1. Biological and Phytochemical Screening of Fumaria indica extract on Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Reference to Biochemical Parameters
Irfan Aziz, Birendra Shrivastava, Chandana Venkateswara Rao, Sadath Ali
Liver disease or liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Hepatitis viral infection, food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins (aflatoxins), toxic industrial chemicals, air and water pollutants are the major risk factors of liver cancer. Moreover, due to high tolerance of liver, HCC is seldom detected at an early stage and once detected treatment faces a poor prognosis in most cases.Fumaria indica
possesses hepatoprotective activity as evidenced by the significant and dose dependent restoring the activities of entire liver cancer marker enzymes, diminution in tumor incidence, decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increase in the level of antioxidant enzymes (GSH, CAT, SOD, GPx and GST) through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidant, which then detoxify free radicals. These factors protect cells from ROS damage in NDEA and CCl4-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Histopathological observations of liver tissues too correlated with the biochemical observations. Thus, present investigation suggested that the Fumaria indica
would exert a chemoprotective effect by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by NDEA and CCl4. Besides Fumaria indica
is very much effective in preventing NDEA-induced multistage hepatocarcinogenesis possibly through antioxidant and antigenotoxic nature, which was confirmed by various liver injury and biochemical tumour markers enzymes. The hepatoprotective activity of a Fumaria indica
of 50 % ethanolic extract was studied using rats. The animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine 200mg/kg body wt followed by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3 ml/kg body wt. Fumaria indica
extract dose dependently and significantly the increase in serum hepatic enzyme levels after NDEA& CCl4 treatment compared to the toxin control group. The results of this study confirmed the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the Fumaria indica
extract against carbon tetrachloride& N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In addition to this, studies on molecular aspect of hepatoprotective therapy will give mechanistic information in hepatoprotective therapy and also critical balance should be there between the animal model and clinical research. The hepatoprotective properties of Fumaria indica
should provide useful information in the possible application in hepatic liver disease.
2. Colorimetric Determination of Amoxicillin in Pure and some Pharmaceutical Formulations Via Reaction with Potassium Permanganate as Oxidant Reagent
Abbas Shebeeb Al-kadumi, Sahar Rihan Fadhel, Mohammed Abdullah Ahmed, Luma Amer Musa
We proposed two simple, rapid, and convenient spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of Amoxicillin in bulk and its pharmaceutical preparations. They are based on the measurement of the flame atomic emission of potassium ion (in first method) and colorimetric determination of the green colored solution for manganite ion at 610 nm formed after reaction of Amoxicillin with potassium permanganate as oxidant agent (in the second method) in basic medium. The working conditions of the methods were investigated and optimized. Beer’s law plot showed a good correlation in the concentration range of 5-45 μg/ml. The detection limits and relative standared deviations were (2.573, 2.814 μg/ml) (2.137, 2.498) for the flame emission photometric method and (1.844, 2.016 μg/ml) (1.645,1.932) for colorimetric methods for capsules and suspensions respectively. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of Amoxicillin in capsules and suspensions, and the obtained results were in good agreement with the label claim. No interference was observed from the commonly encountered additives and expectancies.
3. Investigation of CASR Gene Polymorphism in the Patients with hypothyroidism Disease in Babylon Province
Rana A Ghalib, Ruqaya M J Awadh, Zahraa I Jameel
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a calcium (Ca2+) sensitive G protein-coupled receptor implicated in various biological processes. In particular, it regulates Ca2+/Mg2+- homeostasis and senses interstitial Ca2+ levels and thereby controls downstream signalling cascades. The results of PCR-SSCP for CASR gene illustrated that two different haplotypes according to the numbers of bands in the CASR gene including 6 and 7 bands. While, these haplotype was detected between two groups; in hypothrodisum patient groups and control, the results indicate that was association between 6 and 7 bands in patients as compared with a control group. Conclusion:
PCR-SSCP Is a good investigation technique to detection Casr
gene polymorphisms in patient with hypothyroidism
4. Isolation of Pathogenic Bacteria from some Male Barbershops in the City of Nasiriyah
Fadil G Alswedi, Amany S H Jaber
A study was conducted to evaluate bacterial contamination in hairdressing and beauty salons in Thi-Qar at Alnasiriyah city. Samples were collected from ten different salons. The samples were collected from scissors,comb, razor, dryer, sink, and table tools. The isolates obtained were examined and identified using microscopic examination, colonial morphology and biochemical characteristics. Six bacterial species were isolated and identified. The bacterial isolates include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus
spp, Micrococcus Spp,Enterococus
spp and Enterobacter
. Isolated from some men’s salons and shaving tools and the highest frequency of bacteria was in the salon of Nawras by 15%, Salon Ahmed by 12.5% , more bacterial isolation of shaving tools,sink,razor and the presence of this potential pathogen is an indication that hairdressing salons could be contributing to the spread of infection.
5.Association Serum Lipid Profile with Glutathione S- Transferas M and T genes Polymorphisms in Hypertension of Post-Menopausal Women
Fulla Abd Alsattar Alriyahee, Methaq J Al-Jboori, Mona N Al-Terehi
Hypertension has been the most health problem in the world; it caused morbidity and mortality by its complications, some factors contributed in incidence this disease. The present study as cried out to investigate lipid profile types levels in post menopause women suffered from hypertension. Samples and data were collected from patinas and control, then lipid profile cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) , Triglycerides (TG) , Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL). The results show that mean of age was 58.135±9.595 and 50.4±5.834 for patient and control respectively, body mass index was 31.61±6.86, 29.99±3.81 for patients and control respectively. More patients were overweight 48.27% and 40.54% of them have age less than 50 years. About 53.57% of patients had duration rang 5-10 years. The lipid profile levels were significant elevation in patients than control except TG , it were 447.83, 193, 414.43, 64.61 mg\dl for CHO, HDL, TG, LDL and VLDL respectively, The lipid profile levels positive associated with BMI in significant differences but didn’t association with age and duration of disease. This results concluded that there was strong association between blood pressure and lipid profile level in post- menopausal women and this related with BMI in Iraq the genotyping of GST genes GSTM and GSTT show significant differences between GSTT deletion and normal in patients and control , 83.73% of patients GSTT gene was deleted. the deletion in GSTM was high in patients than control (32.43%). Pattern of two genes which represented by two genes normal or two genes deleted show significant differences between study groups about 24.32% of patients had two genes deleted and low percentage of it (10.81%) had normal genes. When analysis normal gene with deleted gene for GSTM and GSTT , there was no significant differences between groups.
6. Hepatoprotective Activity of Some Indigenous Plants of Northern India Against Chronic Paracetamol Intoxication in Rats
Preeti Chaudhary, Shamim Ahmad, Najam Ali Khan
Liver diseases have become a global concern worldwide. Liver injury or its dysfunction is a major health problem. The principal causative factors for liver injury are the availability of hepatotoxic drugs, alcohol consumption, infection, malnutrition, anemia etc. In the present study the hydroalcholic extract of some plants of northern India was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against chronic paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The liver injury was induced by Paracetamol orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg, b.w for entire duration of study. The rats were divided in nine groups. Rats of group I served normal control and received distilled water. Rats of group II served as toxic control and received Paracetamol orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg, b.w of rats. Group III received Silymarin at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w, and served as standard. The animals of groups IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and IX served as test control groups. Protective effect of the hydroalcholic extract was assessed by measuring the levels of serum biomarkers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Bilirubin, serum albumin and total protein. Results of this study showed that the treatment of the hydroalcholic extract of plants at 400 mg/kg b.w, showed significant (*** P
< 0.001) reduction in elevated serum enzyme levels compared to paracetamol induced toxic group, indicating the protective role of plants extract against paracetamol induced chronic liver toxicity. Among the all plants Calotropis procera
at a dose of 400 mg/kg, b.w showed the most significant hepatoprotective activity.
7. In Vivo Anticancer Activity of Cleome viscose Linn. alcoholic extract and its fractions against Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) Cell Line
Singh Charanjeet, Ahuja Dharmendra, Mehta S C
The investigation aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer properties of alcoholic extracts and the fractions Cleome viscose
against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell lines in Swiss albino mice. In the case of EAC tumor, 24 hours after tumor inoculation, the extract and fractions are administered every day within 14 days. On the fifteenth day the mice were sacrificed to monitor antitumor activity. The effect of alcoholic extracts and their fraction in terms of mean survival time, percentage increase in life span, spleen weight, ascitic fluid volume, ascitic fluid volume and angiogenesis of EAC-bearing mice and simultaneous alteration in hematological profile were estimated. Alcoholic extracts and their fractures exhibited an impact on mean survival time, percentage increase in life span, spleen weight, ascitic fluid volume, ascitic fluid volume, angiogenesis and haematological parameters in EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile was reverted to normal level in the extracts and their fractions treated mice. From the current study of alcoholic extracts and its fraction of Cleome viscose
exhibited antitumor action in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of standard drug. So, the current research provides a scientific basis for the curative use of Cleome viscose
Linn. Which are largely attributable to the improver or synergies effect of their constituents.
8. Immunological study of Parvovirus B19 in aborted women in Al-Ramadi city
Muntaha M.H.Al-Alouci, Huda Rafaa Al-Alwani
Background: Infection of parvovirus is highly spread that may affect 1-5% of pregnant women mainly in normal pregnancy outcomes. Infection is almost sub-immunogenic level and the viral copies are usually under control of immune system especially the antibodies against B19 V. IgM of parvovirus appears with 2-3 days of infection and remain until 6 months, while IgG appears after few days of IgM detection and remain present for life. The aim of the study: To determine the prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection and if the women are immunized or not against this virus infection through testing process for both IgM and IgG. Patients and methods: Fifty pregnant women with spontaneous abortion were conducted in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from all participants after the abortion and parvovirus IgM and IgG titer were measured by ELISA method. Results: All participants of aborted women were negative IgM antibody, while IgG antibody was positive in 58% from total number and remaining percent was negative for IgG. Conclusions: Infection with parvovirus give the women immune response and become immunized against Parvovirus this mean the infection present in our community. Therefore, serological screenings must be involved to routine work to detect the infections in childbearing age group of women.
9. Relation of Homocysteine with Malondialdehyde and Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases
Khalid Shaalan Sahab, Ali S Mahmoud Al-Saadi
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic disorder widely prevalent throughout the world. DM is characterized by elevation of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Hyperglycemia, with time, led to several serious macro and mircovascular complications. The purpose of study was to investigate the relation of Homocysteine (Hcy) with oxidative stress (malondialdehyde”MDA”) and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery diseases in comparison to patients of coronary artery diseases (CAD) without DM. Methods: The present study included 60 patients of coronary artery disease. Patients divided into two groups: group1 = 30 coronary artery disease patients without diabetic and group2 = 30 coronary artery disease patients with type2 diabetes. Homocysteine was estimated by competitive ELISA test using commercially available kit. MDA was estimated by colorimetric method. Lipid profiles were determined by using commercial available kits. Results: Plasma levels of Hcy and MDA in group1 and group2 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than controls. In group1 Hcy shows significant (P<0.05) positive correlation with MDA and Total Cholesterol (TC). Hcy shows no significant (p>0.05) positive correlation with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and Triglyceride (TG). Hcy shows negative significant (p<0.05) correlation with high density lipoprotein (HDL). While in group2 Hcy shows significant (P<0.05) positive correlation with MDA, TC, VLDL, LDL and TG. Hcy shows negative significant (p<0.05) correlation with HDL. Hcy, MDA, TC, TG, LDL and VLDL were higher without significant in CAD diabetic patients than non-diabetic CAD patients. HDL was lower in diabetic coronary artery disease patients than non-diabetic coronary artery disease patients but without significant importance. Conclusion: In this study Hcy and MDA levels obtained were found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia in patients in both groups. Hcy may be one of the cause for development and progress of macro- and microvascular disease. Hcy, MDA and dyslipidemia were higher in CAD with DM than CAD without DM this shows that hyperglycemia may be is another factor to increase atherosclerotic process.
10. Physiological and Histological Study to the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate in Laboratory male Rats and the protective role of vitamin E
Genan Musheer Ghaib AL-Khatawi, Mohammed R S AL-Attabi, Ali Fayadh Bargooth
The current study was conducted at the Department of Biology, College of Science, Wasit University to investigate physiological and histological effect monosodium glutamate in laboratory male rats, preventive role of vitamin E. This study was carried out in Laboratories of College of Science, Wasit University, AL- Shaheed Dr. Fairooz Hospitals, from November 2017 to April 2018.The study included twenty-four and divided into four groups (six rats per group). the first group severe as a control group orally dosed with distilled water, and treated the second group (100 mg/kg b.w. Monosodium glutamate for 30 days, and the third group were dosed orally 200 mg/kg of b.w. for 30 days, either The fourth group were dosed with a mixture of Monosodium glutamate 200mg/kg and vitamin E 100 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days. after the trial period has been sacrificing animals for testing and chemical standards physiological and histological. As are result of by exposure to Monosodium glutamate in blood serum are negatively biochemical whole height of the level of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, Low-density lipoprotein, very- low density lipoprotein, liver enzymes, AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine level, urea serum, further more we noticed a decrease in high density lipoprotein. The preventive treatment resulted in vitamin E 100mg/kg b.w. with Monosodium glutamate 200 mg/kg b.w. (p≤ 0.05) in body weight and relative weights of organs (liver and kidney). We noticed a higher moral when treatment with vitamin E with Monosodium glutamate 100 mg/kg in high- density lipoprotein, while serum cholesterol level decrease, triglycerides, Low-density lipoprotein, very- low density lipoprotein. And liver and kidney functions have improved by low Enzyme AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine and urea serum level. Histological examination revealed that the liver and kidneys, of rats exposed 100, 200 mg/kg of Monosodium glutamate has been adversely affected by exposure to Monosodium glutamate. Whereas, the histological of the liver of animals treated with vitamin E with Monosodium glutamate natural pictures showed improvement. These results demonstrate that MSG toxic effects on the liver and kidney tissue. The more toxic than salt rate too. The study recommends to avoid using MSG as food additives and food for animals because of the toxic effects of this salt.
11. Studying Some Factors Affecting in Gingivitis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus
Miaad Hamzah Zghair, Manar Saad Hussain, Atyaf Ali Sahib
This study was performed to isolate and identify the Staphylococcus aureus
which is associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in patients aged between (15-70) years old from both gender. All patients have no antibiotic for three days at lees to state the relationship between gender, smoking, miswak, toothpaste, milk and sugar with black tea. The results show that smoking and miswak are the most influence factors under study on Staphylococcus aureus
infection in both genders. The percentage of S. aureus
was isolated with 71% from males and 29% from females, 77% of them were nonsmoker 10% smoke little and 13% smoke much and 97 % of them were nonmiswak users, 3% use it little. 35% of them were non toothpaste users and 52% use it little while 13% use it much. 55% of them didn’t drink milk at all, 6% drink little and 39% drink it much. 32% of them drink black tea without sugar, 36% use it little and 32% use much sugar. Erythromycin shows biggest inhibition zone with Methicillin resistance S
that also sensitive to Azithroomycin, but it was resistance to Gentamycin, Oxacillin, Tetracycline, and Trimethoprim.
12. Molecular Study of AHR Gene Polymorphisms among Iraqi Women Staff Working in Radiotherapy Units
Wathiq A Al-Draghi, Mushtaq T Hassan
Radiation may impact the DNA directly, causing its ionization or cause an indirect action in this case, the radiation interacts with non-critical target atoms or molecules, usually water which results in the production of free radicals. These free radicals can then attack critical targets such as the DNA. Radiation is considered carcinogenic. in this study were the evaluation the Ahr gene polymorphisms among Iraqi staff working in radiotherapy units. This case control study include two groups : fifteen healthy women as control group and fifteen radiologist. Ahr polymorphism has been done at two loci G1721A and G1768A using alleles specific PCR. Nucleotide polymorphism variants and different genotypes of Ahr
gene have important roles in the development of cancer. This was mainly seen in Ahr polymorphism in GG and GT variants of G1721A, GG and GT variants of G1768A. High risk of radiation damage was noticed in the GG1768 genotype where (OR=3.25(0.5185-20.3704),p=0.2082)and (RR=2.49) also GT1721 genotype It can reflect radiation risks where (OR=1.62(0.2303-11.464)and (RR=1.5). All these results imply that SNPs studies must be conducted on cancer patients and radiation staffs as routine investigation to watch for and prevent DNA damage as much as possible.
13. Personalized medicine: An overview
Vijay Mishra, Puja Chanda, Murtaza M. Tambuwala, Ashish Suttee
Personalized medicine is a model for health care which is a combination of preventive, personalized, participatory and predictive measures. It is an approach for better treatment by identifying the disease causing genomic makeup of an individual. Personalized medicine is a broad field and it can be used for the diagnosis of various diseases like cancers, Alzheimer, Hepatitis, Cardiac diseases etc. It is an emerging field with lots of hope in the future. This review is basically based on characteristics of personalized medicine and its implementation in various diseases like lung cancer, renal cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. Further, the initiation taken by the European Union towards the development of personalized medicine and the challenges faced during the data collection, development of medicine and clinical trials were also discussed. The personalized medicine coalitions (PMC) have approved various novel medicines as personalized medicine under US FDA.
14. Evaluation of Liver Protective Activity of Some Indigenous Plants Against Acute Paracetamol Toxicity in Rodents
Preeti Chaudhary, Shamim Ahmad, Najam Ali Khan
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the liver protective activity of some indigenous plants against acute paracetamol toxicity in rodents. Liver intoxication was induced by paracetamol drug at a dose level of 500 mg/kg b.w, p.o for 9 days. To conduct this study the hydroalcholic extract of Prunus persica, Calotropis procera
and Canscora decussate
were taken as test compounds. Methods: Rats (180-200 g) were used for all the study and they were divided into 9 groups containing 6 animals each. Rats in Group I served as normal control (distilled water) group, Group II served as toxic control (Paracetamol treated) group, Group III served as standard (Silymarin) group. The rats of groups IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and IX served as test control groups. Group IV, V received the hydroalcoholic extract of Prunus persica
at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, p.o respectively for 9 days. Group VI, VII received the hydroalcoholic extract of Calotropis procera
at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, p.o respectively for 9 days. Group VIII and IX received the hydroalcoholic extract of Canscora decussate
at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, p.o respectively for 9 days. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and total protein and albumin. Results: Results of this study showed that the treatment of the toxic effect of the paracetamol were significantly controlled in the hydroalcoholic extract of plants treated groups. The hydroalcholic extract of plants at 400 mg/kg b.w, showed significant reduction in elevated serum enzyme levels compared to paracetamol induced toxic group. The hydroalcoholic extract of Calotropis procera
at a dose of 400 mg/kg, b.w showed the most significant hepatoprotective activity among all the test groups. Conclusion: From the results it was concluded that the all the test plants extract possess significant Hepatoprotective activity which was manifested by restoration of serum biochemical parameters to nearer the normal values. On the basis of results obtained, it can also be concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of Plants seems to have hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids.
15. Determination of Rifampicin in Pure form and Pharmaceutical Preparations by Using Merging Zone-Continuous Flow Injection Analysis
Marowa H Abbas, Dakhil N Taha
A simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been established for determination of rifampicin in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations by using merging zone-continuous flow injection analysis technique. The proposed method based on formation of a violet blackish colored complex between rifampicin and copper ion (II) at absorptivity maximum (565nm). Chemical and physical parameters of this system were investigated. Beers law was obeyed in the concentration range of (5-100µg.mL-1
) with detection limit (3µg.mL-1
) and Dispersion coefficient (1.28). The analytical parameters were optimized as the fallowing: flow rate is (2ml.min), reaction coil is (75cm), volume of rifampicin is (150µL), volume of copper ion is (125 µL), and concentration of copper ion is (100µg.mL-1
). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of the rifampicin in its pharmaceutical preparations.
16. Isolation and Identification of Bacteroides fragilis in Baghdad
Luma Yousif Mehdi, Mayada Noori Iqbal, Zeina Anwar Jaffar
” are “anaerobic bacteria”that cause diversified infections such as “diarrhea” and “colorectal cancer, intra-abdominal infection, “postoperative wound infection, and the most antibiotic-resistant among the anaerobic bacteria. This study for determination of the prevalence of B. fragilis
from patients suffering from “diarrhea,”Colorectal cancer, “Abdominal surgical abscesses and “Vaginal inflammation” and to determine the resistance of isolated against antibiotics. Samples of (145) patients with different casese were taken from “Baghdad hospitals, by using culture, “Api 20A kit” and “PCR” were used to detect and confirm “isolation and identification” of B. Fragilis
,”disk diffusion” was performed for” antibiotic resistance. The prevalence rates of”infection” cases increased among “children suffering from diarrhea” were (11.7%), and colorectal cancer” among “elderly” people were (11%), “abdominal surgical” abscesses were (9.7%) respectively, and “resistance to most antibiotics. This study revealed that the “ B. Fragilis
” are important pathogens that frequently cause various infections, the “antimicrobial resistance” has accretion. The future advances research should explain the epidemiology of enterotoxigenic and also participate to the prevention of outbreaks human diseases.
17. Study of Thermodynamic Variables to Adsorption of Aldomete Drug (Methyldopa) from its Water Solution on the Nano Zinc Oxide Surface
Zainab A Hussein, Salih M Haddawi, Ali A Kadhim
The experiment was carried out to study the adsorption of aldomete on the surface of nano zinc oxide and its effectiveness in drug adsorption which causes poisoning in the case of doses exceeding the usual doses. UV spectroscopy technique was used to follow the concentration of the drug in the water solution after mixing it with 0.1 g of nano zinc oxide, and different solutions of the drug were used to obtain the adsorption isotherm and tested the applicability of the Lancmair and Freundlich equation for isotherm of the adsorption. The effect of temperature was investigated within the range (298 – 328) Kelvin and the best temperature was 298 Kelvin. The effect of time was also investigated within the range (30-180), and it was found that the largest amount of adsorption at time was 180 minutes. The adsorption was studied at pH = 1 and the thermodynamic functions (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) were calculated, and the effect of ionic intensity on adsorption was studied by adding (0.1 M) of potassium chloride, it was found that the amount of adsorption of the drug on the surface of the nano zinc oxide increased with the presence of salt and showed the study of the ability of nano zinc oxide to adsorption the drug with highly efficiency.
18. Potentially Inappropriate Medications Use in A Population of Iraqi Geriatric Outpatients According to Beers Criteria
Ola Albaghdadi, Salam W Ahjel, Mohammad Hassan Morteza, Firas Aziz Rahi
Aims: Elderly in Iraq kept suffering multiple burdens, as they are a truly fragile and vulnerable segment. A major public health issue among elderly is adverse drug reactions. This study is aimed at contributing in overcoming this treatment gap by determining the prevalence of inappropriate medications used by a group of Iraqi elderly outpatients. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted in a sample of 85 Iraqi elderly aged ≥65 years of either gender. Participants had face-to-face interviews to answer a comprehensive questionnaire. Each drug taken by the patient was evaluated according to Beers criteria. Results: Females constituted 45.9% of the total. The average age was 69.9 years (± 4.6). Nearly 30% of the patients had 3 different diseases, and 17.8% had ≥4 different ones, with cardiovascular diseases were the most prevalent. Polypharmacy was notably identified in 47.1% of the total studied population. Twenty-eight out of 85 patients did not know the actual reason of taking at least one of their medications, and 42% were not taking their drugs as directed. Remarkably, 43.5% of patients were recognized as taking at least one medication to be avoided in elderly people according to the Beers criteria. The most common inappropriate drugs were glyburide, and proton-pump inhibitors. Conclusion: There was an obvious absence of any role of pharmacists in the health care system for our studied population. Health care professionals are encouraged to review the medications prescribed for geriatric patients using updated safety guidelines to prevent the risks associated with potentially inappropriate medications.
19. Correlation between TGF-β1 with Immunoglobulin IgG in Patients with Periodontitis
Najla naji AL-Khuzai, Siham jasim AL-Kaabi
Periodontitis is a microbially driven inflammatory conditions of the gingiva causing destruction of the ligaments and alveolar bone supporting the teeth resulting in oral malodor and tooth loss. The aim of the present research was to estimate the serum level of TGF-β1 in patients with periodontitis compared with healthy individual and to assess the relationship between the TGF-β1serum and the Immunoglobulin(IgG). A total of 60 patients were included in this research and 20 individuals was healthy group. Serum samples separated from the whole blood of patients and healthy. Level of TGF-β1 was determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed statistically significant elevation in level of TGF-β1 in patients than in healthy group and there was a significant correlation between the levels of TGF-β1 and immunoglobulin IgG in patients with periodontitis.
20. The Value of Using Tagman Real-time PCR, Phenol-Auramine Stain and Ziehl-Neelsen Stain in The Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Fine-Needle Aspiration Material
Mazin J Mousa, Hayder Makki Al-Hindi, Hayder Sabeeh Al Saffar
Pulmonary tuberculosis represents a growing health problem among Iraqi population with the emergence of an increasing number of new cases each year. The diagnosis of tuberculosis relies upon the identification of TB bacilli in the sputum of suspected patients, traditionally done by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain, along with other diagnostic modalities including culture, PCR study and phenol auramine (PA) stain, nevertheless; some patients may present with advanced disease (post primary, lung mass or cavitary lesions with mediastinal lymphadenopathy), sometimes mimicking lung tumours, necessitating fine needle aspiration (FNA) to exclude other pathologies. In order to evaluate the usefulness of different real-time PCR, PA and ZN stains, 102 patients subjected to fine needle aspiration were included in this study. Tagman real-time PCR, PA stain and ZN stain were applied to 23 out of 102, in which malignancy was excluded and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was suspicious. Tagman real-time PCR was highly accurate, specific and sensitive (100%), while both PA and ZN stain revealed sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 54.5% vs. 45.4%, 35.9% vs. 27.77%, and 78.2% vs. 73.9% respectively.
21. Phenotypic Detection and Biofilm Formation among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Different Sites of Infection
Ilham A Bunyan, Oday M Hadi, Hussein A K Al-Mansoori
In The present study, included the collection of (100) samples from different clinical sites. Clinical samples were collected from patients who were visit and admitted All-Hilla teaching hospital at the period from November (2017) to February (2018). Cultural, biochemical and VITEK2
system were used for identification, and depending on the VITEK2
GN Kit), revealed that twenty one (21) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolates were recovered, The percentage conformational identification of P. aeruginosa
was performed using VITEK2
system of (21) P. aeruginosa
was (99%). Nine(42.8%) samples were isolated from burns, 5(23.8%) samples from wound, 3(14.2%) from urine, 2(9.5%) from ear swab, and 1(4.7%) sample was isolated from both blood and sputum. The phenotypic detection of some virulence factors for all isolates were detected. Detection of capsule was done by using capsule staining technique was carried out for P. aeruginosa
isolates; it was found that all P. aeruginosa
isolates (100%) have a capsule surrounding the bacterial cell. Hemolysin production by P. aeruginosa
was studied; it was found that 12(57.1%) isolates were able to produce extracellular hemolysin on blood agar. P. aeruginosa
isolates were also investigated for their ability to produce siderophores. The results showed that 9(42.8%) isolates of P. aeruginosa
were able to produce siderophores. Protease production by P. aeruginosa
isolates was studied; it was found that all these isolates (100%) have this enzyme as appear as a zone around the colony when being grown on (M9
) media after adding of (3ml) of (5%) Trichloroacetic acid and incubation for (24 hrs.). Ability of P. aeruginosa
to produce lipase has been investigated; it found that all these isolates (100%) were able to produce lipase after incubation for (48 hrs.) on egg yolk agar. Also, bacterial biofilms cause chronic diseases that are difficult to control and in the present study, differentiation of bacteria as biofilm producers and non-biofilm producers was done by using (ELISA) TCP method, a total of (21) isolates were tested for their ability to produce biofilm. From these isolates, (19) isolates were form strong biofilm, (2) isolates were form moderate biofilm.
22. Spectrophotometric determination of Drug Clonazepam in Pure form and Pharmaceutical Tablets by Oxidative Coupling Reaction with Chlorpromazine hydrochloride
Nahlah Salman Saddam, K H Kadhim
Sensitive, simple and a Precise spectrophotometric methods were development for the estimation reduced clonazepam (CZP) in purity form and in the pharmaceutical tablets from through using potassium bromate as oxidizing reagent for the drug and Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride (CPZ.HCL) as new chromogenic reagent. That led to forms colored products with a maximum absorbance of 530 nm. For the conditions reaction have been studied and optimized. The linearity range for Clonazepam was 0.05–3.5 μg/ ml, while the detections limit 0.0061 and the quantification limit 0.020 μg ml-1
. The Molar Absorptivity 1.381×104
L/ mol cm with Shandell’s sensitivity 0.0228 μg. cm-2
. Finally the proposed methods were successfully Appling for estimation CZP in pure form and commercial formulations.
23. The Design and Evaluation of a Novel Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitor Through in Silico Approach
Hasanain Abdulhameed Odhar, Safaa Muhsen Kareem, Mohammed Ridha A Alhaideri, Mohammed Abbas Hasan, Werner J Geldenhuys
Parkinson’s disease is an age related neurodegenerative disease. Pioglitazone is a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist that has been shown to display a neuroprotective effect in parkinsonian models (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine treated mice). This effect was partially attributed to the ability of thiazolidinedione (TZD) moiety in Pioglitazone to selectively inhibit monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) enzyme. In the current study, we screened several thiazolidine containing compounds against MAO-B enzyme both in silico and in vitro. Based on the resulted data and information from previous literatures, we were able to design a novel scaffold for MAO-B inhibitors. This scaffold (compound 5482440) was able to inhibit MAO-B enzyme with IC50
value of 1.447 µM. Structure-based virtual analysis showed that this compound was able to participate in water-bridge formation and obtain an extended conformation within MAO-B active site.
24. Assessment the Incidence of Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Bladder Cancer
Mahdi M. Al-Thuwaini, Sabah H. Enayah, Mohammed Abdul Azeez Ali Alwzy, Alyaa Abed_Al Husieen Hafeh
Background: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract and the third most common cause of death among people with genitourinary tumors, besides, tumors of the bladder are an important source of both morbidity and mortality. Objectives: The purpose of the study are 1. formulate an idea about the number of patients with bladder cancer (TCCs) in sample of Iraqi population. 2. Study the histopathological features of TCCs of bladder 3. Assessment the prevalence of (TCC) of bladder in both sex (male and female) with smoking as risk factor. Patients and Methods: A study was conducted at one institution were identified that teaching-hospital of Baghdad. All patients included in the present study diagnostic with TCC of bladder. The total of subjects participated in the study were 42 patients and 20 subjects as control through six months’ period from July 2014 to January 2015. Results: The mean of participates age was 65±5.7 years and the youngest was 21years and the oldest was 75 years. Out of 42 patients, the most common age group was 54-64years (52.38%) with Male to female ratio was 5.2:1.32 were male 32 and 10 were females. However, the prevalence bladder cancer (TCCs) was higher in male than in female, with more pronounced decreases in younger age (≤31year) 3(7.14), have been found. In addition, age specific rate was observed higher in the older age groups for most patients with cancer. The population attributable risk for ever smoking in our study was 33(78.57) out of 42 patients. Moreover, current study shows there was a correlation between grade and stage of bladder TCC, 24(57.14%) bladder TCCs that classified as grade I, while 2(4.76%) of bladder TCC were classified as grade II. Conversely, of the bladder TCC lesions (11.9%, 14.28%, 57.14 and 4.76) were stage (pTa-T1-T2-T3) respectively. Although this study showed 5(11.9) little-known stage and grade. The area of histopathological changes included were showed hyperplastic changes, involving the entire bladder lining, that ranged from flat hyperplasia to small areas of nodular and papillary hyperplasia. The smallest recognizable nodular and papillary lesions were associated with angiogenesis in the contiguous stroma. In addition, there were chromatin irregularities and nucleoli of variable numbers, shape and size. Nuclear chromatin irregularity and mitoses were easily identified, these cells continued to have the appearance of hyperplastic epithelium. The changes noted by generalized and orderly proliferative reaction and appeared reparative. Conclusions: Our study has revealed that the bladder TCC, where appeared the high prevalence and incidence rate of TCC of bladder in sample of Iraqi population were of concern, especially for older age groups.
Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effect of Wrightia tinctoria
Singh Charanjeet, Ahuja Dharmendra, Mehta S C
The ayurvedic medicine system of prescription suggests Wrightia tinctoria
Roxb. (Apocynaceae), for the treatment of tumors. The investigation is required as malignant growth is the second most basic reason for death on the planet; the greater part of the customary medications have appeared, minimal effort approaches, and higher harmfulness of the current drugs. The present examination means to decide the method of cell death instigated by the alcoholic extract fractions of Wrightia tinctoria
on human malignant growth cell lines. Amongst crude alcoholic extract of Wrightia tinctoria
Roxb. investigate for potential anticancer action, there are two fractions selected for investigation these are WTD (dichloromethane fraction) and WTE (ethyl acetate fraction) hey were found to have capable cytotoxic potential on all cancerous cell lines contemplated by MTT test and SRB test. Ethyl acetate fraction found to have increasingly powerful action in A549, U343HeLa, BT549 and HCT15 cells lines. Strangely, ethyl acetate was less cytotoxic in HBL-100 cell line, demonstrate the particular action towards malignant growth cells. AO/EB staining assay and Hoechst-33342 staining assay demonstrate membrane blebbing, consolidated and fragmented nuclei upon treatment with ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fraction in A549, U343 and HeLa cell lines. DNA fragmentation stepping stool and genomic DNA discontinuity were seen with DNA fragmentation test dependent on gel electrophoresis and COMET test by fluorescent microscopy method. Essentially, cell cycle examination by flow cytometer demonstrates mutilation of ordinary cell cycle and expanded subG0
phase. Ethyl acetate fraction was found genotoxic by micronuclei development. These outcomes show that both fractions instigate apoptosis however not cells decomposition in the malignant growth cells. This plant keeps potent anticancer activity in vivo and further researches are to recognize the responsible phytoconstituents and mechanism of action.
26. Biological and Phytochemical Screening of Tephrosia purpurea
extract on Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Reference to Biochemical Parameters
Irfan Aziz, Birendra Shrivastava, Chandana Venkateswara Rao, Sadath Ali
possesses hepatoprotective activity as evidenced by the significant and dose dependent restoring the activities of entire liver cancer marker enzymes, diminution in tumor incidence, decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increase in the level of antioxidant enzymes (GSH, CAT, SOD, GPx and GST) through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidant, which then detoxify free radicals. These factors protect cells from ROS damage in NDEA and CCl4-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Histopathological observations of liver tissues too correlated with the biochemical observations. Thus, present investigation suggested that the Tephrosia purpurea
would exert a chemoprotective effect by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by NDEA and CCl4. Besides Tephrosia purpurea
is very much effective in preventing NDEA-induced multistage hepatocarcinogenesis possibly through antioxidant and antigenotoxic nature, which was confirmed by various liver injury and biochemical tumour markers enzymes. The hepatoprotective activity of aTephrosia purpurea
of 50 % ethanolic extract was studied using rats. The animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine 200mg/kg body wt followed by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3 ml/kg body wt.Tephrosia purpurea
extract dose dependently and significantly the increase in serum hepatic enzyme levels after NDEA& CCl4 treatment compared to the toxin control group. The results of this study confirmed the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the Tephrosia purpurea
extract against carbon tetrachloride& N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats.