International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

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1. Corn Starch in Pharmaceuticals Isolation, Characterization, and Applications
Insan S. Kurniawansyah, Iyan Sopyan, Arif Budiman
Starch is one of the most widely used excipients in the manufacturing of solid dosages in the pharmaceutical product field. Generally, the most widely used is corn starch. Corn starch was isolated from maize seeds that were grinded and precipitated to obtain starch deposition. The characterization of physicochemical properties of corn starch can be done through color testing, solubility test, water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC), chemical composition, amylose content, swelling and solubility index, bulk density, and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) device. Applications of corn starch in the pharmaceutical field can be used as a binder-disintegrant tablet, binder, and tablet filler.

2. Method Development and Validation for Famciclovir and Valacyclovir by using UPLC and its Degradants are Characterized by LC-MS/MS
Santha Kumari K, Mohan S, Prasada Rao K
An easy receptive technique was studied to evaluate valacyclovir and famciclovir in the tablet formulation using ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC). This method involves the separation by chromatographic technique with a Luna C18 column (100 mmxv 2.6 mm, 1.6 μ). OPA (Ortho phosphoric acid, 0.1%) and 30:70 v/v acetonitrile act as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, using an ambient temperature. The UV spectral data has recorded at about 230 nm. Using these conditions, we got good linearity results in the range of 10–150 μg/mL of valacyclovir and 2.5–37.5 μg/mL of famciclovir using the UPLC technique. With the help of the assay method mentioned above, the results of the other validation UPLC parameters like accuracy, degradation studies system precision, robustness, and method precision were present within the allowed limits as per the guidelines given by international council for harmonization (ICH).

3. Diagnostic Analysis and Graphical Optimization of Fenoprofen Calcium-loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers using Design of Experiments
Ishrat Zahoor, Neelam Sharma, Tapan Behl, Sukhbir Singh
The present research aims to investigate optimized parameters for the formulation of Fenoprofen calcium-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (FEN-NLC) by emulsion evaporation-solidification at low temperature using Compritol 888 as solid lipid and oleic acid as liquid lipid. Box-Behnken design was utilized for optimization of formulation and process variables like solid lipid: liquid lipid (X1), stirring speed (rpm) (X2), and emulsifier concentration (% v/v) (X3) using Design-Expert software. The Pareto chart demonstrated that X1 and X2 produced significant synergistic effects. At the same time, X3 had a significant antagonistic effect on percentage entrapment efficiency (Y1), while X1, X2, and X3 exerted significant synergistic influence on flux (μg/cm2/hr) (Y2) and percentage yield (Y3) (*p < 0.05). The model fit summary statistical analysis revealed that the quadratic model was the best model for Y1-Y3 as this model showed significant sequential p-value (*p < 0.05), insignificant lack of fit p-value (p > 0.05), least standard deviation and maximum R² value for Y1-Y3. Diagnostic analysis of response parameter values authenticated the competence and reliability of their actual and predicted values as the residual values were exceptionally fitted within the limit of ± 4. Conclusively, Design-Expert software generated an optimization ramp report to explore optimized FEN-NLC with a desirability function of 0.874. The optimization ramps revealed that the coded values of optimized FEN-NLC were 0.561, 0.999, and 0.999 for X1, X2, and X3, respectively, with predicted values of 72.98%, 136.19 μg/cm2/hr and 92.889% for Y1, Y2 and Y3, respectively.

4. Standardized Analytical Procedure for Routine Testing of Amlodipine Besilate and Enalapril Maleate Simultaneously in In-vitro Samples
Deepak Sharma, M. M. Gupta, C. S. Tailor
This study develops a standardized methodology for routine analysis of in-vitro samples of amlodipine besilate and enalapril maleate concurrently in immediate-release tablet dosage forms. UV-detection was performed at absorption maxima of 237.20 nm and 217.00 nm for amlodipine besilate and enalapril maleate, respectively; 6.8 pH phosphate buffer was used as dissolution media for 30 mintues, on USP II (Paddle) dissolution apparatus, at 50 RPM and 37.0 ± 0.5oC. The fallouts of the analysis were endorsed statistically. Results were satisfactory in the arrays of 1–19 μg mL-1 for amlodipine besilate and 1–9 μg mL-1 for enalapril maleate. The analysis results exhibited that the projected simultaneous method is modest, swift, precise, and accurate and used for the repetitive analysis of dissolution samples of amlodipine besilate and enalapril maleate in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms (tablets).

5. Attitudes and Practices regarding Nosocomial Infection among a Sample of Para-medical staff in Al-Najaf Governorate
Rose N. Fadiel, Ishraq A. Chiad, Suha A. Kadhum
Background: Nosocomial infection occurs in a patient during care in a hospital or other healthcare facility that was not present or incubating at the time of admission. Objectives: To determine the level of attitudes and practices regarding nosocomial infection among a sample of para-medical. Subject and Methods: This observational descriptive cross-sectional study was done at nine hospitals in the Al-Najaf governorate. The data collection continued for four months, started from the period of 13th December 2020 continued to 18th April 2021. Results: The current study was conducted on (600) Para-medical staff with age groups ranging from (20–59) years, and the highest percentage (63.8%) were from (20–29) years age group. While in gender, the highest percentage of females was 57.5%. The greater number of participants were institute (50.5%) total number was lowest percentage (17.3%) to secondary school, only (18.0%) of para-medical staff had training about nosocomial infection the most para-medical staff (79.2%) was acceptable attitude score and 56.7% was acceptable practice scores about nosocomial infection. Conclusion: Most of the studied samples (para-medical staff) had acceptable attitudes and practice scores. Recommendation: Health education programs about nosocomial infection, causes of nosocomial infection, how spread the infection and how to prevent and control it.

6. The Influence of Ph and Temperature on the Antimicrobial Activity of Cell-free Supernatant of Lactobacillus plantarum Sn13t Isolated from Stingless Bee Honey (Galo-Galo)
Melia S, Aritonang SN, Juliyarsi I, Kurnia YF, Rusdimansyah
This study aimed to measure the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum SN13T cell-free supernatant against bacterial pathogens at different pH and temperatures. L. plantarum SN13T was isolated from stingless bee honey (galo-galo). Some pathogenic bacteria were tested, namely Listeria monocytogenes VTO, Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter baumani, and Escherichia coli. Cell-free supernatant (CFS) L. plantarum SN13T had antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity of CFS L. plantarum SN13T at pH 2 was against Salmonella bacteria (23.9 mm), and the smallest inhibition (10.2 mm) was against Acinetobacter baumani. While at pH 4, the highest antimicrobial activity of CFS was found in E. coli with an inhibition zone of 26.9 mm. CFS L. plantarum SN13T at different temperatures still had antimicrobial activity, even at more than 121oC. CFS L. plantarum SN13T produced the highest antimicrobial properties against Pseudomonas, both at 70, 100, and 121oC, while the lowest antimicrobial activity was shown against L. monocytogenes VTO.

7. Development and Validation of UV-spectroscopic Technique for Simultaneous Estimation of Canagliflozin and Metformin Hydrochloride in Synthetic Mixture
Shilpi Pathak
Metformin and Canagliflozin are both anti-diabetic solid drugs. They reported harmonious action when delivered in combination. This research article established a cheap correct, rugged, and sensitive method to simultaneously estimate Canagliflozin and Metformin. The drug Canagliflozin and Metformin have absorption maxima at 290 nm and 232 nm, respectively. Canagliflozin and metformin in the developed method indicated calibration curve plot in the range of 8 to 12 μg/mL and 40 to 60 μg/mL having regression values of 0.997 and 0.988, respectively. The accuracy reading results data presented recovery of the standard drug in the range of 98–102% with a standard deviation of less than 2. Intra-day and inter-day reading effects were also obtained in the standard limits, presenting the precision of the procedure. Therefore, it could be concluded that the established technique was correct, precise, and exact with sufficient sensitivity and effectively understood for the simultaneous estimation of Canagliflozin and Metformin in their combined dosage during the routine study work.

8. Calcium Channel Blockers as Hepatoprotective agents in Paracetamol and Alcohol-induced Hepatotoxicity Models (Preventive Method) in Rats
Kola Venu, Jala Sirikonda, Gudas G. Kumar, Chinthala S. Bindu, Eddla S. Jyothi, Chamakuri S. Rao
Objective: To study the hepatoprotective activity of 3 Ca++ channel blockers namely felodipine (FEL), lercanidipine (LER), and isradipine (ISR) with three selected doses i.e; 1/4th TD, 1/2nd TD, and TD in paracetamol (PCM) and alcohol (ALC)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats both at preventing and curative aspects. Further, it was also reported that PCM and ALC producing hepatotoxicity by facilitating accumulation of excess Ca++ in hepatocyte. Ca++ channel blockers block the entry of Ca++ into the cells. Hence the present study is planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Ca++ channel blockers in the above-mentioned models. Materials and Methods: In rats, the hepatoprotective activity of Ca++ channel blockers, is evaluated in PCM (2 g/Kg) and ALC (3.76 g/Kg) induced hepatotoxic models. Thiopental-induced sleeping time (TST), physical parameters like liver weight and liver volume, and biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum direct bilirubin (BILD), serum total bilirubin (BILT), serum albumin (ALB), and serum total proteins (PRO), were estimated by Erba chem. Standard reference SIL produced significant hepatoprotective activity. Results: All three drugs significantly reduced liver weight to 6.07, 4.87, 5.51, 4.28, 6.10, and 5.02 g, respectively. Three drugs produced a significant reduction in liver volume noted as 6.03, 4.83, 5.45, 4.23, 6.05, and 4.96 mL, respectively, in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. All three drugs significantly reduced liver weight, as 6.42, 5.65, 6.66, 6.34, 5.30, and 5.85 g, respectively. A significant reduction in liver volume was noted at 6.35, 5.53, 6.23, 5.18, and 5.80 mL, respectively, in alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: Ca++ channel blockers too at three different doses at preventive and curative aspects produced a significant hepatoprotective activity in PCM and ALC-induced hepatotoxic models.

9. Removal of Pollutants from Aqueous Solutions by using Zinc oxide Nanoparticles
Noor Q. Bedano, Ayad F. Alkaim
This work presents a low-cost method to produce Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured materials for the treatment of water polluted with model organic pollutants (e.g., brilliant green dye). Zinc oxide was prepared using the thermal solvent technique at a temperature of 37°C, at pH 6, and the samples were incinerated for one hour at a temperature of (500°C). Also, silver doped ZnO (Ag-ZnO) was prepared by photo deposition using ultraviolet rays. The photodissociation of Brilliant green dye was studied using ultraviolet rays under different conditions in the presence of Ag-ZnO, studying the effect of some factors, such as the effect of dye concentration and intensity of incident light. The results showed that the smashing efficiency of the zinc oxide surface increased by 92.8% after adding silver. It also showed that the photocatalytic breakdown rate increases with decreasing concentration of Brilliant green dye. Increasing the intensity of the light led to an increase in the rate of photocatalytic breakdown.

10. Formulation Development of Sustained Release Matrix Pellets Compressed into Unit Dosage Form
Gurjar Pravina, Ashok Bhosle
Any drug delivery system’s main objective is to consistently deliver the desired drug concentration in the blood or tissues, which is therapeutically beneficial and non-toxic. The spherical, free-flowing granules known as pellets increase bioavailability, lower the risk of dose dumping and local gastrointestinal discomfort, regulate drug release, and boost absorption of the medicine. A second-generation sulfonylurea called gliclazide is used to treat non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (NIDDM). This study’s objectives were to construct a flexible dosage form with controlled release and look into how process parameters affected the procedure. To find the batch of pellets that provided a sustained release pattern for the drug gliclazide, several batches of pellets manufactured using the extrusion spheronization process and the design of experiment (DoE) approach were used. Due to their roundness, the pellets had excellent flow characteristics, which affected the dosage production rate. They also had small particles that could be easily dispersed and helped prevent dosing. The release rate of the pellets was 99.3% after 12 hours. With superior medication release control, the study completes the development of sustained-release pellets, minimizing issues with the conventional tablet administration form.

11. Formulation and Evaluation of the Microsphere of Raupya Bhasma for Colon-targeted Drug Delivery
Shyam B. Prasad, Yashwant, Vidhu Aeri
Ulcerative colitis and colon cancer are the major diseases associated with the colon. Numerous NSAIDs and steroids treat colitis but have serious side effects. Consider this aim of the study is a formulation of the microsphere of raupya bhasma and its evaluation for drug delivery to the colon. Microspheres were formulated using the emulsification polymerization method. Targeting of the colon by formulation was evaluated using suitable dissolution media.

12. Preformulation and UV-Spectrophotometric Analytical Method Validation Studies for Assessment of Canagliflozin
Saurabh Shukla, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh, Sandeep Arora, Anita Rani
The objectives of the present investigation were the physicochemical examination of canagliflozin to authenticate the drug’s characteristics and validation of straightforward and rapid ultraviolet-spectroscopy technique for evaluation of canagliflozin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. X-ray diffraction study revealed numerous peaks i.e. 11.41, 16.35, 16.5, 16.65, 18.53, 18.58, 19.55, 20.11, 20.46, 20.71, 21.62, 23.96, 24.17, 24.77, 26.5, 27.08, 27.68, 28.22, 28.73 and 32.6 at °2θ which demonstrated extremely crystalline character of drug. The regression equation for the standard plot was Y = 0.01957X + 0.036, and correlation coefficient was 0.9936. The method was found linear as indicated by correlation coefficient values of 0.9933, 0.9938, and 0.9943 for three consecutive standard plots. The average recovery of Canagliflozin was found to be 100.033% which was inside the prerequisite specification of the range 98 to 102%. The percentage relative standard deviation for repeatability, inter-day precision, intermediate precision, and robustness was less than 2%. The limit of detection (LoD) for Canagliflozin was 2.38 μg/mL, and the limit of quantitation was 7.24 μg/mL, which established the sensitivity of the UV-spectroscopy analytical method. In conclusion, the validation parameters like linearity, accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision, intermediate precision, robustness, and sensitivity were found acceptable for the UV-spectroscopy analytical technique for analysis of Canagliflozin.

13. Appraisal of Antioxidant Potential of Saussurea lappa and Valeriana wallichi Root Extract by In-vitro Techniques
Mrunali S. Potbhare, Rakesh Barik
Background: Antioxidants are very important in preventing and protecting from oxidative stress and, ultimately, oxidative stress-related disorders. With the aim to the antioxidant activity of Saussurea lappa and Valeriana wallichii extract, individually and in combination, the study was performed via assays for antioxidant capability; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging method, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), H2O2 scavenging potential, superoxide radical scavenging method showed good antioxidant activity. Individually, V. wallichii having more superior antioxidant activity than S. lappa. Results: Phytochemical analysis of both extracts individually illustrate the existence of anthraquinones, cardiac glycoside, flavonoids, reducing sugars, phenolics, saponins, alkaloid terpenoids, and phlobatannin. In combination, the antioxidant activity was improved, indicating additive effects. The results indicate that these herbs can be a very good constituent for combination therapy for diseases that are caused by oxidative stress and require antioxidant therapy. The S. lappa and V. wallichii showed average TPC of 68.38 and 117.52 mg GAE/g of extract, respectively. The mix of 1:1 ratio of both extracts showed TPC of 101.34 mg GAE/g. The S. lappa and V. wallichii showed average TFC of 59.72 and73.56 mg QE/g of extract, respectively. The mix of 1:1 ratio of both extracts showed a TFC of 66.15 mg QE/g of extract. Results showed that both extracts have very strong antioxidant activity. V. wallichii has relatively higher antioxidant activity and is close to that of ascorbic acid.

14. Development and Validation of a High Throughput Lc-Ms/Ms Method for Quantitation of Ipilimumab in Human Plasma
Konatham TK. Reddy, M. Akiful Haque
For the analytical determination of ipilimumab employing cetuximab as a reference standard, a simple, fast, accurate, robust, and repeatable LC-MS/MS methodology was devised. This study investigated current developments in analytical LC-MS/MS methodologies. The Waters symmetry C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm, 3.5) was employed at ambient temperature under isocratic elution. Acetonitrile (ACN) and 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid were utilized as mobile phase at 1.0-mL per min flow rate. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the operation period was 7 minutes. The overall methodology duration was 7 minutes, with a retention time being 3.124 minutes for Ipilimumab. Validated across a static linearity range of 12.50–100 ng/mL for Ipilimumab with a correlation value of 0.99961. Outcomes for precision, matrix effect, recovery, accuracy, and stability fell within acceptable parameters.

15. Simultaneous Estimation of Netarsudil and Latanoprost by Stability Indicating RP-HPLC-Pda in Pure Binary Blend and their Ophthalmic Solution
Anusha Kunala, Sowjanya Gummadi
A trouble-free, easy, specific, and extremely sensitive HPLC method was established for concurrent estimation of netarsudil and latanoprost in pure bulk and their combined ophthalmic solution. A good separation was achieved by using kromosil C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5μ,100 Ao) column, a mobile portion of Acetonitrile: buffer (0.1N KH2PO4) (50:50 v/v) with isocratic elution, a flow rate of 1-mL/min and detection wavelength of 220 nm. The drug substance was exposed to an intense stress environment like hydrolysis with acid and base, peroxide oxidation, and thermal degradation as per ICH provisions to evaluate the stability of the analytes. The netarsudil and latanoprost were eluted at 2.53 and 3.51 mintues, respectively. The anticipated method shows the linear response from 2.5 to 15 ppm and 0.625 to 3.75 ppm for netarsudil and latanoprost, respectively. The limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantitation (LoQ) was calculated as 0.023 and 0.07 ppm for netarsudil, 0.007 ppm, and 0.022 ppm latanoprost, respectively. The degradants formed by forced degradation studies were well resolved from netarsudil and latanoprost peaks. The method was extremely sensitive, accurate, economical, and stability indicating. Hence, the method has a high capacity to be used in the pharmaceutical industry for analysis of netarsudil and latanoprost in the quality control department.

16. Preclinical Assessment of Aceclofenac Transdermal Patch by Freund’s Complete Adjuvant-induced Arthritis in Rats
Bajaj H, Yadav M, Singh V, Singh MF, Sharma A, Pant N C
The hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patches of aceclofenac were prepared. On the basis of in-vitro potential, the formulation was additionally chosen and assessed for their in-vivo anti-arthritic activity and acute skin irritation tests using the primary skin irritation (draize) test and freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) caused arthritis technique. Furthermore, stability studies were conducted in compliance with ICH standards. The studied compositions had no irritant potential, and no edema production was ever noticed. All of the formulations had a zero irritation score (primary skin irritation index), indicating their safety and acceptability for transdermal administration. The stability investigations confirmed the produced patch’s stability, and the in-vivo analysis showed a considerable decrease in the volume of irritated paws compared to the marketed formulation. The created transdermal patches may serve as a platform for the delivery of medication for the treatment of arthritis

17. A Validated Reversed-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method for the Analysis of Methylcobalamin in Bulk Drugs and T-Dosage Formulation
Pimpale AD, Pethe AM, Kakde RB, Kakde IR
The aim of the existing work is to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) technique for the quantitative determination of methylcobalamin in bulk and t formulations that is easy, rapid, precise, accurate, affordable, and sensitive. Proceeding a princeton (C18) column with dimensions (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μ), the isocratic elution technique was used. The mobile buffer phase comprised water (pH 6.5, adjusted with sodium chloride) and methanol in the relation (55:45) v/v. It was shown that the methylcobalamin retention time was 2.022 minutes under ideal circumstances. The correlation coefficient (r2) for the 900–2400 mcg/mL methylcobalamin concentration range, which was used to verify the method’s linearity, was 0.9994. Methylcobalamin had a recovery rate of 99.98–100.01% and RSD of 2%. The marketed t formulation test was successfully completed with 99.86%. The proposed and validated approach underwent the accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and system suitability testing advised by the ICH. RP-HPLC was used in the market formulation.

18. Colistin Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Various Clinical Samples in North Indian Tertiary Care Center
Shubham Chauhan, Narinder Kaur, Adesh K Saini, Shahbaz Aman, Jyoti Chauhan, Harit Kumar
Background: Antibiotic resistance and their mischaracterization often lead to treatment failure. In the present scenario, resistance to colistin is emerging. Poor testing methods for colistin resistance detection can increase the risk of treatment failures and even mortality. In this study, we analyzed the burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR), Extensively drug-resistant (XDR), pandrug resistant (PDR), and colistin resistant Gram-negative bacteria and also evaluated Vitek-2 compact and Broth Microdilution (BMD) for the detection of colistin resistance at North Indian Tertiary-Care Hospital. Methods: A total of 11237 samples were processed in which 1822 (16.21%) were gram-negative bacilli (GNB). All GNB after identification by Vitek-2 compact, were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing by Vitek-2 and characterized as MDR, XDR, and PDR as per guidelines of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention US (CDC) and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Identification of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae family, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii was made by broth microdilution (BMD) method. BMD was used as a standard gold method for colistin resistance. Results: A total of 43.57% MDR, 9.49% XDR, and 3.5% PDR gram-negative bacteria was isolated from various departments and from various sites. Vitek-2 compact detected 47 (2.75%) and MBD method detected 38 (2.23%) colistin-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Vitek-2 compact failed to detect nine colistin-resistant organisms. The highest resistance towards colistin was seen in A. baumannii (6%), followed by P. aeruginosa (5%), Escherichia coli (1.07%), Klebsiella pneumonia (1%). Conclusions: There is a need for quick and efficient antibiotic resistance management efforts against colistin resistance. Vitek-2 compact gives unsatisfactory and inaccurate results in the detection of colistin susceptibility

19. Chemical Profile of Value-added Oyster Mushrooms
Bandhakavi Sailaja, Batchu Radhika
Oyster mushrooms have significance in cosmetics and nutrition. Cinnamaldehyde, amino acids such as histidine, arginine, lysine, glycine, and quercetin, play a crucial role in acne tissue repair and show anti-inflammatory activity. In the current research, quantitative and qualitative chemical evaluation of value-added mushrooms and control oyster mushrooms was performed. Value addition to mushrooms was accomplished by growing them on paddy substrate substituted with a bark of cinnamon 10.0% w/w or Moringa dried leaf powder 5.0% w/w separately. The mushroom extracts were subjected to thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to perceive the modifications in the chemical profile. The liquid chromatographic study of mushrooms grown on paddy straw replaced with pieces of cinnamon (10.0% w/w) bark indicated that value-added mushrooms exhibited the presence of cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol, which were absent in the control group of mushrooms. In the same manner, paddy straw replaced with Moringa leaf dried powder (5.0% w/w) showed an increase in Quercetin concentration compared to the control group of mushrooms. The amino acid profile of value-added mushrooms and control group mushrooms was determined using standard amino acid samples by TLC and HPLC. The amino acid concentration was found to be higher in cinnamon-substituted mushrooms, followed by Moringa-substituted mushrooms, compared to the control. The chemical profile of the mushrooms grown on paddy substituted with 10.0% w/w Cinnamon/ Moringa leaf dried powder (5.0% w/w) showed more concentration of arginine, histidine, glycine, and lysine compared to the control group of mushrooms, reflecting that value addition to Oyster mushrooms was successful.

20. Effective use of Phytotherapy in the Management of Diabetes by Plant-based Medicine: A Review
Shankaraiah Pulipaka, Ashish Suttee, M. Ravi Kumar, Pavani Sriram
Objective: Herb-based restorative items have been recognized since prehistoric times, and a few therapeutic herbs and their active constituents were utilized for controlling diabetes in numerous people around the world. However, minimal toxicological data exist concerning conventional anti-diabetic plants. Several synthetic oral hypoglycemic agents are the essential treatment types for diabetes. As it may, apparent symptoms of similar medicament are the primary explanation behind an extended number of individuals looking for voluntary remedies that may have less severe or no reactions. This paper attempted to list the herbs with anti-diabetic and associated advantageous impacts from various parts of the world and polyherbal extractions. These herb’s impacts can defer diabetic difficulties and give a more basis of antioxidants they are acknowledged for preventing/postponing diverse ailing states. The literature review was carried out in a scientific database using diabetes, anti-diabetic agents, and phytotherapy to manage diabetes by plant-based medicine as the keywords. To overcome the research gap, optimizing phytotherapy in the management of diabetes by plant-based medicine is regarded as a good target for anti-diabetic agents to design the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diabetes is the world’s quick aborning emergent, and this disorder’s information will increase similar additional acceptable therapies. Traditional plant medicines are used throughout the world for diabetes. Therefore, studying such drugs will provide the natural key to unlocking a scientist in the future. The review focused on alternative medicine to cure kinds of diabetes problems using herbal preparation.

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