International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

Disclimer: Scopus and Crossref are registered trademark of respective companies.

This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of Hydrogel Graphene oxide-poly (AA-co-AM) Composite for Removal of Toxic Rhodamine-B dye
Usama S. Altimari, Mohammed A. Jawad, Layth S. Jasim, Aseel M. Aljeboree
This study aims to identify the most important properties of adsorption using a cheap, inexpensive (GO/P(AA-co-MA) hydrogel surface that can be prepared with ease and have high efficiency in removing dyes from water. The important physical and chemical properties of hydrogel surface were studied, including field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, several crucial factors in adsorption were studied, including the equilibrium time, effect of the pH, effect of the surface weight of the hydrogel, effect of salt concentration, and temperature. The results showed that the best adsorption efficiency for Rhodamine B dye removal was (36.8 mg/g), the best adsorption time was about one hour, and the best weight for dye removal was 0.05 g. The free Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were found the reaction is spontaneous.

2. Study of the patterns and practices of self-medication for skin diseases among undergraduate medical students- A study from a medical Institute in North India
Aaina Kakkar, Sanjeev Gupta*, Aneet Mahendra, Rohit Singla
Background: Self-medication is certainly not an uncommon phenomenon. After the advent of easy availability of medicines, it has been widely misused in the name of self-care. It is prevalent mostly due to lack of knowledge, resources, and specialist facilities. The general population may rationalize this behavior owing to lack of information or insight. But medical students are the most privileged in healthcare and knowledge. Seeing this, we chose to study the practice of self-medication in well-informed medical students. Aims and Objectives: To ascertain the determinants of pattern of use and perception about self-medication for skin conditions by undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care institute in North India. Material and Methods: An exhaustive questionnaire comprising of multiple aspects to assess the outlook of medical students regarding self-medication was formed. Around 420 undergraduate medical students from MBBS, BDS, Nursing and Pharmacy were enrolled in the study and asked various questions about self-medication. The average scores and frequency of occurrence of particular behaviors among different categories of respondents were seen using appropriate statistical tests. In depth interviews were conducted with the medical students. Results: We noted that 65.7% of medical students had opted for self-medication for Dermatology in the last year. The general notion was that 256 (62.3%) students believed skin conditions to be minor illnesses leading them to adopt self-medication. The commonest skin conditions leading to self-medication were skin allergies, amounting to 51.1% (193) students taking self-medication for the same. Expectedly, 44.3% (182) students believed that their self-confidence is why they opt for self-medication in dermatology. Course textbooks (45.2%), local chemist (29.5%) and classroom teaching (41.2%) were the major sources of knowledge for them in opting for self-medication. It was seen that 217 (61.6%) students stopped or decreased dosage after they felt better, while 37.2% (153) stopped only after complete recovery. Only 38 students (9.2%) completed the entire course of treatment. Surprisingly the students were fully aware of their lack of knowledge (52.2%) about the depth of dermatology and that it can lead to a damaging misdiagnosis (50.2%).

Conclusion: The practice of self-medication is highly prevalent among undergraduate medical students due to their exposure to knowledge and easy availability of drugs. There is lack of regulation regarding over the counter distribution of drugs. Minimal exposure to Dermatology in their study course has led to a lack of orientation of students.

3. Antibiotics Removal by Adsorption onto Eco-friendly Surface: Characterization and Kinetic Study
Zuhair I. Al-Mashhadani, Aseel M. Aljeboree*, Nadher D. Radia, Ola K. A. Alkadir
This study includes the preparation of the hydrogel using the free radical polymerization method with the possibility of using it as an adsorption surface for a drug streptomycin from its aqueous solution. The structural and thermal properties of the hydrogel surface by using several techniques [Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)] were study. Where the best weight of the hydrogel surface was (0.05 g) when the weight of surface increased, the removal percentage increased and the adsorption efficiency decreased, and the equilibrium time was one hour. The adsorption kinetics were studied, and it was found that the adsorption behavior follows the kinetics. The second order is based on the value of (R2= 1) compared with the first order.

4. Formulation and Optimisation of pH-Dependent Drug Delivery System Containing Proton Pump Inhibitor
Ghugarkar P. Gorakshanath*, Khulbe Preeti
The objective of the current study was to formulate, evaluate, and optimize polymer coated pellets of rabeprazole. Rabeprazole is one of the productive drugs which show more effectiveness. Proton pump inhibitors are mostly used in ulcerative colitis. Rabeprazole acts by inhibiting last step of acid production. Rate of degradation of Rabeprazole increases as pH range decreases. Stability condition of proton pump inhibitor also affects by moisture content. Hence in current study, rabeprazole pellets were formulated and seal coat and polymer coat were loaded on pellets to protect from humidity and acidic condition. Rabeprazole was characterized by ultra violet spectroscopy (UV), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study. Drug-excipient compatibility study carried out by FTIR. Opadry was used for seal coating of pellet and Eudragit L100 was used as polymer coat. Optimized batch passes all evaluation tests. Stability data shows an excellent result.

5. Pattern of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and its Symptoms Characteristics: A Study from Tertiary Care Hospital in North India
Vivek Ahuja, Amit Agarwal, Sunita Gupta, Paraag Kumar
Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a bowel disorder in which chronic abdominal pain is associated with irregularity in the form of stool and passage in the absence of any organic cause. IBS is classified into various subtypes, including IBS-D (Diarrhea predominant), IBS-C (Constipation predominant) and IBS-M (mixed). Objective: The present study was planned to evaluate the pattern of IBS, its symptoms, characteristics epidemiological profile of patients of IBS from rural area in Haryana, attending a tertiary care hospital. Materials And Methods: After being selected as the study population, 100 consecutive patients aged 12 to 50 years presenting to the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Gastroenterology were asked about a detailed questionnaire. Results: The numbers of IBS-D patient were 68 (68%), IBS-M were 26 (26%), and IBS-C were 6 (6%). The number of male patients was 58 (58%), and the number of female patients was 42 (42%). 44% of patients with IBS had a normal body mass index (BMI), 3% were underweight, 42% were overweight, and 11% were obese. Among the obese patients, 72.7% had IBS-D,18.1% had IBS-M and 9% had IBS-C. Most patients in the study were farmers by occupation (38%). 36% patients in the study were educated upto secondary school, while only 28% were graduates and 8% were post graduates. We concluded that IBS-D was the most common subtype observed in our study population. Majority of individuals in this study had a BMI >25kg/m2. Majority of patients in our study had a low level of education. Conclusion: Further studies which include a larger population are required which can elaborate the differences in clinical profile of patients with IBS in urban and rural population

6. Evaluation of Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris – A Case Control Study from Tertiary Care Hospital in North India
Shobhita Gupta, Aneet Mahendra, Sanjeev Gupta*, Rohit Singla
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is non-contagious in nature, primarily involving skin and joints. The association of psoriasis with obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiac problems has been suggested in recent data. Various biochemical markers are of prognostic significance in psoriasis, and out of these, raised homocysteine levels have been reported in various studies. However, some studies have shown no difference in Homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients. Hence, we planned this study to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in psoriasis vulgaris. Objective: To estimate and compare the serum homocysteine levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients and healthy controls and find any association between the homocysteine levels and severity of the psoriasis vulgaris. Material and Methods: One hundred clinically diagnosed patients of psoriasis vulgaris along with hundred age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled and assessed for serum homocysteine levels. Results: In this study, there was highly significant difference in the mean homocysteine levels between cases (13.60 ± 11.72) and controls (16.02 ± 11.32) and this difference was statistically highly significant (p < 0.0001). We also compared the homocysteine levels in cases and controls based on their demographic profile like age group, gender, occupation, region and in cases based on the disease-specific parameters like duration of disease, family history, nail involvement, joint involvement, age of onset, body surface area and PASI. We observed that homocysteine levels were significantly higher in cases than controls when compared according to gender, region and PASI, and the difference was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Psoriasis has a significant effect on serum homocysteine levels and various studies have reported the risk of cardiovascular diseases with an increase in homocysteine levels. Our study suggests the relationship between psoriasis and serum homocysteine levels and further investigation is required to evaluate the role of serum homocysteine as a cardiac biomarker in patients with psoriasis. 

7. Impact on Quality of Life of Chronic Paediatric Dermatoses on their Family Members – A Study from Tertiary Care Hospital in North India
Akriti Gakhar, Sanjeev Gupta*, Rohit Singla, Aneet Mahendra
Background: Skin conditions can be very chronic, recalcitrant, and difficult to treat. They have a huge impact on patient’s quality of life. But when it comes to skin problems in children, the impact is on children and their primary caregivers. Although many studies are trying to quantify the impact on quality of life of patients, very less is done for impact on the family members and primary caregivers of the children. Aim: To evaluate the impact on the quality of life of the family members of the affected children and compare the two scales used. Material and Methods: A Performa-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 family members presenting to dermatology OPD to consult for their children. Using family dermatology quality of life questionnaire (FDQLI), a 10 item easy-to-use handy questionnaire and impact on family scale (IOF), a 24 item questionnaire, we evaluated the impact on the quality of life of family members of the affected children. Results: Hundred family members of hundred children were included in the study. 48 males and 52 females. Mean age of children was 6.93 years. Chronic Skin diseases which we encountered in children were atopic dermatitis (30%) followed by vitiligo (15%), alopecia areata (13%), psoriasis (8%), chronic urticaria (6%), haemangioma (4%) and others (24%). Most of the children were accompanied by their fathers. Family history of similar disease was positive in 16% of children. Mean FDQLI score of hundred children in the study was 12.71 ± 3.76. Mean IOF score in the study 59.93 ± 4.75. There was a significant positive correlation between IOF and FDQLI scale (p = 0.000). Conclusion: Chronic pediatric skin dermatoses cause a significant effect on the quality of life of their respective family members/primary caregivers. The impact depends on various financial, social, and personal factors and each of them should be given enough importance. Enough questionnaires/scales should be developed to ascertain the impact on these parents and counselling of these parents should become an important part of overall management.

8. Evaluation of Serum Vitamin D levels in Vitiligo Patients- A Case Control Study from Tertiary Care Hospital in North India
Ankit Jadwani, Aneet Mahendra, Sanjeev Gupta*, Rohit Singla
Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary condition characterized by white patches that affect the skin and the mucous membranes. Vitamin D is involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune conditions, including vitiligo. Its deficiency can be related to many such diseases and hence requires treatment with vitamin D analogues. We compared serum vitamin D levels of cases and controls in this case-control study. Objective: To assess the serum Vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients attending the clinics. Material and Methods: Seventy-two patients with vitiligo and the same number of healthy controls of age ranging from 18 to 60 years attending the outpatient department of our tertiary care centre were taken in the study, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured. Results were analyzed and compared with that of the control group. Statistical analysis was made to see the significance. Results: In this study, there was a highly significant difference in the mean serum vitamin D level (p <0.0001) between cases (17.51 ± 12.31 ng/mL) and controls (28.01 ± 15.84 ng/mL). We also compared the mean serum vitamin D level in cases and controls based on their demographic profile like age groups, gender, occupation, marital status, and in cases based on the disease-specific parameters like duration of disease, several patches involved, percentage of body surface area (BBA) involvement, type of vitiligo, progression of disease and family history of the disease. The mean level was decreased when these parameters were compared, but no strong statistical association was observed between the vitamin D levels and these parameters. Conclusion: The results of this study show a difference in the mean level of serum vitamin D in the cases as compared to the controls. However, our study emphasizes that more such studies have to be carried out to further explore the relationship of Vitamin D with vitiligo, which later may evolve as a possible therapeutic alternative.

9. A Study on Etiological Spectrum of Dysphagia in North India: An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural Area
Paraag Kumar, Vivek Ahuja*, Saurabh Singh, Sunita Gupta
Introduction: Dysphagia is a common symptom reported in Gastroenterology out patient departments (OPD’s). It can have a significant impact on quality of life. It has a variety of causes which can be both benign and malignant. Previous studies from India have reported a predominance of benign causes in our subcontinent. This prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care centre situated in rural part of Northern India. Aim: The study was aimed to study the etiological spectrum of patients presenting with symptom of dysphagia in the gastroenterology department. Material and Methods: 97 patients were included in the study from June 2020 to April 2021. A comprehensive history was taken. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy was done in all patients with barium swallow, computed tomography (CT) scan, and biopsies done as required. Results: Mean age of the patients in the study was 52.6, with an age range of 4 to 86 years. 55.6% of patients in the study were males. Male:Female was 1.25:1. 62.9% of patients had a malignant etiology for dysphagia. This was in contrast to previous studies in which benign causes were more prevalent. Carcinoma esophagus was the most common malignant cause for dysphagia. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common pathological type, seen in 82.4% of patients with esophageal cancer. Among the benign causes, peptic esophageal stricture was the most common cause seen in 9.2% of cases. Other causes included Corrosive esophageal stricture, Achalasia cardia, Esophageal candidiasis, Esophageal webs. Conclusion: We concluded that malignancy was an important cause of dysphagia in our study. Thus, any patient presenting with dysphagia should be evaluated with a high degree of suspicion.

10. The Excision Repair Cross-complementation Group 2 (rs1799793) Gene Polymorphism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Abed J. Kadhim, Zuhair I. Al-Mashhadani, Muneam H. Ali, Mona N. Al-Terehi*
The excision repair cross-complementation group 2 (ERCC2) or (XPD) gene encoded to protein used in bulky deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesion removal from DNA, the present study used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) to study ERCC2 polymorphism by haplotypes variations between DM2 patients and control group in addition to detect the glycemic parameters. The results show a significant increase in all glycemic parameters in the patient group except insulin resistance that significant decrease. The ERCC2 gene polymorphism shows three haplotypes (A, B and C), two patterns for patients and control observed; AC was more frequent in patients (46.34%) than control (17.24%) in significant differences (or 4.1455, p > 0.0147) and less frequent of ABC patterns in patients (53.65%) than control (82.75%). The polymorphism did not affect glycemic parameters. From this finding can be concluded that there was association between ERCC2 rs1799793 and DM2 but did not affect glycemic parameters.

11. The Combination Between Anti-depressant and Anti-diabetic Therapy Effects in Depressed Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus
Mona N. Al-Terehi*, Usama S. Altimari, Abed J. Kadhim, Hadeel Alaa Al-Rrubaei
The current study aims to evaluate the effect of medication types in dopamine and glycemic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), anti-diabetic, anti-depressed and combination between them, also the types of drugs were depended, metformin, metformin with insulin, insulin only, metformin with alprazolam and other anti-depressed drugs. Results show non-significant differences in all variations, metformin elevated dopamine, insulin and HbA1c than other types, metformin with insulin treatment recorded moderate level of all parameters, also moderate levels was observed in metformin with anti-depressed drug treatment the other anti-depressed drug decreased in dopamine level and elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG), interventional radiology (IR) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than other types, the effects of medication types show non-significant differences among all groups, the anti- depressed cause elevation in FBG and IR while dopamine was decreased than other two groups. Diabetic with Anti-depressed drug causes decrease in dopamine than the group of anti-diabetic drug only. the antidiaetic drugs have poor activity to regulate glycemic parameters and dopamine was in higher level than other gorups in present study, from these outputs can be concluded that the combination between anti-depressed and anti-diabetic therapy with suitable choosing of the drug may prevent disease complications and enhanced self-care of patients.

12. Development of Stability Indicating Robust Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate in Dosage Form
Lata P. Kothapalli*, Lata Kaurani, Asha B. Thomas, Komal D. Bhosale
Estimation of Cinnarizine (CNN) and Dimenhydrinate (DMH) was carried out using a stability-indicating method using ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC). Both the drugs have pKa values, 8.4 for Cinnarizine and 8.8 for Dimenhydrinate, resulting in a challenge for chromatographic method development with poor resolution. Design of experiment with full factorial 23design facilitated optimization of various method parameters like Mobile phase pH, column temperature, and flow rate as these are critical factors for the best resolution between Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate. The separation was achieved with a simple gradient method using a 50 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm, column (Waters, X-bridge C-18) with 0.3 mL/min as flow rate, column temperature set at 40°C, and wavelength for analysis selected was 260 nm. The method fulfilled the validation criteria as per ICH guidelines. The method was linear within concentration range of 10 to 150 μg.mL-1 for Cinnarizine and 20 to 300 μg mL-1 for Dimenhydrinate. The chromatographic peak purity in the degradation study revealed no co-eluting peaks and standard Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate. The method can successfully quantify the drugs in the commercially available dosage form.

13. The Estimation of Oxidative Stress from Alcohol Use Disorders in Iraqi Population
Ola K. A. Alkadir, Zuhair I. Al Mashhadani, Mona N. Al-Terehi, Hadeel A. Al-Rrubaei, Ayad F. Alkaim
Alcohol is the most widely used addictive substance in the world which linked to a variety of health, economic, and societal issues, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are extremely reactive chemicals that normally expressed in tiny level during metabolic processes in the body and can damage complex biological components like lipids, proteins, or DNA, so the current study aim to detect the oxidative stress relation with alcohol level in drunks in Iraqi population, the result showed a non-significant differences were observed in age, body mass index (BMI), ROS and thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), also a Non-significant differences observed in study variables (BMI, ROS, TAO, Alcohol and duration) except the duration of abuse (p = 0.001) in the two age categories less than 30 and more than 30 years, The result of BMI showed non-significant differences about study categories, the study of mean differences of study variables belong to residence higher percent was observed in urban (77.77%) while less than in rural (22.22%) area and non-significant was observed in age, BMI, ROS, TAO, Alcohol, duration of abuse. We conclude that there were weak associated between oxidative stress and alcoholic drinking, so we need further studies to understand the relationship between alcohol addiction and oxidative stress complication.

14. Design, Development and Characterization of Immediate Release Matrix Tablet of Vildagliptin
Sudarshan B. Kakad*, Punit R. Rachh
In the present study, an immediate-release tablet of Vildagliptin is prepared by wet granulation using superdisintegrants. Optimization of the formulation was done in three steps. In the first step, the amount of pregelatinized starch was optimized by preparing four trial batches. A prepared blend of granules and formulations pre- and post-compression parameters were evaluated. The amount of pregelatinized starch was optimized to 24 mg. In the next step, the amount of SLS was optimized in the same way to 1 %. Finally, the amount of superdisintegrant-croscarmellose was optimized by preparing four batches and evaluating them for pre- and post-compression parameters. The formulation was evaluated for drug release study in comparison with the marketed formulation. It was observed that drug release from batch I10 and I11 batches was comparable with the marketed product. Tablet formulation I11 showed higher disintegration time as compared to I10. Formulation I10 was selected as optimum formulation and evaluated for stability. Croscarmellose sodium was found effective superdisintegrant to formulate immediate release matrix tablets.

15. A Novel Validated Gas Chromatography Headspace (GC-HS) Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Six Organic Volatile Impurities in Biperiden HCL Pure and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
Krishna K. Jyothi, Prasada R. Kammela*, Mohan Seelam
A novel, simple, and sensitive Gas Chromatography Headspace method for simultaneous quantification of six organic-volatile impurities in Biperiden HCL API and its pharmaceutical dosage forms using ZB-624 30 m × 0.53 mm, 3.0 μ column with Flame Ionized detector at 250°C. The Injector temperature is maintained at 225°C. The nitrogen gas was used as a carrier gas with a 3.0 mL/min flow rate. The method involved a thermal gradient elution. The total run time is 25.0 minutes. The method was linear over the concentration range of the limit of quantification to 150% of each impurity. The limit of quantification was found 57 ppm for Methanol, 107 ppm for Isopropyl alcohol, 143 ppm for Di-isopropyl ether, 19.5 ppm for Tetrahydrofuran, 0.1 ppm for Benzene, and 14.6 ppm for 1,4-Dioxane. The calculated recoveries were obtained should be 85-115%. Furthermore, verified precision, ruggedness, robustness, Solution stability, and pharmaceutical analysis were done. All the results are found within acceptable limits. The suggested GC-HS method can quantify six organic-volatile impurities in Biperiden HCl API and its pharmaceutical dosage forms.

16. An Appraisal of Adoption Status of “Quality by Design” Approach in Pharmaceutical Industries in Himachal Pradesh, India
Manish Kapoor*, Chand K. Rojhe, Manjir S. Kataki, Neeraj Mahindroo
The present study aimed to evaluate the current status and adoption of the quality by design (QbD) approach in the pharmaceutical industries of Himachal Pradesh. The study was conducted by distributing a well-designed questionnaire survey, and data were collected electronically. In the study, the status of QbD adoption among pharmaceutical industries of Himachal Pradesh was investigated and also aimed to evaluate the factors influencing the QbD adoption. A total of 112 pharmaceutical units were enrolled initially for the study, but finally, 100 units participated in this study. A total of 97 responses were received and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to derive the inferences related to QbD adoption status and the factors influencing QbD adoption. The results revealed a significant degree of QbD adoption among the participant pharmaceutical units. A total of 14 factors had been identified with 57 indicators. It has been observed that the key area where the adoption of QbD influences the industry output are ‘Risk Assessment and efficient management of the unit’ with the highest eigen-value at maximum variance and highest factor loading. This identified factor (F1) was found to be a crucial element in QbD adoption. The study indicated the identification of several factors for a successful QbD adoption and implementation in pharmaceutical manufacturing and the regulatory authority should inspire, be aware and support the companies by organizing consistent workshops, seminars, and pre-designed training programs.

17. Association of Vitamin D3 Level with Criminal Behavior and Alcohol Concentration in Drunk People
Mohammed A. Jawad*, Abed J. Kadhim, Ola K. A. Alkadir
The current study was suggested to evaluate the vitamin D3 (VD3) level in drunks in Iraqi population and detected the role of VD3 in criminal behavior and correlation with Alcohol level, results show non sig. differences of age VD3 and significant elevation was observed of drunks body mass index (BMI). Alcohol concentration was 66 mg/cm3 in drunks. There were non-significant variations in VD3 and Alcohol levels in age and categories (p < 0.426, p < 0.692), respectively. The BMI categories observed to be affected in Alcohol level, obese has a high level of alcohol while the overweight has lower than normal W. but in non-significant differences (p 0.083). Slight variations were found in the VD3 level in non-sig differences also (p 0.650). The residence of drunks was significant effected in the VD3 that elevated in rural than urban (p < 0.042) while didn’t affect in the alcohol levels (0.815). The employment did not affect both VD3 and alcohol levels (p < 0.895, p < 0.161), respectively. The criminal behavior of drunks recorded low level of VD3 in the Paraphilias and high level in normal drunk than other criminal behavior in non-significant differences (p < 0.173). The level of alcohol also affected by criminal behavior in non-significant differences low level was observed in the drunks with position of drink and high level in the normal drunks (p 0.876). The correlation between VD3 and alcohol levels show non-significant weak inverse relation (r -0.275, p < 0.255). From current output, it can be concluded that VD3 may be affected in criminal behavior of drunks.

18. Correlation Between the Dopamine and ROS Levels in Depression Disorders
Zuhair I. Al Mashhadani, Muneam H. Ali, Mona N. Al-Terehi
Depression is one of the mode disorder diseases which recorded in high percentage in last years in the Iraqi population. The current study suggested to determine the correlation between dopamine level with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in depressed patients, results exhibit that ROS was higher in depressed patients than control in significant differences (p 0.000), dopamine decreased in patients in comparing with control in non-significant differences (p 0.273). The correlations among study variables in patient group were non-significant weak positive correlation between age and dopamine (r 0.033, p 0.894), non-significant inverse relation between BMI and dopamine (r -0.297, p 0.217), non-significant inverse weak correlation observed between Dopamine and ROS (r-0.069, p 0.780). The correlation between ROS and age was an inverse correlation (r -0.060, p 0.808) and with BMI weak positive correlation (r 0.190, P 0.790) in non-significant differences in both variables. In the control group the correlation between age and dopamine non-significant weak positive relation was observed (r 0.098, p 0.691). Non-significant inverse relation between BMI and dopamine (r -0.062, p 0.801), non-significant inverse weak correlation observed between Dopamine and ROS (r-0.064, p 0.794). The correlation between ROS and age was an inverse correlation (r -0.018, p 0.940) and with BMI inverse correlation (r -0.417, p 0.075) in non-significant differences in both variables. The current results concluded that the dopamine was slightly affected by ROS, age and BMI in depression patients.

19. The Glutathione S-Transferasee (GSTT and GSTM) Genotyping and Alcohol Level in Drunks
Mona N. Al-Terehi*, Usama S. Altimari, Abed J. Kadhim, Aamal M. Kadhum
Alcoholism is most the important problem is spreading among the young in the Iraqi population, studies found the health and social harmful effects of alcohol thus the present study deal with The Glutathioe S-Transferase in alcohol use disorder, the GSTT and GSTM genotyping was used in the current study, the current finding showed GSTT+GSTT was present in low percent in drunks than the control group in non-significant differences (p = 0.156). The GSTT found in high percent’s in drunks and control with null genotyping observed in non-significant differences (p = 0.801), the GSTM found in low percent in the drunks than control and null genotyping was higher in drunks than control in significant differences (p = 0.009). and finally the GSTT null GSTM and GSTM null GSTT were significant differences (p = 0.021), The levels of alcohol was detected according to GST genotyping, the high level of alcohol observed in GSTT+GSTM null genotyping (96.25 ± 22.58) while low percent observed (62.00 ± 2.00) in GSTM null GSTT, all differences were non-significant, it can be concluded that the GSTM null genotyping was strong association with alcohol use disorder, and the null genotyping of both GSTs genes have higher levels of alcohol than other genotyping.

20. The Genotyping Impact of X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 Gene in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Mona N. Al-Terehi, Zuhair I. Al Mashhadani, Muneam H. Ali
DNA repair genes have a vital role in a variety of diseases. The present investigates deal with X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1 Arg399Gln) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PCR-CTPP method used to detect polymorphism, the results show two alleles (A and G) and three genotyping (AA, AG, and GG), the present analysis shows that non-significant association between (AG and GG) with SLE patients (p = 0.3964), strong association with absent AA in patients than control (10%) in significant differences (p = 0.0322). can be concluded that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln may be affected in the SLE in Iraqi patients.

21. Effect of Smoking Habit in the Serotonin Level and 5-HTTLPR Gene Polymorphism
Mona N. Al-Terehi, Usama S. Altimari, Ola K. A. Alkadir
This study deals with the effect of smoking in the serotonin level and 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism. It included smoker and nonsmoker individuals, and blood samples were collected to an estimated serotonin level and DNA isolation for genotyping detection. The results reveal that smoking causes non-significant decreased in serotonin level (p < 0.605), and non-significant differences were observed with age and BMI. Among three genotypes LL, SS and LS, the LS were more observed in the non-smoker group while SS is more frequent in smoker group in non-significant differences (p < 0.764, 0.453), respectively. LL was a lower percentage in both groups. The allele frequency was detected by Hardy-Weinberg equation, where S allele was more observed in smoker (0.66) and non-smoker (0.58), respectively in non-significant differences (p < 0.2445). The serotonin level was decreased in LS and LL, respectively with significant changes in the smoker group (p < 0.032) while non-significant in non-smoker group (p < 0.466).

22. The tRNAleu Gene Variation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients
Mona N. Al-Terehi*, Ola K. A. Alkadir2, Zuhair I. Al-Mashhadani
The systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the immune molecules attach its own tissue, the present research implemented to detection tRNAleu gene variation in SLE by case control study. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing used to detection mutation, results show strong association between tRNAleu encoded gene and SLE disease and this represented by the high percentage of variation in patient than control group, deletion mutation were 80 nucleotides in patients and 50 nucleotides in the control group, and substitution mutations were 103 nucleotides in patients and 81 nucleotides in the control group, the different types of substitution mutations included (G>A, G>T, G>C, A>G, A>T, A>C, C>A, C>G, C>T, T>G, T>A and T>C) in significant differences (p = 0.007), the present study concludes that the variations in tRNAleu gene may be effect in the tRNA folding that lead to effect in amino acid transfer during protein synthesis.

23. Effects of Smoking and Alcoholism Comorbid in Reactive Oxygen Species, Alcohol and Serotonin Levels
Mohammed A. Jawad, Usama S. Altimari, Mona N. Al-Terehi*, Kareem N. Hussain
The alcoholism and smoking habit are the most important health, economy, and forensic problems in populations. These habits are related to free radicals, neurotransmitter and other molecules. The present study was conducted to estimate reactive oxygen species (ROS), serotonin and alcohol in smoker in alcohol use disorder, results showed that there was a high percent of drunks have a smoking habit (78.94%) and low percent did not smoker (21.01%), the levels of ROS, serotonin and alcohol in study group show decrease in all study variables in the smoker group in non-significant differences, The correlation among study variables pointed that in non-smoker group weak positive correlation observed between ROS and serotonin, while in smoker weak inverse correlation in non-sig, ROS was significant inverse correlation with alcohol in non-smoker (p 0.031), and in the smoker group was non-sig weak invers correlation, the serotonin correlated with ROS in weak invers relation in smoker while in non-smoker there was weak positive relation in non-sig for both groups, also there was weak inverse relation in smoker and weak positive in non-smoker group in non-significant relations. The current finding concluded that the smoking may be affected in serotonin and alcohol level in addition to the effects of alcohol, thus the health awareness should be applied among populations.

24. Comparison Between Pseudo- first-order and Pseudo-second-order of Linear and Nonlinear Equations Adsorption Kinetic Models for the Removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) onto Hydrogel
Ola K. A. Alkadir, Zuhair I. Al-Mashhadani, Aseel M. Aljeboree*, Ayad F. Alkaim
An experiment was conducted on kinetic model for the sorption of amoxicillin (AMX) by hydrogel. We studied the kinetics pseudo first-order (PFO) and kinetics pseudo second order (PSO) by linear and a nonlinear process. Nonlinear PFO and nonlinear PSO term evenly on prophesy that the qe value (qe(exp) =qe(cal) = 2.8999 and 2.947 mg/g) are at the same order comparative with linear PFO and PSO was applied straight line, the value of R2 is 0.9507 and 0.9707 and the qe value (qe(exp) =qe(cal) = 1.4420 and 2.4913 mg/g) at the same order. The sorption method was found to follow a both nonlinear kinetic model PFO and kinetic model PSO. Linear way was found to check only the hypothesis instead of verifying the model kinetic. Nonlinear regression way was found to be the more appropriate way to estimation the parameters kinetic model.

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