive models in guiding drug discovery efforts and ensuring safety profiles. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the landscape of PARP inhibitors and their potential in advancing personalized medicine approaches for ovarian cancer therapy.

27. Fabrication, Evaluation and In-vitro, In-vivo Efficacy of Electrospun Nanofiber Mats of Tinospora cordifolia Extract and Curcumin
Nagansurkar SB, Hemant KS Yadav, Raizaday Abhay
The current research work highlights the fabrication and evaluation of nanofiber mats prepared using electrospinning technology containing Tinospora cordifolia extract and curcumin incorporated in chitosan polymer. The study of the prepared mats was carried out to optimize the formulations, to check in-vitro antibacterial activity, and to establish the effectiveness in diabetic wound healing by conducting an animal study. The nanofiber mats of curcumin and leaf extract of T. cordifolia using chitosan as a base polymer were prepared, optimized, and evaluated for antibacterial activity in-vitro, while their ability to enhance the wound healing process was checked using an animal model. The research parameters included the rate at which the wound contracted besides the time taken for epithelialization by using the wound healing model- excision technique. The results we found are encouraging for further studies. The nanofibers showed good antibacterial potential and faster healing of wounds. The research finished by developing an improved new formulation that effectively combats bacterial resistance, a common problem in the diabetic wound healing process. The mixture will not only fight resistant bacteria, but it will also help diabetic wounds heal faster because the T. cordifolia leaf extract is known to improve blood vessel growth and tissue remodeling.

28. Evaluation of the Anticancer Effects of Nigella sativa Stem Extract using Inhibition of Cell Proliferation
Darshana Patra, Malini Shetty AG, Parinitha Mahishi, Sharangouda J Patil
The unregulated spread of abnormal cells across the body characterizes cancer, one of the most devastating diseases that humanity has ever encountered. The normal process of cell division occurs when the body needs new cells to replace damaged or dead cells. The study found that Nigella sativa stem has anticancer activity, with phenols, flavonoids, saponins, and glycosides present in its phytochemical screening. In an in-vivo study, rats supplemented with N. sativa showed no significant changes in liver and heart architecture, serum ALT and AST levels, or liver tissue pathology. We still don’t know which chemical components in the stem are responsible for its anticancer action, but the study did find that participants’ body weights stayed healthy.

29. In-vitro Evaluation for Anticancer Activity of Extract of Asparagus racemosus
Venkata Suresh Jilakara, Arun Nivas Velumani, Rudraksh Shovan Panda, Ganesh Sanjivan Lad
The main purpose of this study is to look into how protective Asparagus racemosus leaves are in-vitro. Cancer is a major reason people die around the world. Many of the bad effects of the allopathic drugs that are now used to treat cancer have caused people to turn to plant medicine. Some of the solvents that were used in the sequential solvent extraction method were chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate. The chloroform extract had a higher percentage yield compared to the other extracts. Because it had anticancer activity in-vitro, the therapeutically active extract was picked to have anticancer activity in living things. The MTT test was used to see if the chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts could help fight cancer in HeLa cell types. The MTT assay showed that chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts had strong anticancer activity. These two extracts were chosen for study into how they work against cancer in living things.

30. Discovery of mTOR Receptor Modulators Targeting Breast Cancer by Hybrid of Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Approach
Pravin Tajane, Swapnil Deshmukh, Amit Lunkad, Manoj Tare
This research paper presents a comprehensive approach integrating virtual screening and molecular docking to identify potential therapeutic candidates. Pharmacophore-based virtual screening was employed to assess the structural similarities of compounds to a reference molecule, revealing promising candidates with high similarity scores. Subsequently, molecular docking studies were conducted to predict the binding affinities of these compounds to the target receptor, 4DRH. CHEMBL3775006 emerged as a lead candidate, demonstrating both structural resemblance and strong binding affinity to the target protein. ADME studies highlighted its pharmacokinetic properties, while toxicity prediction studies provided insights into potential adverse effects. Overall, this study underscores the utility of virtual screening and molecular docking in identifying novel drug candidates with therapeutic potential.

31. Hepatoprotective Activity and Molecular Docking Studies of Actinidia deliciosa Fruit Peel Extract Phytocompounds
NVL Suvarchala Reddy V, M Ganga Raju, M Mamatha, M Lakshmi Madhuri
In the case of liver illnesses, herbal treatment offers a non-invasive, all-natural alternative to conventional medicine. Methanolic extract of the peel of Actinidia deliciosa was screened for its hepatoprotective in rodent models with antioxidant activity in-vitro H2O2 radical with hydroxyl radical scavenging assay was also used to assess the extract’s antioxidant potential. The gold standard was ascorbic acid. Various phytochemical constituents were identified, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, tannins, and alkaloids. In-vivo, hepatoprotective activity was performed by using paracetamol (3 g/kg)and ethanol (12 mL/kg) induced hepatotoxicity models. Total protein and albumin levels were raised, while SGPT, SGOT, cholesterol, and bilirubin were dramatically lowered. The extract effectively mopped up the harmful free radicals. However, a histological examination was also conducted in our investigation to determine the specifics of the damage caused by the hepatotoxic chemical and the plant’s potential to repair the hepatic structure. Several investigations have also shown that hepatoprotection is directly linked to antioxidant capacity. Molecular docking experiments investigated interactions with the active site of CYP450 2E1. By decreasing its expression, CYP2E1 prevents APAP bioactivation, decreasing NAPQI and protecting glutathione (GSH) levels. From the results, it is clear that to methanolic extract of A. deliciosa possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities.

32. Design and Discovery of Apigenin-based Drugs as a Potential Casein Kinase II Inhibitor for Breast Cancer through Hybrid In-silico Methods
Swati Pund, Asmita Tupe, Mayuri Dhande, Harshvardhan Panchal
This study investigates the potential of apigenin and derivatives as casein kinase II inhibitors for breast cancer treatment by a hybrid in-silico approach. Drug-drug transcriptomic similarity analysis reveals correlations with 17 drugs, guiding the identification of perturbagens with major transcriptional impressions. Transcriptional impact analysis across cell lines underscores apigenin’s dose-dependent influence on gene expression, particularly in breast cancer cells. Protein pre-preparation and molecular docking, refined by PDB REDO, showcase improved model quality and favorable binding affinities. Notable findings include apigenin’s potency as a CK2 inhibitor and promising compounds like dextromethorphan. Drug-drug transcriptomic similarity rankings identify potential candidates for further investigation. In conclusion, this integrated approach lays the groundwork for targeted therapies in breast cancer.

33. Unveiling the Therapeutic Potential of Syzygium cumini: A Network Pharmacology Exploration of Targets and Mechanisms
Siddartha Bethi, Jayashri Patil, Ujjwala Thube, Shubham Choudante
This study delves into the therapeutic potential of Syzygium cumini, a medicinal plant known for its rich bioactive compounds such as quercetin, myricetin, myrcene, and β-sitosterol. By using a network pharmacology approach, we aimed to uncover the mechanisms behind its pharmacological effects, especially concerning breast cancer management and its associated complications. Firstly, we conducted an extensive analysis of the bioactive compounds in S. cumini, identifying numerous molecules with potential therapeutic benefits. These compounds, recognized for their varied biological activities, provided a foundation for understanding the plant’s medicinal properties. Next, using network pharmacology techniques, we explored the complex interactions between these bioactive compounds and their potential targets within the human body. By mapping out these targets and disease-related genes, we built a network that illuminated the intricate mechanisms through which S. cumini exerts its effects. Particularly intriguing were the high-affinity interactions found, such as those between prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 and Cytochrome P450 Family 19 Subfamily A Member 1. These interactions are promising for targeted therapeutic interventions and warrant further investigation to fully understand their roles in disease modulation. Additionally, pathway analysis highlighted several key biological processes and signaling pathways involved in breast cancer pathogenesis. Metabolic pathways, estrogen signaling, and proteoglycans in cancer emerged as crucial pathways influenced by the bioactive compounds in S. cumini. Understanding how these pathways are modulated provides valuable insights into the plant’s potential effectiveness in breast cancer management. In summary, our study offers a deeper insight into the pharmacological properties of S. cumini and its potential application in breast cancer therapy. By elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind its therapeutic effects, we pave the way for further exploration and clinical development of this herbal remedy for breast cancer and its related complications.

34. Sickle Cell Anemia – A Societal and Clinical Challenge in a Wardha City
Khushi S Chaudhari, Mayur P Dhapkas, Rahul G Ingle
Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary blood disorder that poses significant clinical and societal challenges, predominantly affecting individuals globally. Clinically, it is marked by severe pain episodes, organ damage, heightened infection risk, and limited treatment options. These complications necessitate comprehensive, ongoing medical care. Societal challenges include healthcare disparities, stigma, psychosocial impacts, and barriers to education and employment. Addressing these issues in Wardha city requires improving access to specialized care, enhancing public awareness, investing in research for new treatments, and providing robust support systems for patients and caregivers. A multifaceted approach involving healthcare providers, researchers, policymakers, and communities is essential to effectively manage and mitigate the impacts of this debilitating disease.

35. Computational Assessment of Viscum album Flavanones as Androgen Receptor Inhibitors for Prostate Cancer by Molecular Docking Approach
Leena Pathak, Jayashri Patil, Mahesh Thorat, Manish Bhise
This study presents a computational assessment of Viscum album flavanones as potential inhibitors of the androgen receptor (AR) for prostate cancer treatment. Molecular docking techniques were employed to evaluate the binding affinities and interaction profiles of ten bioactive flavanones found in V. album within the AR binding site. Hesperidin exhibited the highest binding affinity (-9.0 kcal/mol), followed by neohesperidin and naringin with binding affinities of -8.9 and -8.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Key interactions, including hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic contacts, were identified, highlighting the therapeutic potential of these compounds as AR inhibitors. Additionally, other flavanones such as hesperetin, taxifolin, and naringenin showed substantial binding affinities, while eriodictyol, sakuranetin, pinocembrin, and isosakuranetin exhibited moderate affinities. These findings suggest that V. album flavanones may serve as promising candidates for further experimental validation and clinical investigation in prostate cancer therapy.

36. Moracin Flavonoids-based Virtual Screening Using Extended Reduced Graph Fingerprints Pharmacophore for COX-1 and PDES Targeting in Breast Cancer
Leena Pathak, Mahesh Thorat, Pranjal Gholap, Manish Bhise
In order to create successful treatments for breast cancer, it is crucial to understand the binding interactions between flavonoids and phosphodiesterase (PDEs) and cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1). This study uses computational methods to achieve just that. For the purpose of treating breast cancer, this study offers a thorough computational approach for finding possible COX-1 and PDEs inhibitors. Starting with the selection of bioactive compounds from the ChMBI database, the study makes use of a combination of pharmacophore-based and structural techniques. To perform molecular docking simulations with the indicated medicines, the PDB-REDO refined PDE4B2B and human COX-1 crystal structure were utilized. The binding affinities and interaction patterns of particular drugs with the COX-1 and PDEs are revealed by molecular docking simulations performed with the AutoDock program. The virtual screening results indicate that compounds with attractive interaction patterns, high binding affinities, and good structural compatibility could be good lead candidates. ADMET lab 2.0 tool for filtration was used to guarantee safety and effectiveness, offering information on the toxicity profile and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the chemical compound. Across numerous toxicity classes and endpoints, the chosen chemical, moracin C (C19H18O4), shows an anticipated inactivity and a largely good safety profile. Although immunotoxicity is anticipated, the overall low likelihood points to a comparatively modest risk. Moracin C has the potential to be developed into a medication, according to physicochemical and pharmacokinetic evaluations.

37. Revolutionizing HIV Treatment: Pioneering Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography for Emtricitabine, Dolutegravir, and Tenofovir Tablet Validation
A Venkata Suresh Babu, H K Sharma
An uncomplicated and precise method has come into existence for the simultaneous quantification of emtricitabine, dolutegravir, and tenofovir in solid dosage forms. The chromatographic analysis utilized a Hibar100 column (50×2.1 mm, 2 μm) with a mobile phase of 0.1% OPA and acetonitrile in a 60:40 v/v ratio at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, maintaining a temperature of 30°C. The perfected wavelength at 260.0 nm revealed retention times of 1.951, 1.180, and 1.584 minutes for dolutegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively.

38. Simultaneous Determination of Pyridoxine HCl, Isoniazid, Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole by Double Divisor Ratio Spectra Derivative Spectroscopic Method
Kush Prashant Kansara, Hiral Narendra Dave
Tuberculosis could be regarded as a serious and enduring menace to global health. A significant hurdle in tuberculosis treatment lies in drug resistance, including the emergence of multiple drug resistance. A regulatory agency has recently endorsed the fixed-dose combination of pyridoxine HCl, isoniazid, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole as a robust therapy for cases of tuberculosis resistant to multiple drugs. Therefore, a successful attempt was made to develop and validate a novel spectroscopic method, i.e., double deviation ratio spectra derivative spectroscopic method, for the simultaneous determination of pyridoxine HCl, Isoniazid, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole in their pure form. The optimized divisor concentration in the developed method was found to be a mixture of 6 μg/mL of sulfamethoxazole and 16 μg/mL of pyridoxine HCl for the determination of isoniazid and trimethoprim in the same quaternary mixture. Similarly, the optimized divisor concentration for the determination of sulfamethoxazole and pyridoxine HCl was found to be a mixture of isoniazid and trimethoprim with concentrations of 10 and 12 μg/mL, respectively. With the developed method, the linearity for pyridoxine HCl, isoniazid, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was found to be in the range of 8 to 40 μg/mL, 10 to 30 μg/mL, 12 to 36 μg/mL, and 4 to 12 μg/mL, respectively. The results of the accuracy study, in terms of percentage recovery, were found to be 99.92 ± 0.978, 100.04 ± 1.731, 99.87 ± 1.811, and 98.83 ± 0.922 for the simultaneous determination of pyridoxine HCl, isoniazid, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole, respectively, using the developed method. The developed method has been successfully validated as per the ICH guidelines.

39. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of New Substituted Thiazolidinones Bearing Triazole Moiety
Jawarkar S, Game MD
Series of thiazolidinone derivatives containing triazole moiety have been synthesized by condensing various substituted aldehydes to form Schiff bases which further reacts with thioglycolic acid undergoes ring condensation to form 3-(3-mercapto-5-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-2-substituted phenylthiazolidin-4-one followed by reaction with ethyl chloroacetate to form ethyl 2-((4-(2-subtituted phenyl-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl)-5-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio)acetate. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, fourier-tranform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for invitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. The results of synthesized compounds showed that T-III, T-IX, T-X, and T-XVIII have antimicrobial activity when compared to standard drugs. The compounds having p-bromo, p-chloro, p-methoxy and p-nitro groups showed potent antimicrobial agent.

40. A Network Pharmacology-based Approach to Explore Potential Targets and Mechanism of Berberis aristata Focusing on its Implications for Diabetes Mellitus
Siddartha Bethi, Jayashri Patil, Ujjwala Thube, Khushabu Patil
Berberis aristata, a revered medicinal shrub in traditional systems like Ayurveda, holds promise in managing diabetes mellitus, a burgeoning global health concern. Through a comprehensive analysis of its bioactive compounds and their interactions with potential targets, this study elucidates the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-diabetic effects. Screening through databases yielded 17 bioactive compounds, including rutin, quercetin, and berberine. Protein-protein interaction analysis identified 44 potential targets, with 36 genes overlapping with disease-related genes, indicating pivotal pathways in diabetes mellitus treatment. Further, pathway analysis highlighted G-protein coupled receptor signaling, calcium signaling, and neurotransmitter receptor activity as significant, with adjusted p-values. Network analysis revealed key hub genes like DRD1 and MMP2, emphasizing their central role in Berberis aristata’s therapeutic action. The findings underscore Berberis aristata’s potential as a source of novel anti-diabetic agents and offer groundwork for potential research in this field.

41. Dengue in Wardha City: Addressing Social and Clinical Challenges
Pooja K Ugemuge, Gaurav G Khandalkar, Rahul G Ingle
Dengue fever, a major public health concern in tropical and subtropical areas, is a critical issue in Wardha city. The purpose of this study was to analyze Wardha inhabitants’ awareness, knowledge, and habits about dengue illness. The survey, which took place between November 2023 and April 2024, used a structured questionnaire and was delivered to a representative sample of 50 participants from various wards of the city. The questionnaire inquired about respondents’ knowledge of dengue symptoms, mechanisms of transmission, preventative measures, and attitudes toward local dengue control initiatives. Preliminary data show that, while many locals are aware of dengue and its symptoms, there are significant gaps in knowledge about effective preventative techniques, as well as widespread misunderstandings regarding transmission. The poll also found that education level, social background, and access to health information had a substantial influence on awareness and preventative measures. Furthermore, the survey found diverse degrees of community engagement in dengue management operations, with many respondents advocating for more thorough and accessible teaching campaigns. These findings show the critical need for targeted educational initiatives and increased community engagement in Wardha city to improve dengue prevention and control. Public health experts and politicians are encouraged to use these findings to create and execute more effective, context-specific dengue control measures.

42. Unlocking Novel Therapeutic Avenues: Drug Repurposing and Virtual Screening for Breast Cancer Targeting the Estrogen Receptor
Vaibhavkumar Jagtap, Pooja Kakad, Jayprakash Suryawanshi, Nitinchandra Patil
This study explores the potential of drug repurposing for breast cancer therapy through virtual screening of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs against breast cancer-related targets. The estrogen receptor alpha ligand-binding domain, a key player in breast cancer progression, served as the primary target for virtual screening. Utilizing the DrugRep Virtual Screening Server and AutoDockVina, several compounds were identified with high binding affinities to the target protein. Notably, estradiol, benzhydrocodone, and ezetimibe emerged as top hits, showcasing diverse physicochemical properties and suggesting novel therapeutic possibilities. The structural fidelity of the estrogen receptor complex was validated through PDB-REDO refinement, enhancing the reliability of the binding interactions predicted. These findings underscore the potential of drug repurposing as a strategy for uncovering new therapeutic options in breast cancer treatment, warranting further biological validation and clinical exploration.

43. An Innovative HPTLC-based Approach for the Quantification of Withaferin A in Combinations of Herbal Compounds
Kunal Surwade, Md. Rageeb Md. Usman, Gautam Vadnere, Abhijit Raut
Withaferin A in herbal mixed dose forms was quantified utilizing a new destructive reagent that is quick, accurate, and economical. Toluene, ethyl acetate, and formic acid were mixed in a mobile phase with a ratio of 5:4:2 v/v/v, and separation was carried out at a detection wavelength of 254 nm. In accordance with ICH guidelines, the procedure was verified. A range of 90 to 630 ng/band was determined for the calibration. The method was validated in three separate experiments with varying concentrations of the standard additive. The limit of detection (LoD) of 2.43 ng and the limit of quantitation (LoQ) of 7.54 ng were noted. During system adaptability testing, %RSD was under 2. Using the same approach, unchanged, on nine different formulations proved the method’s separation and quantification efficiency.

44. Simultaneous Quantification of Dutasteride and Silodosin Using a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Approach
Parag Pathade, Madhuri Harde, Bhaskar Aher, Vinod Bairagi
An alternative stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) approach remained established to quantify silodosin (SLD) and dutasteride (DTS) in the mixture, validated per International Council of Harmonization (ICH) recommendations. A Shimadzu Model LC-2030 PLUS (IND) HPLC system, 231 nm detection wavelength, and 10 minutes run duration were used to create the method. A 75:25 mobile phase of methanol and water with 0.05% OPA was used at 1-mL/min. The concentrations of SLD (8–40 μg/mL) and DTS (0.5–2.5 μg/mL) were shown to be linearly related, with R2 values of 0.9998 for SLD and 0.9993 for DTS.

Both of the drugs had accuracy and precision within 2% RSD. SLD and DTS mean recoveries were 97.5 to 102%. According to ICH criteria, degradation trials with acid, alkali, oxidizing agent, and heat assessed the approach’s stability. The established approach is fast, accurate, sensitive, and precise for routine SLD and DTS analysis from bulk as well as pharmaceutical dosage forms.

45. Development and Validation of HPTLC for the Determination of Gefitinib HCl in Tablet Dosage Form
Premakumari KB, Meenashi Vanathi B, Ezhilarasan V, Harshal Tare
A simple, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method of gefitinib HCl in pharmaceutical formulation was developed. Separation was done on TLC aluminum plates precoated by silica gel 60GF254 (20 × 20 cm) with 200 μm layer depth. With UV detection set to 254 nm, chromatography was conceded out by the mobile phase of dichloromethane and methanol (9:1, v/v). Linearity was found to range of 50 to 300 ng/spot and, the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.99 and the Rf value was found to be 0.46. The system’s suitability was considered to ascertain the performance of ascertaining quality performance of the developed chromatographic method. The method’s accuracy, precision, and specificity were all verified against the International Council of Harmonization (ICH) standards. Application of the approach to the determination of gefitinib in tablet form was successful.

46. Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Achyranthes aspera in Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Investigation into its Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties
Satpathy Mrutyunjaya, Saini Vipin, Gupta Sumeet
This study examines the likely activity of Achyranthes aspera in the improvement of wound mending. A carrageenan-prompted intense provocative model was utilized to prompt irritation, and an extraction wound model was utilized to make wounds in rodents. Chronic administration of different extracts of A. aspera, counting ACAQ (extract aqueous at 200 and 400 mg/kg) and ACME (methyl extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg), initiated for a time of 14 days following injury creation. The application of various extracts of A. aspera was observed to have a moderating impact on inflammation and oxidative stress as well as a considerable ameliorating effect on wound healing. Medicinal herbs used for wound healing and skin illnesses are crucial to opening the doors to countering resistance of infections to medicines and allopathic management. Results of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing tests endorse the use of A. aspera for dermatological and wound healing purposes, indicating the necessity for additional studies to identify and isolate its active compounds. As demonstrated in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory and excision wound models, A. aspera may, therefore, contribute to the ongoing injuries by diminishing oxidative pressure and incendiary cytokines.

47. Development and Assessment of Phytosomes for the Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Gaurav Tiwari, Desu Brahma Srinivasa Rao, Gurinderdeep Singh, N G Raghavendra Rao
Phytosomes, a novel drug delivery system, have gained attention for their potential in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Polycystic ovaries, unpredictable menstrual cycles, and hormonal imbalances are the hallmarks of PCOS, a frequent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The main aim is to prepare and evaluate phytosomes for the treatment of PCOS. The materials used were Guggul from Commiphora mukul, berberine from Berberis vulgaris and green tea from Camellia sinensis. All the phytosomal formulations are prepared in ratios and further evaluated. Phytosomal screening confirms the presence of required phytosomes like alkaloids, tannins and saponins that are effective in treating PCOS. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) evaluation was performed and ex-vivo and sub-acute toxicity evaluation confirm that formulation, PY4: Soy lecithin at a 3:1 extract ratio exhibited a greater release profile without any harm. As per the findings of this study, employing optimized phytosome-based medication delivery as bio-enhancers may enhance the bioavailability of herbal extract.

48. RP-HPLC Method for Estimation of Caspofungin in Bulk and in Parenteral Dosage Form
Sachin Kadam, Ganesh Bhosale, Ankita Jorvekar, Harshal Tare
In order to more precisely and accurately estimate the antifungal medicine caspofungin and its parenteral dosage form, a new, straightforward, and cost-effective reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) technique has been created. The accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity, and reproducibility of the method for the measurement of caspofungin in used equipment were determined during the present study’s validation according to the International Council of Harmonization (ICH) criteria. Elution was accomplished using a CHEMSIL ODS-C18 (5μm) column in isocratic mode with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:ammonium acetate buffer at pH 4.8 (60:40%v/v). The mobile phase was pumped into the column at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the eluent was detected using a variable wavelength UV detector set at 210 nm. The column dimensions are 250 × 4.6 mm. The chromatogram for the optimized RP-HPLC method of caspofungin estimation had 28,99 theoretical plates (N) and a strong peak at a resolution time of 16,105 minutes. The thorough validation process led to the conclusion that the approach is stable and could be applied for the duration of the drug’s shelf life.

49. Analytical Method Development by Using UV-Spectrophotometer for Estimation of Valsartan in Bulk
Gayatri Dhobale, Saurabh Kanawade, Rupali Thorat, Shankar Dhobale, Harshal Tare
In order to accurately determine valsartan (API), this work aims to build a straightforward and exact UV spectroscopic approach. To improve sensitivity and accuracy, the procedure entails methodically optimizing experimental parameters, including solvent choice and wavelength selection. The produced stock solutions were tested for absorbance at 249 nm using a UV spectrophotometer. With %RSD values below 2% for both intra- and inter-day, the devised approach was determined to be quite accurate. At each additional concentration, the approach was shown to be accurate, yielding good drug recoveries ranging from 98 to 101%. The process was validated for linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision and limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) as per International Council of Harmonization (ICH) criteria. Its dependability for quantitative analysis of valsartan in pharmaceutical formulations was demonstrated. This UV spectroscopic approach offers a cost-effective and efficient alternative for routine quality control in pharmaceutical industries.

50. Fast and Sensitive Bioanalytical Method Development and Validation for Determination of Capmatinib in Human Plasma Using HPLC-MS/MS
Nameera Jabeen, M Akiful Haque
The term “anticancer drugs” evokes memories of a time when the development of medications in that category was still necessary. Capmatinib, for example, is a kinase inhibitor that targets the C-Met receptor tyrosine kinase in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, which involves tissue repair and organ regeneration.1 Thus, utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) in human plasma in accordance with United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) bioanalytical technique validation criteria, a quick, simple, specific, dependable, and sensitive approach was created using deucravacitinib as an internal standard. Capmatinib and the internal standard were separated using liquid-liquid extraction. The extracted sample run through a chromatographic system with an ACE-C18 column (4.6 × 100 mm, 5 μm); the mobile phase consisted of methanol and 2 mM ammonium formate in an 80:20 ratio at a flow rate of 1.00 mL/min. The system operates for three minutes in multiple reaction monitoring mode at the ABSCIEX API 4000 mass spectrometer using electron spray ionization. For capmatinib, the ion transitions are 413.10 to 382.10 and 426.30 to 358.20 for deucravacitinib, with a concentration range of 5.00 to 4000 ng/mL, the accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, and selectivity were validated and found to be within the acceptability limits.

51. An Innovative RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Montelukast and Ebastine in Tablet Formulations: Development, Validation, and Stability Assessment
E Leelavathy, SM Shaheedha
This study aimed to develop and validate an innovative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of montelukast sodium (MNK) and ebastine (EBA) in tablet formulations. Utilizing a Shimadzu LC2010CHT system with a Phenomenex Luna C18 column, the mobile phase consisted of ammonium acetate buffer, acetonitrile, and methanol in a 12:55:33 ratio, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 250 nm. Validation followed ICH guidelines, assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, and stability under various stress conditions. Both MNK and EBA showed excellent linearity within 16 to 24 μg/mL with correlation coefficients of 0.999. Accuracy was confirmed through recovery studies showing 98 to 102% mean recoveries. Precision was demonstrated with %RSD values below 2%. The method remained robust under slight variations in conditions, and stability studies indicated minimal degradation of both drugs. The developed RP-HPLC method proved rapid, precise, and robust for the simultaneous quantification of montelukast and ebastine in tablet formulations, demonstrating practicality and reliability for pharmaceutical quality control.

52. Psidium guajava Linn Leaves Extracts: A Potential Digestive Enzyme Inhibitor in the Treatment of Obesity
Shubhangi A Patil, Pratibha S Salve, Jyotiram A Sawale, Niranjan D Chivate
Obesity is a major worldwide problem and is associated with metabolic disorders, including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Many researchers focus on herbal plants rich with polyphenols are potent inhibitors of digestive enzymes and could be used as antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic and hence useful in obesity treatment. The present work deals with the determination of the inhibitory effect of Psidium guajava Linn (Guava) leaves extract on digestive enzymes. Our findings confirmed that guava leaf extracts inhibit two primary enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Similarly, investigated pancreatic lipase inhibition potential. The leaf extracts of P. guajava demonstrated significant anti-obesity properties by inhibiting key enzymes associated with obesity development. The aqueous extract exhibited pancreatic lipase inhibition ranging from 19.25 to 38.51%, while the methanolic extract showed inhibition between 22.96 to 46.66%. Additionally, the aqueous extract displayed α-amylase inhibition ranging from 43.10 to 62.06%, and the methanolic extract showed inhibition between 48.27 to 62.06%. Moreover, the aqueous extract demonstrated α-glucosidase inhibition between 13.11 to 49.18%, and the methanolic extract displayed inhibition ranging from 29.50 to 60.65% for 200 to 1000 μg/mL concentrations. The inhibitory activity observed was dose-dependent for all three enzymes.

53. Investigating the Analgesic Effect of Flavonoid Rich Fraction from Pteris quadriaurita: Evidence from In-silico, In-vitro and In-vivo Studies
Padmini Karnatham, Srikanth Jupudi, Sujatha Dodoala
Pteris quadriaurita, a highly significant underutilized plant species that was widely recognized for its ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal properties. The work aimed to estimate the flavonoid-rich fraction of P. quadriaurita (PQFRF), which was typically used to alleviate pain, for its antioxidant profile and associated analgesic effectiveness. In-silico molecular docking and PRIME MM-GB/SA studies were performed to analyze the binding pattern of nine bioactive substances identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The plant’s antioxidant activities were tested in-vitro using DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, Superoxide anion radical, and hydroxy radical scavenging tests. For in-vivo analgesic research, the hot plate model, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flicking models were utilised. PQFRF was found to be equipotent to the reference medication in the studied peripheral and central analgesic models at a maximal dose of 50 mg/kg.

54. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Investigations of Borassus flabellifer Linn. Flowers
Madhuri Patil Mohite, Hemant KS Yadav, Abhay Raizaday
Borassus flabellifer Linn. commonly known as palmyra pam. The main purpose of the present work was to conduct systematic investigation of various extracts of B. flabellifer. Linn. flowers. The flowers of B. flabellifer Linn. belonging to family Areaceae were collected from Pune district. Authenticated at Botanical Survey of Pune. In this study B. flabellifer. Linn. flowers were evaluated for morphological characteristics, powdered microscopy, pharmacognostic investigation, preliminary phytochemical investigation as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction, along with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and a hydro-alcoholic solvent. Flowers were also extracted by cold maceration. Morphologically flowers were showed a yellowish-brown color, sweet, pleasant taste. Powdered microscsopy was showed presence of fibres, vessels, crystals of calcium oxalate, starch grains. Pharmacognostic investigation shows foreign matter-Nil, total ash, water-soluble, acid-insoluble, sulphated ash was observed to be 3.5, 0.5, 0.5, 4.5%, respectively. LoD was found to be 4.6%. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water-soluble extractive values were observed to be 0.2, 2.6, 0.4, 5.8 and 7.6%, respectively. Fluorescence analysis was also done. Extract contains carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Present study could be helpful for the proper identification and further research work.

55. Simultaneous RP-HPLC Estimation, Validation and Stability Indicating Assay of Two-Component Tablet Formulation Containing Grazoprevir and Pibrentasvir
Nakka Srisailam, Narmada Vallakeerthi, Revathy Sundara Moorthy, Kavitha Marapakala
The determination of a two-component tablet formulation containing grazoprevir and pibrentasvir for method development and validation has been done using the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method as per International Council of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Analytical grade acetonitrile and 0.01 N of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer were used as mobile phase while Kromasil C18 column was opted for separation. In order to elute the analyte a flow rate of 1-mL/min having 260 nm λ has been maintained. An RT of 2.909 and 2.358 minutes while linearity concentration range from 25 to 150 μg/mL and 10 to 60 μg/mL was obtained for grazoprevir and pibrentasvir, respectively, with 4.4 resolution. Both had a high correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of quantification was 0.24 and 0.09 μg/mL, while the detection limit at 0.72 and 0.27 μg/mL was noticed for grazoprevir and pibrentasvir, respectively. For grazoprevir and pibrentasvir, the regression equation was determined to be y = 16332x + 5313.1 and y = 17261x + 601.95, correspondingly.

56. High Throughput LC-MS/MS Method for the Quantitation of Mefenamic Acid in Rat Plasma by Protein Precipitation Technique Using 96 Well Plate Format
Tummuru Bhanu Prakash, A Krishnamanjari Pawar, Beeram Geetha Madhuri
An advanced and validated high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach has been established to accurately determine the concentration of mefenamic acid in rat plasma. This method utilizes mefenamic acid D4 as the internal standard (ISTD). The analyte and ISTD underwent protein precipitation in a 96-well plate format and were then separated on a BDS Hypersil C8 column (3 μm, 100 x 4.6 mm) using a precise isocratic mobile phase of 2 mM ammonium formate by 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (30:70 v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing positive ionization consideration. The approach demonstrated a concentration range of 20.659 to 20067.772 ng/mL, thru relative regaining reaching from 69.1 to 74.3%. The inter-batch precision was excellent, with a coefficient of variation (%CV) of ≤ 7.8%. Additionally, the inter-batch accuracy at four different quality control-points ranged from 97.0 to 100.4%, demonstrating high levels of accuracy. This method has been thoroughly validated and is extremely specific, accurate, and precise. It is perfectly suited for high-throughput investigation of mefenamic acid in rat plasma, making it ideal for routine analysis.

57. A Study on In-vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula
Azmathullah R, Dhanalakshmi P, Gokul D, Sudhakar V
During ancient times, naturally occurring herbs were a remedy for various ailments in the human body. The deciduous trees of Terminalia species are native to south Asia to southeast China, known as black-chebulic myrobalan. Parts of Terminalia chebula are comprehensively used as medicinal properties. Antioxidants play a noteworthy role by hindering the oxidation reaction, which prompts neurodegenerative disorders in humans. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities originate from plants. T. chebula has lavish phytochemical properties such as tannins, flavones, essential oils, and phenolic compounds, which give rise to countless possessions like anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. The antioxidative capacity of T. chebula fruit aqueous extracts have been assessed using the DPPH scrutiny. The purpose of the study is to get an aqueous extract of T. chebula that contains anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds. The concentrations were measured by using absorbance at wavelength 517 nm. The aqueous extracts of T. chebula fruits were considered with a 10 to 50 mL range (5 concentrations). Using %inhibition, 55% at the lowest concentration (10 μL) and 84% at high concentration (50 μL) shows antioxidant activity. The active extracts of T. chebula fruits demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effects of using BSA as a reagent. This assay measured the activity using 5 concentrations (10–50 mL). 75% at 10 μL and 90% at 50 μL concentration attained the anti-inflammatory activity. The study exhibits that the higher the concentration, the higher the activity. The extraction of these active compounds has active principles and novel research activities on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

58. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Effervescent Granules of Rizatriptan Benzoate
Jadhav SJ, Gangurde AB, Jadhav JA
The present study describes the formulation and development of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) effervescent granules and compares its dissolution rate against the conventional rizatriptan benzoate tablets. Earlier, placebo-effervescent granules were prepared to optimize the concentration of citric acid, NaHCO3 and tartaric acid and its effect on CO2 content and effervescence time. Effervescent granules were prepared by direct sifting and blending of ingredients. Rizatriptan effervescent granules were prepared by the addition of RZB in the above-optimized placebo granule formula and evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. Later, the effervescent RZB granules were compared with the marketed RZB tablets for the dissolution rate. It was observed that RZB effervescent granules have the fastest dissolution rate compared with marketed RZB tablets. The optimized RZB effervescent granule formulation is quite superior to that of RZB conventional tablets to relieve the patients from migraine and the possible associated hyperacidity it.

59. Pharmacognostical Studies on the Leaves of Caesalpinia sappan Linn (Fabaceae)
Rasheed Ahmed, G Jeyabalan, Jeyaram Bharathi Jeyabalan
Botanical medicine, herbalism, and herbal medicine are all terms that describe the same practice. There are many different chemical compounds found in and produced by herb plants that have physiological effects. Traditional herbal medicine is an integral part of the medical systems of all indigenous peoples, including Ayurvedic, naturopathic, homeopathic, traditionally oriental, and native American Indian medicines. The amount and quality of medicinal components determine the medicinal plant’s therapeutic effectiveness. Misidentification is the first step in the unlawful use of plant-based materials or herbal remedies. Pharmacognostical studies of medicinal plants by proper standardization parameters ensures plant identification and authentication. Brazil, or Sappan wood, is a popular name for Caesalpinia sappan Linn., which belongs to the Fabaceae family. In Hindi, it is referred to as Bakam/Patang. The Malay Peninsula, Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam all have a long history of using the medicinal herb C. sappan Linn. heartwood is beneficial for Pitta, burning feelings, injuries, ulcers, leprosy, dermatological ailments, dysentery, diabetes, loose stool, and more, according to Ayurveda. The tree’s huge, decorative panicles of yellow blossoms are the reason it’s grown in gardens. The plant grows rapidly after being produced from seed. Cultivated throughout every region of tropical Asia, this spreading shrub or tree may reach a height of 10 m. It is native to and exists in the wild in places like the southern part of India, the West Bengal region, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Malaya, as well as Sri Lanka. The wood has an especially smooth, uniform appearance, is somewhat massive, and has a strong, orange-red color. Its grain is straight. Branchlets, pubescent and rufous, equipped with tiny prickles. Pinnae are 9 to 14 pairs in number. Leaves are big, hairy to glabrous, and have little prickles at the base and leaflets are subsessile, oblong, membranous, and obliquely truncate, with 10 to 20 pairs per pinna. Primarily, it promotes blood flow and acts as an analgesic, emmenagogue, hemostatic, and anti-inflammatory in traditional Chinese medicine for traumatic diseases. One of the ingredients of the world-famous Indian toothpaste and powder Vicco-Vajradanti is the wood of the C. sappan Linn Tree. Some research suggests that C. sappan Linn. may have antidiabetic effects. The flavonoid of C. sappan Linn. wood extract is protosappanin, Brazilin, and gallic acid compounds. Brazilin has a mechanism of action to increase the production of fructose 2,6 bisphosphate and hexose six phosphate. Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate in the metabolic process has a role in regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Increased fructose 2,6 bisphosphate in a state of hyperglycemia will stimulate the process of glucose breakdown (glycolysis) by activating phosphofructokinase 1 intended for the purpose of can be a reduction in blood glucose levels in body. This paper deals with the morphological studies and microscopical studies carried out on the leaves of C. sappan Linn according to the World Health Organization (WHO) accepted parameter for the identification of medicinal plants. For a better understanding of structure, zooming in using a Zeiss Axio Cam Erc5s digital camera and a Nikon ECLIPSE-E200 trinocular microscope under strong field lighting also employed.

60. A Comprehensive Report on the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method Development and Validation for Quantifying Cabotegravir in K3EDTA-Human Plasma, Employing Cabotegravir-D5 as an Internal Standard
Sandhya Pilli, Sri Nataraj Kalakonda, Vijayalakshmi Rajendran
Aiming to comprehend the plasma concentration of cabotegravir, a meticulously crafted bioanalytical method, aligned with the guidelines set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), was devised and validated. This involved the utilization of cabotegravir D5 as an isotopic internal standard. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and 5 mM ammonium acetate in water, in an 80:20 ratio, v/v—Zorbax SB-C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) served as the chromatographic column. Cabotegravir and cabotegravir D5 were identified using proton adducts at m/z 409.20/370.20 and 409.20/144.8, respectively, employing the positive mode multiple reaction monitoring. Cabotegravir exhibited linearity within concentration ranges of 2 to 1000 ng/mL (r2 = 0.999). The recovery of cabotegravir from plasma by Liquid-liquid extraction yielded an average %CV of 7.71 at four quality control levels. Intra-day precision displayed accuracy of 100, 106, 97, 97, and 103%, respectively, whereas accuracy for inter-day precision was 100, 103, 98, 100, and 100% across LLQC, LQC, MQC-1, MQC-2, and HQC levels. The stability of cabotegravir remained consistent under diverse conditions, including five freeze-thaw cycles, benchtop, autosampler, and short-term, and long-term storage. This evaluation verifies that the method aligns with predefined acceptance limits and positions it as an indispensable tool in bioanalysis, significantly expanding its clinical utility.

61. Optimized Extraction and Characterization of Allicin from Snow Mountain Garlic and its Anticancer Potential via Allicin-loaded CuO Nanoparticles
Tufail Dana, Amjad Khan Pathan, Sufiyan Ahmad
This study aimed to optimize the extraction and purification of allicin and to characterize allicin-loaded CuO nanoparticles for potential anticancer applications. Initially, various solvents, including MilliQ water, methanol at different concentrations, and phosphate buffer at varying pH levels, were tested to maximize the yield and purity of allicin. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by measuring the absorbance at 244 nm using UV spectrophotometry. The highest extraction efficiency was achieved with MilliQ water (0.92 ± 0.03) and 40% methanol (0.89 ± 0.05). Additionally, phosphate buffer pH 2.5 in 40% methanol also demonstrated good efficiency (0.86 ± 0.04). Following extraction, the allicin was purified using a glass column to remove impurities, ensuring a high degree of purity for subsequent applications. The chemical structure and purity of the purified allicin were confirmed using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To enhance the stability and bioavailability of allicin, allicin-loaded CuO nanoparticles were formulated. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed a mean particle size of 125 nm, while zeta potential measurements indicated a surface charge of -21.74 mV, suggesting good stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided detailed insights into the morphology and structure of the nanoparticles. The successful optimization of allicin extraction and purification, coupled with the characterization of allicin-loaded nanoparticles, paves the way for their potential application in cancer therapy. The enhanced stability and bioavailability of allicin through nanoparticle formulation hold promise for improving its therapeutic efficacy against cancer. Further studies are warranted to explore the anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in biological systems.

62. An Overview of Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Promising Herbal Remedy for Alzheimer’s Disease
Rahul V Jodh, Pravin Kawtikwar, Ujwal Vyas, Samiksha Khobragade
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease that gradually reduces a person’s ability to think clearly, remember things, and even carry out simple cognitive tasks. It is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. Although the exact cause is still unknown, genetic factors account for 5 to 10% of instances having a family origin. The damage leads to significant degeneration of the afflicted areas, resulting in memory loss, impaired capacity to acquire new knowledge, fluctuations in mood, difficulties in cognitive functioning, and an inability to do basic everyday tasks. However, it is still commonly acknowledged as the primary reason of dementia worldwide. The two chief pathological landscapes of AD are the build-up of substances outside the cells and the formation of twisted fibers within the cells, known as neurofibrillary tangles. Accumulation of Aβ amyloid (Aβ) initiates neurodegeneration, leading to the development of clinical dementia, which is a defining feature of AD.

63. The Importance of Pharmacovigilance in the Polyherbal Sector: Challenges and Future Potential
Divyanshi Gupta, Puneet Sudan, Mohd Imran, Ankita Wal
Pharmacovigilance is crucial in ensuring the safety and potency of polyherbal products, as many have not been extensively evaluated for their pharmacology and toxicity. With the increasing popularity of polyherbal medications, there has been a rise in complaints of probable toxicity and adverse outcomes. This study investigates the importance of pharmacovigilance in the polyherbal sector and examines its challenges and future potential. Data was collected from various databases from 2000-2024. Pharmacovigilance has become a key domain in medicine and public health, with a significant portion of India’s population relying on Indian medical systems. The study highlights the importance of implementing pharmacovigilance procedures for polyherbal medications, promoting rational use and appropriate treatment methods. Polyherbal drugs may have negative interactions with other medications, foods, biologicals, and compounds, leading to decreased therapeutic efficacy, undesirable side effects, and severe complications. Systematic pharmacovigilance is necessary to collect accurate data and develop guidelines for safe and effective use.

64. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potential of Andropogon muricatus: A Review
Samiksha Khobragade, Tayyaba S Ali, Ankit Kediya, Bhushan Gandhare
Many medicinal plants have been utilized as medications since ages ago. Chemical components extracted from such plants have been used historically in traditional Unani medicine, the Siddha and other medical systems for a variety of ailments. Among them is Andropogon muricatus, a member of the family Poaceae, better known by its common name, vetiver. It contains a variety of organic components with significant therapeutic benefits for a range of illnesses, including mosquito repellent, anxiolytic, acaricidal, hypoglycaemic, antidepressant, antidiuretic, sedative, antifungal, and nervine effects. This plant’s roots serve as cooling. When it comes to oil extraction—which is used in food and beverages, spas, home appliances, and medicine—root systems are the most valuable parts of the plant. It is indigenous in Bangladesh, China, Japan, the Bonin Islands, Nepal, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka in the Asian continent. Australia and Spain were first exposed to it in Europe and Oceania. Substances of a chemical nature that have been extracted from the plant’s overall various sections have previously been the subject of numerous pharmacologic and medicinal studies.

65. Multidimensional Perspectives on Psoriasis Treatment: Current State and Future Directions
Vandana Raj Thalathoti, Santh Rani Thakur
Millions of people are afflicted with psoriasis, which is a chronic inflammatory skin disease throughout the world. Despite modern treatments for psoriasis remain unmet needs and challenges in achieving optimal results. This review article aims to present a multidimensional view of the research and therapy for psoriasis, which encompasses not only the cellular and molecular mechanisms but also the network pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine, novel therapeutic targets and strategies as well as autophagy plays a role on psoriasis pathogenesis or treatment. At the same time discussion on bimekizumab, once was declared an initial proof of concept biological agent that acts by both inhibiting interleukin-17 A and F (two cytokines slightly different) in psoriasis.

66. Mental Disorders – A Serious Global Concern that Needs to Address
Khushi S Chaudhari, Mayur P Dhapkas, Amit Kumar, Rahul G Ingle
A major global health concern that affects millions of individuals globally is mental illness. Recent estimates place the number of people with mental or behavioral disorders at 450 million worldwide, making up over 12% of all diseases (Friedrich, 2017). These issues include substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, and concern disorders, among many other conditions. It is projected that 322 million people worldwide, or 4.4% of the total population, suffer from depression alone. These figures were featured in the report “Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates,” released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2017. The prevalence of anxiety disorders, which currently affect 260 million individuals worldwide, or 3.6% of the total population, is another topic covered in the report. The consequences of mental diseases are prevalent in low and mid-income countries as well; they are not exclusive to high-income ones. According to the report, mental health issues are rising in these countries.

67. Developments in the Green Synthesis of Medicinal Nanoparticles: From Benign Solvents to Bio-assisted Sources
Gulrana Khuwaja
This review explores the advancements in green synthesis methodologies, focusing on the utilization of bio-assisted sources and benign solvents for the production of pharmaceutical nanoparticles. We discuss the significance of solvent systems in synthesis processes and highlight water as an ideal and accessible solvent. Various examples of nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous media are presented, including gold and silver nanoparticles produced via laser ablation. Additionally, we delve into the emerging field of “green” synthesis, which encompasses routes utilizing water as a solvent system and natural sources/extracts as primary components. Notably, ionic liquids are discussed as promising solvents for nanoparticle synthesis, offering unique advantages such as tunable properties and broad temperature ranges. Furthermore, the potential of supercritical fluids, particularly carbon dioxide and water, as solvent systems for nanoparticle synthesis is explored. Nanoparticles have numerous uses in the pharmaceutical and medical industries. We hope to shed light on environmentally acceptable and sustainable methods for synthesizing nanoparticles with this thorough review.

68. Drug Diversion: Could be a Serious Concern in Global Healthcare System
Mayur P Dhapkas, Khushi S Chaudhari, Amit Kumar, Rahul G Ingle
Prescription drug diversion is a significant $25 billion-a-year problem in the US. Diversion can occur at any stage of the medicine delivery process, from manufacturing to the patient. Common diversion methods include illegal selling by doctors/pharmacists, “doctor shopping,” theft/forgery of prescriptions, and burglaries/thefts. Emerging diversion methods include theft by healthcare workers, fraud involving insurance, and theft from medicine cabinets. The main sources of diverted medications are at the practitioner-patient level, such as through “doctor shopping” and friends/family sharing prescriptions. Diversion from healthcare settings like hospitals accounts for a smaller proportion, though the exact extent is difficult to quantify. Some diversion occurs through theft from pharmacies, manufacturers, and supply chain points, but this makes up a relatively small percentage. Healthcare providers who engage in drug diversion have been linked to infectious disease outbreaks in hospitals, exposing patients to pathogens like hepatitis C. Intelligent systems and machine learning can help rapidly detect diversion anomalies. Comprehensive solutions are needed, including policy reforms, communication strategies, and a public health approach.

69. Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Combatting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Infections: A Comprehensive Review
Mujibullah Sheikh, Gaurav Mude
Innovative strategies are required to address this worldwide dilemma since the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial illnesses presents a serious danger to public health. The environmentally benign and sustainable process of green synthesis of nanoparticles has drawn interest as a means of creating antibacterial nanomaterials. This thorough analysis looks at the most recent developments in creating nanoparticles that fight bacterial illnesses resistant to antibiotics by using green production processes. In order to create nanoparticles with increased antimicrobial activity, the study highlights the efficacy of many green synthesis techniques, including the use of plant extracts, microbial sources, and other natural materials. The study also looks at these green-synthesized nanoparticles’ methods of action against bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and their therapeutic uses. Through the synthesis of nanoparticles utilizing environmentally friendly methods, this study seeks to combat antibiotic resistance by offering a comprehensive overview of the existing research landscape and encouraging the development of innovative solutions.

70. Virtual Reality Therapy Could be a Promising Alternative for Anxiety – A Review
Rahul V Jodh, Pravin Kawtikwar, Ankita P Kawtikwar, Samiksha Khobragade
Anxiety disorders are the major mental illnesses globally, characterized by a persistent and variable clinical course. These disorders probably have a severe impact on a person’s ability to function personally, socially, and professionally. A person suffering from such disorders could affect the standard of living. Anxiety disorders are classified within the vague category of neurotic illnesses. General disorders such as apprehension, fearfulness, restlessness, and agoraphobia are among the current categories of anxiety disorders. Anxiety is advantageous from an evolutionary standpoint since it promotes survival by motivating individuals to avoid hazardous environments. The frequency of symptoms associated with anxiety that are associated with each other is around 2 to 4% in the general population, and it may rise up to 20% with non-psychotic conditions. Then present systematic review aims to assess virtual reality therapy’s (VRT) effectiveness in treating anxiety disorders. Our aim is to highlight the existing research to ascertain the effectiveness of VRT in alleviating symptoms of anxiety as well as its possible advantages and constraints in comparison to conventional therapeutic approaches. The review will further explore the fundamental mechanics of VRT and pinpoint any lacuna in the existing literature that necessitates more attention. Furthermore, these reviews are significant because they provide insightful information about how VRT could be used to treat anxiety and evaluate the effectiveness of VRT as a therapeutic intervention.

71. Enhancing Security, Transparency, and Efficiency of Blockchain Technology in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
Gaurav Tiwari, Pradeepa Channakkalavara, Gurinderdeep Singh, Prakash Nathaniel Kumar Sarella
Blockchain technology has emerged as a promising solution to address persistent challenges like lack of transparency, inefficient tracking, and counterfeiting issues in pharmaceutical supply chains. However, there are still limitations in integrating blockchain with existing legacy systems, lack of common standards, scalability concerns due to its decentralized architecture, and lack of regulatory clarity that need to be addressed before successful implementation in the pharmaceutical industry is feasible. This review explores the potential benefits and current use cases of blockchain in enabling drug traceability, establishing authenticity and integrity of data, facilitating smart contracts for seamless financial transactions, and optimizing overall supply chain operations. The current blockchain-based solutions employed by various stakeholders like drug manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, retailers, hospitals, and regulators across the different stages of the pharmaceutical value chain are reviewed in this article. Recent research efforts to mitigate the key challenges are discussed, including technical improvements in blockchain architecture for increased security and privacy, the use of permissioned blockchains, innovative consensus protocols to improve scalability, and growing regulatory guidance. The future outlook highlights the tremendous opportunities for blockchain to enable end-to-end visibility, accountability, automation, real-time monitoring and combating counterfeiting in pharmaceutical supply chains through collaborative efforts among stakeholders.

72. Artificial Intelligence Could be the Personalized Treatment Strategy for Cancer
Pooja K Ugemuge, Gaurav G Khandalkar, Rahul G Ingle
Cancer is one of the world’s most serious medical challenges. Because of its great heterogeneity, persons with similar tumors could react in a different way to the same drugs or surgical methods, prompting the development of more accurate tumor treatment approaches as well as patient-specific tailored treatments. To establish targeted therapy choices for patients, it is critical to have a full acceptance of the changes that tumors endure, counting modifications in their genetic factors, proteins, and cancer cell behaviors. Tumor treatment requires precise targeting. Big data-driven artificial intelligence (AI) may reveal patterns, insights, and related information hidden inside huge volumes of data. To identify exact data from transcriptomics, radiomics, genomes, proteomics, digital pathological images, etc., subsets of AI’s machine learning capability may be explored. This may help clinicians get a better and more comprehensive knowledge of malignancies. In addition, to provides the optimal therapy for each patient and improves clinical outcomes.

73. Formulation, Development and Characterization of Oral Jelly to Improve Therapeutic Effectiveness
Khade Komal, Kulkarni Nilesh, Bhamare Vaibhav, Amrutkar Rakesh
The oral route is the most convenient and has great effectiveness in taking new chemical entities; hence it has improved patient acceptance. However, the main limitations associated with such formulations involve unpleasant or bitter taste as well as problems related to swallowing and reduced bioavailability of chemical entities. When it comes to children, the main limitation is they cannot safely swallow the medications in the form of tablets and capsules. But kids, even those without teeth, can swallow the jelly easily. As in the development of new dosage forms for every child, taste, color, smell, texture, and appearance are important factors in improving patient compliance. Children refuse to tolerate the same medication again, which becomes a big problem for parents trying to take the medication. An effective way to solve such types of problems involves the production of children’s friendly dosage formulations with attractive and eye catching taste, smell, color as well as texture. The most identical characteristic of oral jelly as dosage form is that it are easy to chew and dissolves rapidly in saliva so no water is required. Moreover, the good texture and appearance make it easy to attract patients as well as to improve patient compliance. Above all, it provides a soft and beautiful texture, causing no discomfort to patients.

74. Natural Products Could be a Promising Remedy against Biofilm-Forming Bacteria
Gaurav G Khandalkar, Pooja K Ugemuge, Rahul G Ingle
A biofilm is a typical form of naturally occurring bacterial development. Biofilm development could be responsible for developing resistance to harmful environmental conditions, such as developing immunity to antibiotics, medicine and other antibacterial agents (e.g., methicillin, vancomycin, etc). The quorum sensing (QS) process is essential for biofilm development and for preserving environmental equilibrium when bacterial numbers increase. Finding novel antibacterial medications that can regulate the development and expansion of biofilms is imperative because these structures are closely related to the appearance of multidrug and extended drug (e.g., tuberculosis) resistance and infectious illnesses. Natural plant-based chemicals have been found in an increasing amount of studies over the past 20 years to have antibacterial and chemo-preventive properties in the parameter of biofilm growth. The present article will include some herbs with unknown bioactive ingredients or unclear processes, as well as current findings on the identification of natural anti-biofilm chemicals from plants with known molecular addresses or mechanisms. The authors are also focused on developing techniques for locating and isolating naturally occurring anti-biofilm agents. Anti-biofilm treatments awaiting clinical trials are also reviewed. The currently identified natural anti-biofilm compounds are auspicious and may present novel therapeutic strategies for biofilm-associated illnesses.

75. Therapeutic Approaches for Treatment and Management of Depressive Disorder: A Comprehensive Review
Archana Panigrahy, Shakti Ketan Prusty, Jajnadatta Panda
Depression, which is associated with high levels of cognitive and functional activity, melancholy, reduced activity, difficulty understanding, failure to focus, dietary abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and emotions of feelings of sadness, suicidal thoughts, and lack of hope are symptoms of a psychoneurotic disorder. It is a common and recurring disorder with a high morbidity and death rate throughout the world. Despite advances in depression treatment, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), there remain several unmet clinical requirements in terms of effectiveness and adverse effects. These requirements range from enhanced to decreased side effects like emesis and erectile problems in treatment-resistant patients. There are a variety of combination therapies available to meet these needs. Several combination medicines and novel strategies have been found, all of which have the potential to improve one or so more areas. The kinds of targets and methods being used are extremely diverse. Therapeutic approaches, on the one hand, provide the benefits of SSRIs while including alternative routes in an attempt to improve efficacy or reduce undesirable effects. Neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF) are more novel targets on the other end of the spectrum, based on the most recent research suggesting antidepressants enhance neurogenesis. Antidepressants act by blocking many proteins, such as neurotransmitter transporters and G-protein coupled receptor families, in the brain. Some of the computational approaches that are useful for uncovering drug action mechanisms and are important for drug development are molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and drug candidates.

76. Exploring the Pharmacological Potential of Fisetin: A Comprehensive Review
Umesh B Telrandhe, Vaishnavi S Shete, Sunita N Vaidya
Fisetin, a hydrophobic polyphenolic molecule, is a naturally occurring flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables. The popularity of fisetin comes mainly from its many different medical uses. Known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, fisetin is likely to be useful in the treatment of just about any inflammatory disease. Its ability to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) and encourage tumor regression is another key reason fisetin’s anti-cancer effects are so striking Furthermore, fisetin has excellent antibacterial capabilities, its spectrum encompassing all kinds of bugs: bacteria, viruses of many types and fungi. Notably, fisetin also exhibits neuroprotective and cardioprotective attributes, making it a compound of significant interest for multiple health-related applications. It also shows promise in controlling diabetes and shielding the skin from UV ray damage. Preclinical research has suggested the effectiveness of fisetin, but further investigation, including clinical trials, is necessary to confirm its safety and effectiveness in humans. Furthermore, this review would benefit future studies on fisetin’s therapeutic potential.

77. Cognitive Factors Leading to Human Error: A Major Contributing Factor for Quality Deviations in Pharmaceutical Industry
Sudheer Moorkoth, Ranjani Nayak, Srinivasa B N, Shivani Kunkalienka
The pharmaceutical sector is one of the top research-based sectors in the world which continuously produces new medications that improve and save human lives. Patients, as well as healthcare professionals depend on pharmaceutical companies for the treatment of ailments, so it is very important to develop a good quality product following Good manufacturing practices guidelines that ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of the product. Human cognitive errors are a major cause of quality deviations. These quality deviations result in product recalls, a ban on products by regulators where the company’s reputation will be tarnished which can result in loss of sales and revenue. Human errors can be identified and mitigated by various techniques. In this paper, we discuss the factors contributing to cognitive errors, the impact of cognitive errors on the pharmaceutical industry, the identification of the cognitive errors causing current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) deviations, and challenges in the mitigation of cognitive errors. A survey questionnaire and the form human error assessment and reduction technique (HEART) tool were also developed and discussed in the manuscript.

78.  Review on Exploration of Phytomolecules in the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer
Rahul V Jodh, Pravin Kawtikwar, Ankita P Kawtikwar, Samiksha Khobragade
Peptic ulcers are defined as the presence of destructions on the mucosa of the gastrointestinal system, which might extend to the muscular layer. Their origin is complex and arises when there is a disruption in the equilibrium between the elements that cause harm and those that protect the mucosa. Peptic ulcers are a significant international health issue, impacting millions of individuals and exhibitingelevated recurrence rates. The enormous range of structural diversity and unique biological activity exhibited by natural products has significantly contributed to the creation and discovery of novel medications. An exhaustive analysis on the investigation of phytomolecules in the management of gastricabscess might offer important considerate of the existing data regarding the utilization of these compounds. This review may analyze and combine the results of several research to discover potential of phytomolecules, explain how they work, and evaluate their safety and effectiveness. This data can contribute to the advancement of efficacious and secure therapeutic alternatives for peptic ulcer. By advocating for the utilization of natural therapies and plant-based medications, the aim is to enhance the health results of individuals suffering from peptic ulcer.

79. Compilation of Scientific Data for Newly CDSCO-Approved Antidiabetic Drugs in Last Five Years: A Review
Archita Tiwari, Bharat Mishra, Shrishti Mishra
Diabetes is a substantial medical problem that is increasing globally due to a rise in sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy eating habits, and obesity rates. There is a tight relationship between diabetes with obesity. Several epidemiological studies suggested that 80% of T2D patients are obese or overweight. Indeed, the immune system assaults the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin in T1D, an autoimmune disease. High blood sugar levels occur when the body generates very little insulin. is frequently linked to unhealthy habits, including not getting enough exercise, eating poorly, and being overweight. Heart disease, diabetic neuropathy, kidney problems, ketoacidosis, and nerve damage are only some of the many health consequences that are more common with both types. Antidiabetic drugs like metformin can be used to lower the blood glucose level. Sulfonylureas, glinides, and thiazolidinediones are some most common oral antidiabetics (OADs), and for newly analyzed type 2 diabetes, glucosidase inhibitors are cost-effective strategies to improve glycaemic control. As a second line of defense against T2D, you may be prescribed an enzyme inhibitor (DPP-4i), an inhibitor of renal SGLT-2i, or an agonist for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Poor adherence to oral antidiabetic medication regimens is associated with therapy failure and other consequences in patients with type 2 diabetes, which is a collective medical problem. Acarbose, miglitol, alogliptin, sitagliptin, sitagliptin-metformin, tirzepatide, liraglutide, nateglinide, rapeglinide, dopagliflozin, empagliflozin-metformin, glipizide-metformin, glimepiride-pioglitazone, glipizide, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone-alogliptin, and pioglitazone-metformin, among other antidiabetic medications, have been approved for use in India by CDSCO. All across the world, regulatory bodies are in charge of making sure that pharmaceuticals are safe, effective, and up to par at every stage of the drug lifecycle, from development to manufacture to marketing. Their job is to keep the public healthy.

80. A Promising Nature Gift Acalypha hispida: A Review
Rahul V Jodh, Pravin Kawtikwar, Ankita P Kawtikwar, Samiksha Khobragade
Acalypha hispida is classified within the taxonomic family Euphorbiaceae. It is a tropical shrub and an annual plant that is colloquially referred to as the chenille plant or Red hot cat tail. The species under consideration is indigenous to the southern Pacific region, specifically the Malay Archipelago and many islands within the East Indies. The plant is frequently used as a decorative element in outdoor and indoor settings. Historically, the leaves have been recognized for their laxative and diuretic properties and employed in the therapeutic management of leprosy and gonorrhea. Various plant components are additionally employed in treating infectious diarrhea respiratory ailments and as an expectorant for asthma. A. hispida has been documented to possess many pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, antifungal, trypanocidal, and cytotoxic effects. The analysis of A. hispida provides a comprehensive overview of its pharmacological properties, chemical composition, biological effects, and toxicological investigation. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the research conducted on the plant, aiming to provide current and relevant information for future investigations.

81. Revolutionizing Wound Healing: The Rise of Electrospinning Nanofibers for Bioactive Dressings
Jajnadatta Panda, Abhisek Pal, Pritipadma Panda, Archana Panigrahy
A noticeable focus in recent years has been on creating bioactive dressings that are tailored to meet the requirements of wounds that are both acute and chronic. Because of these exceptional properties, electrospinning nanofibers stand out as a potential choice among the creative solutions being investigated. Among these are very high porosity and superior permeability to water and air, both of which are essential for promoting wound healing conditions. Moreover, these nanofibers’ ability to ward against foreign infections makes them an attractive option for improving wound care protocols. It is particularly notable because they closely mimic the extracellular matrix since this property can greatly enhance the efficacy of skin regeneration and wound healing processes. The present study aimed to explore the use of electrospinning nanofibers for bioactive dressings and wound healing. Extensive literature search was performed and relevant articles were collected from various databases like Google scholar, Taylor and Francis, Science direct, Springer, Embase, and Willey. Electrospinning nanofiber applications for the bioactive healing of wounds. The investigation begins with a comprehensive review of the wound healing procedure and the several electrospinning techniques used here. The many natural and synthetic polymers that are used to make electrospinning wound dressings are discussed in more detail. Prominent natural polymers, including hyaluronic acid, collagen, gelatin, silk fibroin, chitosan, and sodium alginate, are emphasized due to their special qualities and possible advantages in wound treatment. Furthermore, the paper explores the wide application of artificial polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene lactone, polylactide, and polyurethane, providing insight into their roles in the advancement of sophisticated wound dressings. In conclusion, the development of electrospinning technology offers promising prospects for creating improved wound care products and dressings that have the potential to completely transform the wound management industry.

82. Advancements in Urolithiasis Treatment: Current Strategies, Future Challenges, and Integrating Traditional Wisdom into Modern Medicine:A Review
Bhupendra Kumar, Preeti Kothiyal, Sayantan Mukhopadhyay
Urolithiasis, the formation of urinary tract stones, remains a prevalent and painful condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. This article explores the current treatment strategies for urolithiasis, including minimally invasive procedures, dietary modifications, and pharmacological interventions. We also address the ongoing challenges in managing this condition, such as the high recurrence rates and potential complications. Looking to the future, we examine the prospects for innovative technologies, including targeted drug delivery and personalized medicine approaches, to enhance urolithiasis treatment. Furthermore, we discuss the promising potential of integrating traditional knowledge and remedies from various cultures into the modern medical system. This integration not only offers new avenues for preventive and curative therapies but also underscores the importance of preserving and respecting the wisdom of traditional healing practices. By exploring both established and emerging treatment options and considering the implementation of traditional knowledge, this article provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of urolithiasis management, future challenges, and potential solutions. It emphasizes the need for a holistic approach that combines the best of modern medicine with the insights of traditional healing systems to improve the quality of care for urolithiasis patients.

83. Fordyce Spot Symptoms and Treatment: An Updated Review
Pranay Wal, Ramkumar Pillappan, Sudha Unmesh Puri, Sourabh Kosey
Fordyce granules occur frequently, and most people consider their quality to be a typical variation of the oral mucosa. The multiple yellow granules that primarily show up in the lower lip are a clear sign of Fordyce granules, a type of benign ectopic sebaceous gland. Most often, it affects adult males. Although it has been proven that such glands have been there since the time you were born, their tubes flow directly onto the skin’s surface. When they develop as a consequence of steroid hormones released by the gonadal and adrenal glands, they are not visible until pubescence. Around 70 to 80% of the population are adults. A comprehensive analysis of the literature search was conducted. A number of databases have been searched using the common terms “sebaceous glands,” “oral mucosa”, “Fordyce patches”, “Fordyce granules,” “Fordyce spots,” and “Fordyce glands” using Science Direct, Springer PubMed and Google Scholar as search engines. We have focused on the reviews and research papers published between 2001 and 2024. Although they are a common occurrence in the body, they are not connected to any disease or condition and are not contagious. They can be treated with isotretinoin, picrolimus, 5-aminolaevulinic acid, CO2 laser therapy, and micropuncture therapy. Hormonal fluctuations, greasy sebaceous glands, and hyperlipidemia bring on Fordyce spots. This is a rare but serious condition that causes lesions on the skin’s surface along with pain and discomfort in the affected part of the body.

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