International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Iraqi Patients with Liver Diseases
Rawaa S. Abdullah, Israa K. Al-Aubaidi
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic protozoan disease that causes a variety of clinical illnesses, most cases are asymptomatic, and some cause severe problems. The present study was aimed to highlight the relationship between toxoplasmosis and different liver diseases, this study consists of 204 samples of patients suffering from liver disease. Tow diagnostic tests were applied Toxo IgG/IgM rapid cassette test and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, some liver enzymes levels were measured Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum of study samples. Important epidemiological risk factors were also detected. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis by using Toxo IgG/IgM rapid cassette test were 50 positive cases with liver disease in 24.5% for IgG antibody, and negative cases were 154 (75.49%) with significant differences. All results were negative for IgM antibodies. ELISA test results were Toxoplasma IgG antibody found in 49 cases with 24% percentage in liver disease patient and 8 positive cases were detected for IgM antibody. Significant elevation of some liver enzyme activities was noticed in patients of Liver disease infected with toxoplasmosis compared with the control group. Positive cases in males were 48.71% and 51.28% in females. High rates of seropositive cases were 43.5% in housemaker patients. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was high in HBV patients, 42.30%.

2. Hepatoprotective Effect of Lallemantia Royleana Seeds Extract Against Rifadin Toxicity in Male Albino Mice
Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Saif Y. Hasan
The study aimed to highlight the protective effect of Lallemantia royleana seed extract (Balangu) in protecting the liver against the toxicity of Rifadin. The study was conducted on the male Swiss albino mice (40 mice), aged 5 to 8 weeks and weighed 25 to 30 g, which were divided into four animal groups: the first group orally administrated (0.1 mL) of saline solution (0.9%) for 28 days to represent the control group, second group administrated with 0.1 mL of Rifadine (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. The third group was administered (0.1 mL) of alcohol extract of Balangu seeds (1%) for 28 days. The fourth group was administrated with seed extract and Rifadin for 33 days. Histopathological changes in the liver tissue of the experimental groups were reported as a loss of the radial arrangement of the hepatic cords in the central lobular region and in the surrounding areas with moderate/severe congestion in the drug-treated group, the seed and drug extract group, the retention of hepatic cords were observed in the radial regulation, especially in the area around the central vein with moderate blood congestion (Mild/Moderate Congestion) in the central veins, and the presence of many numbers of Balone-Shape cells and Hepatic Vacuolated cells. The histological composition of the Balangu seed extract group was similar to that of the control group, but there is infiltration of mononuclear leukocytes in the central lobular region.

3. Impact of Diabetes Mellitus Medications in Some Biomarkers of COVID-19 Infected Patients
Mona N. Al-Terehi, Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Ahmed S. Abed
COVID-19 pandemic has been the source of most health problems in the last two years with high mortality rates and fluctuation recovery rates, recorded in different countries. The diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the multifactorial diseases that may be affected in the COVID-19 infected people. Present research was suggested to study the DM medications in some Biomarkers of COVID-19 infected patients. D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) was used in the present work; the output of the distribution study subjects, according to DM patients shows there was 73% of infected COVID-19 is suffered from diabetes mellitus, and 27% was non-diabetes patients, the D-dimer levels were elevation in DM insignificant differences (p < 0.004). The CRP level was found in non-significant elevation in DM (p < 0.203). The DM patients enrolled in the present study were treated with three types of medications, metformin+ insulin, and insulin only. We found that in a group treated with insulin only have higher levels of d-dimer and lower levels in the group treated with metformin while the group that used both drugs, shows a high level but is lower than the group that used insulin only were significant (p 0.012). The CRP shows low levels in the group that used metformin only than others in non-significant differences (p 0.037). Also, our analysis of the relation between PCR results and DM-infected patients found that the positive results were high in the DM patients than non-DM patients in significant differences (Od 0.1037 CI95% 0.0116 to 0.9272 P 0.042). It can be concluded from finding that there was a strong association between DM and d-dimer, CRP, and these markers association with types of DM medications, and the DM cases should be careful to avoid COVID-19 infection, and the infection cases must be under hospital care.

4. Anti-bacterial Activity of Polyethylene Oxide (PEO) against Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Human Mouth
Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Saif Y. Hasan
Background: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is a non-ionic linear hydrophilic and uncrosslinked polymer available in several molecular weights. It is synthesized by ethylene oxide and has many desirable properties for drug delivery applications and antimicrobial. Materials and Methods: In the present study, polyethylene oxide (PEO) with different concentrations (80, 40, 20, 10 μg/mL) investigates their anti-bacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria from gram-positive Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli and Enterobacter bugandensis. The antimicrobial activity of PEO was examined by disk diffusion assay also, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each isolate is determined. Results: The PEO shows powerful broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity against tested bacteria with an increase in inhibition zone diameter that is directly proportional with the increase in PEO concentration that even exceeded the activity of selected antibiotics. The MIC of PEO ranged from 10 to 20 μg/mL, and the MBC ranged from 20 to 80 μg/mL. Other studies show that PEO strongly attached to the bacterial cells contributed to their inhibitory effect on bacterial growth formation and invasion. Conclusion: The PEO with a suitable concentration are reduced bacterial growth significantly. It is highly recommended to use PEO as an economical alternative anti-bacterial agent, especially in treating ectopic infections without taking the risk of developing resistant bacterial strains as with antibiotics.

5. Removal of Direct Dye from Aqueous Solution by a Low-cost Hydrogel: Adsorption Kinetics, and Isotherms Study
Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Aseel M. Aljeboree
This study prepared, characterized, and applied a new surface of Sodium alginate (fumaric acid copolymer polyacrylic acid) hydrogel in removing direct yellow dye from its aqueous solution. Where several modern techniques were used to diagnose the properties of the prepared surface, including [fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM)] and one of the most important factors on which the adsorption process depends is pH. The best adsorption was found in the acidic medium, where the adsorption efficiency was (90.112 mg/g). The effect of weight was also studied, and the ideal weight used to obtain the best removal of the DY dye from its aqueous solution (0.05 g) was given, as it gave a removal percentage (93.21%). The adsorption of dye on the hydrogel increased from 140.23 to 155.44 mg/g with increasing temperature from 10 to 30°C, as it was found that the reaction was spontaneous. The equilibrium adsorption result was fitted to isotherm Freundlich and isotherm Langmuir. The best adsorption efficiency from the isotherm Freundlich was estimated to be 155.4 mg/g for the physic-sorption of DY dye on hydrogel. The adsorption was best described via the kinetic second model (R2 = 0.868). The results indicate that hydrogel is a very effective absorbent material in the treatment of pollutants.

6. Removal of Cationic Dyes (Crystal Violet) by Using Low-cost Surface as an Ecofriendly Surface
Mohammed A. Jawad, Zuhair I. Al Mashhadani, Aseel M. Aljeboree, Ayad F. Alkaim
This research aimed to study the adsorption properties of the Sodium alginate-g-poly (Acrylic acid-fumaric acid) hydrogel surface on crystal violet dye. Two techniques were used, including [fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)] to study the surface properties before and after the adsorption process. Several factors such as (equilibrium time, concentration of crystal violet dye, weight of hydrogel, solution of pH, and temperature) were studied. It was found through the results that with increasing the concentration of crystal violet dye, the adsorption efficiency increases, and the removal percentage decreases. On the contrary, by increasing hydrogel’s weight, the adsorption efficiency decreases, and the removal percentage increases from (96.12 to 66.33 mg/g), depending on the fullness of the active sites. The removal percentage E% of crystal violet dye using hydrogel surface rise with increased solution pH to reach the maximum pH 6. 5 (99.123%). The thermodynamic functions were studied; the reaction was spontaneous and exothermic (ΔHo (KJ/mol-1) -3.8809). Also, study isotherms and adsorption kinetics were found to fit the Frendlich model (R2 = 0.9875)and the second-order model (R2 = 0.849), respectively.

7. Role of Sodium Alginate-g-poly (Acrylic acid-fumaric acid) Hydrogel for Removal of Pharmaceutical Paracetamol from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption
Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Nadher D. Radia
Background: The hydrogel is a polymer hydrophilic that can absorb but not dissolve in water at optimum conditions (concentration of drug, temperature, and PH). Thus, this study was conducted to study adsorption-desorption systems of the drug (paracetamol) on the carefully chosen (hydrogel) surface at mutable conditions of the weight of hydrogel and pH. Methods: The surface properties of the prepared hydrogel were studied using several techniques fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results: The adsorption isotherms were studied, such as the Friendling model isotherm and the Langmure model isotherm, and through the results, it was found that it obeys the Friendling model and this is valuable (R2= 0.9744), Also study three Kinetic models such as a first model, second model, and Elkovuch model through the results it was found that it follows a First model as is evident through the value of (R2 = 0.9661).

8. Enhanced Removal of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride using Eco-friendly Surface: Optimization, Isotherm, Kinetics, and Regeneration Studies
Mohammed A. J. Kadhum, Abed J. Kadhim, Aseel M. Aljeboree
Phenolic compounds are highly toxic pollutants. They are widely used in tanning, dye, chemical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. They come from different sources, like industrial wastewater, gasworks, paper mill, chemical plants, coking factories, pharmaceutical industry, and solid castoff of coal tar. This study used a phenolic Phenylephrine hydrochloride PHCL drug, characterized by a very high toxicity in water. Therefore, a new surface with very high efficiency was prepared to remove this drug from water. The hydrogel surface properties such as fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) were studied. Two types of Frendelich and Langmuir isotherms were also studied. Through the results, it was found that obeys the Freundlich model. Three models of Kinetic first-order, second-order, and Elcovich models were found through the data to obey a false first-order model.

9. Removal of Safranine-O Dye from Aqueous Solution using Prepared Activated Carbon from Apple Seed Coat: Kinetic, Thermodynamic, and Isothermal Studies
Aseel M. Aljeboree, Hazim Y. Algubury, Abdeldjalil Bennecer, Rafid Q. Kmal, Ayad F. Alkaim
In this study, to prepare the activated carbon, the shell of apple seeds was used to get rid of the dye safranine-O present in the wastewater. Several important factors were studied, including equilibrium time, pH solution, temperature, dye concentration, and weight of activated carbon, where it was observed that the percentage of removal increases with increasing weight of the surface AC and decreases with increasing dye concentration. Also, the percentage of removal increases with the increase in the equilibrium time, and the temperature has a very important effect on the adsorption process, as it was observed that with the increase in temperature, the percentage of removal of dye increased. The adsorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir isotherm and the Freundlich isotherm. The Langmuir isotherm was found to give the best efficiency compared to the Freundlich isotherm. Where the best adsorption efficiency at different temperatures was (291, 300, 309 K) 27.55, 33.33, 36.66 mg/g, in the same order. The adsorption kinetics of safranine-O dye was also studied using first-order reaction and second-order reaction. Kinetic studies have shown that the reaction obeys a second-order reaction. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated including (ΔG°), (ΔH°), and (ΔS°) changes, to predict the nature of adsorption. The estimated values for ΔG° were -1.75, -2.58, and -2.95 kJ/mol at 291, 300, and 309 K, at the same order.

10.Effect of Antidepressants Medications in Glycemic State of Depression Disorders Patients
Mohammed A. Jawad, Mona N. Al-Terehi, Abed J. Kadhim
As a result of elevation, depression disorders are prevalent globally; different medication protocols are used for patient therapy. The present study suggested studying the effect of antidepressant medications in a glycemic state of depression disorder patients, and glycemic biomarkers included fasting blood glucose (FBG), Glycated hemoglobin 1c (HbA1c), Insulin level (In), insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) were detected, the results show a significant elevation in HbA1c in the patient group than control (p 0.005) and BMI that decreased in patients than control (p 0.041). Other parameters show non-significant slight variations between groups, four types of antidepressants drugs in the present study included clomipramine, Tryptizol, Zyprexa, and Fluxetine. The effect of Antidepressant drugs on some glycemic parameters shows non-significant variation in all parameters, both Zyprexa and Fluxetin causes an elevation in FBG and HbA1c, also fluoxetine causes an elevation in insulin, IR and IS, from present finding can be concluded that fluoxetine causes alteration in glycemic parameters than other drugs and the antidepressants may be contributed in DM incidence.

11. Correlation Between Triglyceride and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Diabetic Mellitus Patients with Hypertension
Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Mona N. Al-Terehi, Thanaa J. Kareem
The study aims to study the association Triglyceride (TG) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (VD3) level and HbA1c in Diabetic Mellitus (DM) Patients with and without hypertension (HP). Results show significant differences in HbA1c (P 0.003) and TG (p 0.029) that increased in DM + HP than DM group. VD3 shows that decreased in DM + HP than DM group. Belong to gender, non-significant differences were observed in all study variables in DM group, in DM + HP groups sig differences appeared in HbA1c (p 0.042), and other variables didn’t have significant variations, TG was lower VD3 elevated in female than male. The correlation between TG with VD3 and HbA1c shows non-sig weak correlation between TG and HbA1c (r 0.072, p 0.777) in DM, and in DM + HP (r 0.133, p 0.714), TG non-sig inverse with VD3 (r -0.146, p 0.564) in DM and DM + HP (r -0.367, p 0.297). From these finding can be concluded that TG may be affected by VD3 and HbA1C in DM and DM + HP, the present need more investigations to clarify this association.

12. Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide Layer on the Surface of Magnesium by the Anodizing Process for Biodegradable Implants
Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Mustafa M. Kadhim, Ayad F. Alkaim
Magnesium (Mg) as a biodegradable implant has revolutionized medical field applications, particularly in bone implants and stents. The surface of magnesium alloys used in biomedical applications was treated in this work by “anodizing in 3.5 mol/L sulfuric acids” at room temperature with (8.5V). The magnesium oxide (MgO) layer thus formed was characterized with by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic forced spectroscopy (AFM). The morphology and topographic structures for the MgO layer formed on the Mg surface by SEM and AFM techniques show the oxide layer is porous in nature; this porous oxide layer will enable the bone tissue to infiltrate them, healing the bone tissue pretty earlier.

The corrosion behavior of the Mg alloy was examined by means of electrochemical techniques and potential polarization curves at temperatures between 298 and 328 K in saline conditions. The alloy was increased corrosion protection with increasing temperatures from 99.93 to 99.97%, indicate the MgO layer formed on the Mg surface was not affected by temperature. The pre-exponential factor “kinetic parameters” and activation energy “kinetic parameters” were discussed calculated. Thermodynamic activation values S and H were also estimated.

13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Study the Biological Activity for Shiff Base and β-lactam Derivatives from 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine
Rawaa Neamah, Shaimaa Adnan
This study includes synthesis and characterization of some shiff base and β-lactam derivatives) by three steps. The first reaction is done on 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6- methyl pyrimidine with 4-amino acetophenone in acid medume to get shiff base derivative 2-(4-amino-benzylidene amino)-6-methylpyrimidin-4-ol) (1). Further to that, (1) reacts with (3, 4-dimethoxybenzal dehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 4- di methyl ameno benzaldehyde, 4-bromo benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 4-Nitro benzaldehyde) to get shiff base derivatives (2-7). In the last step (2-7), derivatives react with Chloro acetyl chloride to get β-lactam derivatives (8-13). All these compounds are characterization by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR). After that, study was done on the biological activity for all these derivatives with two kinds of bacteria.

14. Association of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease Gene Polymorphism with Some Clinical Features in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Mona N. Al-Terehi, Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Ali A. Nayyef, Thanaa C. Kareem
The Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by attack body cells by immune molecules, and the present study was conducted to estimate Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE 1) Gene Polymorphism in SLE and associated with clinical features. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction was implemented then allele-specific PCR was used to detect Asp148Glu (rs3136820) in study groups. The results show two alleles (T, G) and three genotyping’s (TT, TG, GG), significant association APE1 with SLE disease (X2 9.8609, P 0.019) and more frequent TT genotyping in patients, non-significant association with present oral ulcer (X2 2.6207, p 0.453), non-significant association with malar rash (X2 0.684, p 0.710), and non-significant correlation with painful (X2 1.78, p 0.619). Finally, the association of APE1 with the number of oral ulcers (multiple and single) also non-significant differences (X2 3.6771, p 2.98). the present study shows association APE1 with SLE disease but non-association with clinical features of SLE.

15. Molecular Detection of Sea Gene and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Food Handlers in Kirkuk City, Iraq
Shatha A. Khalaf, Najdat B. Mahdi, Abdul K. M. Ismail
Asymptomatic carriers of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of food poisoning. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage among food handlers in Kirkuk city, Iraq. A total of 500 nasal swab samples were collected and analyzed using standard conventional methods of microbial analysis in isolation and identification of S. aureus including, culturing on selective media (mannitol salt agar); also blood agar medium was used to detect β hemolysin toxin, catalase, coagulase, and DNase tests were used. Staphaurex Plus test was used to detect protein A and clumping factor. Also, RapID TM STAPH PLUS System was used to complete the diagnosis of S. aureus isolates. Penicillin-Binding Protein (PBP2a) Latex Agglutination test was also used to investigate the presence of penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a). Twelve antibiotics were used to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. The results showed that the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage among food handlers was 87 (17.4%) and 82% of them were harbored sea gene which encodes enterotoxin type A that detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primer. Virulence factors (protein A, coagulase, DNase, β hemolysin rates were (100%, 100%, 100%, 65.5%) respectively. Free coagulase production by using the tube method was measured in different periods (2, 4, 6, and 24 hours) to indicate the degree of severity of S. aureus strains and the results were (50%, 34%, 0% and 16%). 100% of the isolates had PBP2a. The isolates showed high resistance to Oxacillin (98.8%) used in this study as a preliminary test to detect methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Double disc diffusion test was performed to detect (MS), inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) and constitutive MLSB (cMLSB) and the results were (16%), (14.9%) and (9.1%), respectively.

16. Synthesis and Identification of Heterocyclic Derivative from 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine and Study their Biological Activity
Hussein Awad, Shaimaa Adnan
This study includes the synthesis of some hetrocyclic compounds (oxazepine, β-lactam, imedazolidene, thiazolidine, tetrazole) starting from reacting 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine with 3-amino acetophenone in acid medium to get schiff base derivative (1). Then (1) reacts with 4-hydroxy acetophenone in acid medium to get schiff base derivative (2). There after (2) react with (phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride and succenic anhydride) to give oxazepine derivative (3-5). Also, (2) react with (chloroacetyl chloride, glycine, alanine, thioglygolic acid, sodumazide) to get (β-lactam (6), imidazolidine (7,8), Thiazolidine (9), tetrazole (10), respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) characterize all these derivatives. After that, we determine the biological activity for all derivatives toward two kinds of bacteria.

17. X-ray Repair Cross-complementing Group 1 (Arg399Gln) Genotyping in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 with Hypertension
Hawraa S. Al-Musawi, Mohammed A. Jawad, Mona N. Al-Terehi, Abed J. Kadhim
DNA repair genes are one of the important molecules for genome maintains that may be effective by different factors and disease. X-ray Repair Cross-complementing Group 1(XRCC1) gene polymorphism relation with type 2-diabetes mellitus (T2D) with and without hypertension was suggested in present work, CTTP-PCR was used to detection genotyping of XRCC1, the output shows that (67.5%) was T2D and (32.5%) was T2D with hypertension, genotyping shows two alleles (A, G) and tow genotyping (AG, GG). While AA did not observe in the present study, a non-significant association between T2D and T2D with hypertension (OR0.7813 (0.2024-3.0161), slightly differences appeared in AG and GG between groups. The impact of genotyping in glycemic parameters is non-significant between genotyping within the group except in HbA1C (P 0.007) in the T2D group. The present study concluded that the XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) did not associate with hypertension in T2D patients. Also, this polymorphism had no association with the studied biomarkers (diabetic-related parameters, blood pressure parameters, age, and BMI).

18. DNA Sequence Analysis of High Variable Region HV2b in Kearns-Sayre Syndrome
Mona N. Al-Terehi, Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim, Monem M. Alshok, Ali H. Al-Saadi
Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a genetic disorder disease caused by mitochondrial myopathy, and it is a rare syndrome recorded for the first time in Iraq. The present study was carried out to analyze High variable region HV 2b in KSS. A case report study was conducted, a female 19 years old with clinical manifestation of KSS was diagnosed in Margan hospital. Blood was collected from the case and her mother for DNA extraction and mt DNA amplification and sequencing. The results of the present study show that 276 bp of HV 2b, which was sequenced to detect genetic variations and point mutation, also identities with Iraqi placebos and NCBI sequences. The mtDNA sequence analysis shows a single insertion mutation in the KSS case and 11 substitution mutations. The frequency of substitution mutation was disappeared in 11 loci for 7 types of mutation. 22.23% the percentage mutation in 9 loci for 7 types of mutation, the higher percentage was 33.34% of 5 loci for 3 types of mutation. Low-frequency percentage of A, C, GC, AG, AC, TA, CG, CT and (G, C)%, other patterns percentages ware increased T, GG, TG, TT, and (A, T) %. Also, there were no ambiguous nucleotides in the present case and study subjects. The identities between study subjects were in figure 2. The percentage of DNA sequences identities between KSS with NCBI sequence was 87%, KSS with Iraqi placebo 85.77%, KSS and her mother was 79%, case mother with NCBI sequence 98%, case mother with Iraqi placebos 87.55%. the KSS case show branched haplogroups. The present study concluded that there was variation in DNA sequences in KSS case.

19. The Ability of Choline Derivatives Synthesized by Multi-component Reactions in the Inhibition of AChE Enzyme
Zinah A. Al-shareeda, R. A. Abramovich, O. G. Potanina, Hasan M. Alhejoj, Khromov A. V.
Multi-component reactions (MCRs) are strong synthetic tools in which more than two starting materials are coupled together with a purpose to form the multi-functionalized compounds in a one-pot process. In this procedure, they used an additional step without changing the solvent, the so-called sequential-addition procedure, to limit the number of synthetic steps while increasing the complexity and the molecular diversity, which are highly step-economical reactions. The Ugi reaction, one of the most common multi-component reactions, has recently fascinated chemists with the high diversity brought by its four- or three-component-based isonitrile. The Ugi reaction has been introduced in organic synthesis as a novel, efficient and useful tool for the preparation of libraries of multifunctional peptides, natural products, and heterocyclic compounds with stereochemistry control.

20.Promising Drug Discovery for Choline Derivatives via Ugi Reaction and their Inhibition Activity on AChE Enzyme
Zinah A. Al-shareeda, R. A. Abramovich, O. G. Potanina, Hasan M. Alhejoj, Ivanov U. V.
A great focus was given to multi-component reactions in the last two decades because many compounds were synthesized through them and approved biological and pharmacological properties. The two famous reactions are Passerini (3-CR) and Ugi (4-CR). From this point, we started our study to modify choline derivatives and to study their inhibitory effect on AchE enzyme (acetylcholinesterase enzyme). We synthesized four different compounds by Ugi reaction (2b,2c,2d), all of them were new after that, they were tested for the inhibitory activity through the screening kit k-197 all of them gave activity, but the strength of activity was different the most active one was compound 2b and the others gave inhibitory effect but not in the same potency than the relative activity% (RA%) and relative inhibitory% (RI%). Donepezil was used as standard, and linear plots were drawn to compare activity with donepezil.

21. Development and Validation of New UV Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Alcaftadine in Combination with Ketorolac Tromethamine in a Pharmaceutical Dosage Form and Statistical Analysis using Analysis of Variance
Hiral Patel, Dhara Patel, Dhananjay Meshram
Alcaftadine and Ketorolac tromethamine combination is newly introduced in the market for the treatment of conjunctivitis. Hence, it is essential to develop a rapid, accurate, sensitive and precise method (in accordance with ICH guidelines) to estimate drugs. Three simple and cost-effective UV- Spectrophotometric methods (First-order derivative (A), Dual Wavelength (B) and Q- absorbance ratio method (C) have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Alcaftadine and Ketorolac tromethamine in their pharmaceutical dosage form and statistical comparison using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Method (A) is based on the first-order derivative spectrophotometric method, in which zero-crossing points (ZCP) for Alcaftadine is 281.50 nm and Ketorolac tromethamine is 268 nm. Linearity was found in the 4–14 μg/mL range for Alcaftadine and 6.4–22.4 μg/mL for Ketorolac tromethamine using methanol as a common solvent. Method (B) is based on the principle of the dual-wavelength method using absorbance difference at 336 and 299.50 nm for Alcaftadine; 268 and 293.50 nm for Ketorolac tromethamine. Method (C) is constructed on Q-absorbance ratio method where the iso-absorptive point was obtained at 296 nm and the λmax selected was of Alcaftadine 282 nm. The accuracy, precision, Limit of Detection (LOD), and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) of methods were determined and validated. All the developed methods showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD <2. These three methods developed were compared using the statistical method one-way ANOVA, and the fcal value was found to be less than ftab value, indicating that there is no significant difference in the assay results of the three methods. All three methods were found to be rapid, specific, precise, and accurate and found no interferences from the excipients, so it can be used for routine investigation of both drugs in quality control laboratories.

22. Stability Indicating Related Substances Method Development and Validation of Eplerenone and Torsemide Using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Challa S. Reddy, Bubathula T. Rao
A new simple related substances method was developed and separated its degradation products of Eplerenone and Torsemide using asymmetry C18 column with a flow of 1 mL/min on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Using the movable phase of acetonitrile 54 and 0.1% Orth phosphoric acid in gradient mode, Eplerenone, Torsemide drugs, and their impurities were separated. The photo diode array detector was monitored at 261 nm. According to the ICH guidelines, the parameters like system precision, linearity, accuracy, method precision, ruggedness, robustness, stability, Limit of Detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ), and the degradation studies were validated and found to be acceptable.

23. Development of a Method for Producing Purified Spinach Extract with High Content of 20-Hydroxyecdysone and Polyphenols
Zorin S. N., Petrov N. A., Perova I. B., Malinkin A. D., Bokov D. O., Bessonov V. V.
Adaptogens are biologically active substances providing state unspecific increased resistance in stressful situations. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most promising food plants containing adaptogens (ecdysteroids and polyphenols complexes). This research aims to obtain the final purified spinach extract (FPSE) with a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), flavonoids, and oxalic acid-free from food raw materials – spinach leaves. This work is necessary to further use spinach as part of functional food ingredients in specialized food products. Total polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, oxalic acid content – by permanganate titration. The 20E content was determined by HPLC-MS using an Agilent 1100 chromatograph with an Agilent 6410 mass detector. Individual flavonoid content and profile were determined using an ultimate 3000 liquid chromatography syste’m with a diode array detector (DAD) and a TSQ Endura triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detector (MSD). FPSE was obtained by water extraction of freeze-dried powdered spinach leaves (FDPSL), ultrafiltration, and sorption on a C18 column. In the FPSE, the 20E content was 12,17 ± 1,24 mg/g; total polyphenols – 19.3 ± 1.6%; flavonoids – 41.9 ± 4.1%, oxalic acid was absent. Flavonoid profile included patuletin-3-glucosyl-(1→6)-apiosyl-(1→2)-glucoside, patuletin-3-glucosyl-(1→6)-glucoside, patuletin-3-(2’’feruloylglucosyl)-(1→6)-apiosyl-(1→2)-glucoside, patuletin-3-(2’’feruloylglucosyl)-(1→6)-glucoside, axilyarin-4’-glucuronide (spinatoside), 5,3’,4’-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4’-glucuronide, 5,4′-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4′-β-D-glucuronide, 5,4’-dihydroxy-3,3’-dimethoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4’-glucuronide. As a result of the study, a laboratory method of producing functional food ingredient (adaptogen spinach extract) perspective for further industrial scaling and producing biologically active food supplements has been developed.

24. Synthesis and Pharmacological Study of Thiophene Derivatives
Raghav Mishra, Nitin Kumar, Neetu Sachan
In this study, the Gewald reaction was used to develop target compounds (RAA1-RAA9) in the quest for potentially active novel compounds with anti-cancer and antioxidant properties. The physicochemical and spectro-analytical studies of the synthesized derivatives verified their molecular structures. All synthesized compounds were chosen as prototypes by the NCI and tested for anti-cancer activity against a panel of cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer efficacy of the compounds was observed to be quite variable. Compound RAA5 was selected for a five-dose assay after showing strong anti-cancer activity in primary screening against all the cell lines. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of the compounds was determined by using a stable DPPH free radical as a radical scavenger. Compounds RAA5 and RAA7 exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, while other compounds of the series displayed satisfactory antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid. Our findings established the anti-cancer activity of novel thiophene derivatives, suggesting their potential for use in the development of new anti-cancer therapeutics.

25. Quality by Design Approach in Quantitative Determination of the Red Dye from Extract of Onosma Echioides (Boraginaceae) by UV-visible Spectrophotometer
Jeeja F. Pananchery, Monika L. Jadhav, Chhaya H. Gadgoli, Ashish S. Jain
Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach to analytical method development for quantifying red dye from the extract of Onosma echioides was performed. The soxhlet extraction technique was prepared by the dried root bark of O. echioides extract with petroleum ether (60–80°C). A column chromatographic technique used a mobile phase toluene: formic acid (99:1) toluate the major coloring compound from the petroleum ether extract. The extract was standardized using an isolated compound by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). To develop the UV-visible spectrophotometric method, the two-level full factorial model with three variable factors was designed. QbD approach facilitated to calculate the spectrophotometric risk factor of the variable. The QbD approach proved that the selected spectrophotometric condition of each factor was lying in the middle of the design space and has wide boundaries and space. The middle values of the range were selected for method validation. The calibration curve showed a good linear relationship over the concentration range of 10 to 70 ppm. The LOQ and LOD were 0.95 ppm and 2.86 ppm, which indicates adequate method sensitivity. The mean RSD of interday precision, intraday precision and robustness was less than 2, indicating that the method is precise and robust. The accuracy of the method was found to be 105.65%. Thus, an accurate method was developed for the quantification of red dye from extract of O. echioides by using QbD approach. The proposed spectrophotometric method along with QbD approach, can be used as an alternative tool in the drug quality control laboratories for the quantitative determination of red dye in O. echioides in the extract.

26. Effects of Topical Pentoxifylline on Induced Thermal Burn in Mice
Hawraa J. Mansur, Fouad K. Gatea
Objective: To evaluate the effects of topical application of pentoxifylline in the treatment of induced burn in mice and to compare it with silver sulfadiazine. Methods: Pentoxifylline-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) topical gel formulations were prepared by mixing homogeneously 1g of pentoxifylline with 3g of HPMC gel under continuous stirring, and the final weight was made up to 100 mL. The experimental animals (72 mice) were divided into four groups, each subdivided to three groups according to the three-day interval (7, 14, and 21st day) after thermal injury, each with eight animals. The animals were anesthetized then thermal injury was done by a metal bar. The wound surface area was measured every seven days, and the animals have been sacrificed by ether overdose at these intervals. Then, skin sections are stained with (hematoxylin and eosin) and Masson trichrome for histological scoring after being evaluated by immunohistochemical assay to estimate the expression of fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Results: Pentoxifylline group (Gr4) showed a significant reduction in the burning area (p<0.05), PTX and SSD groups have a significant increase in immunohistochemical expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) in comparison with gel base and burn without treatment (BWT) groups, and skin histopathological examination were measured on days 7, 14, and 21of burn injury experiment. Histopathologic evaluations on day 7 showed that neovascularization induced granulation tissue was greater in the pentoxifylline group (PTX) than silver sulfadiazine (SSD), gel base, and BWT groups. On day 21, re-epithelialization scores were showed higher and maximum level in the PTX group than the SSD, gel base and BWT groups. Inflammatory cells scores in BWT, SSD, and gel base groups showed higher than PTX group. Conclusion: the results suggest that topical use of pentoxifylline showed significant efficacy in wound healing activities than silver sulfadiazine cream. Histopathological evaluation results showed significant improvement in inflammatory response, granulation tissue formation, and re-epithelization, which may be due to the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and angiogenic activity of pentoxifylline and the appropriate regulation FGF and EGF.

27. Psoriasis-cell Mediated Autoimmune Disease: A Review
Mohammed A. Jawad, Abed J. Kadhim
Psoriasis is a widespread chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects about 2% of the population. It was recognized as a unique entity in the early 19th century by Robert Willan. The mechanism of infection is due to the exaggerated proliferation of keratinocytes secondary as a result of the activity of the immune system. Different factors cause psoriasis, which includes genetic factors, age, gender, stress, and Bacterial infection. There are several forms of psoriasis, the most prevalent of which is psoriasis Vulgaris (plaque-like psoriasis), which accounts for 90 percent of all cases. Biological therapy is an effective treatment for psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases comparing with chemotherapy and phototherapy.

28. Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dyes from Aqueous Solutions in the Presence of ZnO Nanoparticle: A Review
Aseel M. Aljeboree,Rafid Q. Kmal,Hayder O. Jamel,Ayad F. Alkaim
During the past years, dyes are considered one of the utmost important and most dangerous contaminants in water because of their toxicity and great stability in water and their presence in high concentrations in water. The dyes are widely used all over the world, so pollutants must be removed from the water. The traditional methods of removing organic and inorganic pollutants and dyes are useless from water and wastewater. To prevent further contamination, there are several techniques for removing contaminants and dyes, and their occurrence and decomposition and removal processes applied to a particular class of micropollutants. This study identified several treatment systems from the most important easy and simple imitation techniques (coagulation, filtration, flocculation, biological processes, and sedimentation), adsorption and advanced oxidation methods (AOPs), membrane processes, and compound roads. This study found that zoning, Fenton/photo-Fenton, and semiconductor photocatalysis are the utmost widely used methods. Combined methods seem to be the top way to treat liquid contaminants containing antibiotics, counting those utilizing renewable energy and secondary materials.

29. Nanotherapy Technology Based Treatment and Drug Delivery Management for Osteoarthritis: A Review
Venkataramanan Srinivasan, Ponnusamy Palanisamy
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease that affects the cartilage in the joint owing to the cause of age factors, obesity deficiency, genetic disorder, and significantly it reduces the effect of motions in normal functional activities. Today, various treatment methods are followed to prevent this disease’s adverse effects, such as exercise, surgery, topical and oral medications, steroidal injections, stem cell therapy, and viscosupplementation. Nevertheless, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are suggested to overcome the intensity of pain, but it is still limited due to various side effects. Although there is no proper treatment adopted for the long term to permanently eradicate this disease, it is essential to know about the manifestation in both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for OA. In spite of various treatments implemented there are many challenges that still remain unclear to completely rehabilitate from this disease, such as the origin of this disease and mechanism. This review aimed to discuss and summarize the significant progression in different treatment methods for OA, the importance of nano therapy, drug delivery systems for OA and highlighted the utilization of carbon nanotubes in OA therapy in order to bring out the noteworthy of nano therapy and demonstrating the importance of various therapeutic strategy followed for OA disease. Hence, a better understanding of treatment modalities for OA will pave the path to emerge new therapeutics in future clinical trials to control this disease and perspicuous view on choosing the treatment methods.

30. Study on the Variants of Mitochondrial HVa1 and HVa2 Regions in Iraqi Kearns-Sayre Syndrome: A Case Study
Monem M. Alshok, Mona N. Al-Terehi, Mohammed A. Jawad, Ali H. Al-Saadi, Abed J. Kadhim
Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a rare syndrome characterized by mitochondrial myopathy. The present study was carried out to report an unusual manifestation of 18 years old Iraqi female patient suffering from KSS symptoms; blood samples were collected to estimate sequences of mitochondrial DNA for patients. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted using kits then PCR-sequencing using to amplification HV1a and HV2a loci in mitochondrial DNA. The result shows that case sequences’ identities with virtual amplification were 8.48% and 41.8%, while 95.53% and 80.06% were healthy Iraqi individuals for the HV1a and HV2a, respectively. The multiple comparisons show that there were more variants in HV2a than HV1a site, it was variant in 105 sits while in HV1a were 11 variants, we concluded that some variants which represented by a percentage of differed with healthy Iraqi individuals mtDNA 4.47% and 19.94% for the tow loci in the present study might be contributed in the phenotype of KSS case, but we need to investigate more site of mtDNA and genomic DNA.


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