International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

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1. Selection and Characterization of a Nanoemulsion of Poorly Soluble Drug by Applying Box-Behnken Design and Converting it into a Nanoemulgel for Topical Application
Lakshmi U Ayalasomayajula, Chandra S Patro, Saroj K Raul
In the present work, nanoemulsion (NE) based hydrogel, i.e., nanoemulgel (NEG) of Itraconazole, an antifungal drug was prepared and investigated to study its potential in delivering a drug topically. NE of Itraconazole was prepared by high energy emulsification method employing anise oil as lipid phase; Gelucire 44/14 and PEG 400 are surfactant and co-surfactants, respectively. The construction of ternary phase diagrams determined the concentration of the ingredients. The prepared NE’s were thus assessed for various parameters such as pH, electric conductivity, refractive index, viscosity, spreadability, poly-dispersity index (PDI), particle size, zeta potential etc and then distributed into suitable gel bases such as Carbopol 934P and Guar gum to obtain nanoemulsion based hydrogel. Therefore, various quality control tests such as pH, electric conductivity, refractive index, viscosity, spreadability, poly-dispersity index (PDI), particle size, zeta potential, swelling index, drug content estimation, in-vitro diffusion and ex-vivo permeation studies, antifungal studies etc were tested on the formulated NEG’s. The optimized formulation FI2 released 98.09 ± 0.84% of the active ingredient in 12 hours and the pH, viscosity, and spreadability were found suit the skin requirements. The results prove that topical administration of Itraconazole NEG increases the permeability and diffusibility of the drug.

2. Studies on Smilax perfoliata and Breynia retusa against Experimentally Induced Cancer in Swiss Albino Mice
Mariyam Begum, Kanjarla Narasimha
The anticancer effect of methanolic extracts of Smilax perfoliata roots and Breynia retusa bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated in the present study. The procured plant material was subjected to soxhlet extraction using methanol. Albino mice were divided into 7 groups of 6 mice (n = 6) in each group. Group I served as a control for about 14 days, and groups II to VII were administered EAC cells and the standard drug doxorubicin (0.3, i. p.) and test extracts at two doses 200 & 400 mg/kg daily. On last day of the experiment, mice were sacrificed for antitumor activity, tumor volume, cell viability, mean survival time and life span. Hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated. Liver sections were prepared and examined for histological changes. The antitumor effect of both the test extracts was dose-dependent. The volume of the tumor and cell viability were significantly reduced (**p <0.001), whereas the mean survival time and life span were raised in a significant manner (**p <0.001). The hematological parameters such as hemoglobin content, RBC, monocytes and lymphocytes were raised while WBC and neutrophils were reduced significantly (**p <0.001) and the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), and bilirubin were reduced significantly after the treatment with the test drugs. Histopathological study revealed the restoration of the structure of the liver in the post-treatment animals. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of S. perfoliata roots and B. retusa bark exhibited antitumor activity, which might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds phytosterols, carbohydrates and tannins. Further investigation of bioactive compounds is needed to confirm the anticancer properties thoroughly.

3. A Novel Approach for Evaluation of Hesperidin in Vincristrine-Induced Neuropathy in Rats
Vinod R Patil, Chandrashekar D Upasani
The present study set out to determine how hesperidin altered the neuropathic pain that vincristine-induced on rats. Rats were given vincristine to cause painful neuropathy. To measure the mechanical dynamic allodynia, cold allodynia, degree of mechanical hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia in addition to muscle relaxants rota rod, respectively, several pain-sensitive tests, including the von frey hair test pinprick, hot plate, and rota rod, were carried out on various weeks (00, 04 and 08 week ). As indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress, the IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α, tissue parameters like Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase & Mg2+ ATPase, and SOD, CAT level, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidase (LPO), NO level were assessed. Gabapentin (30 mg/kg i.p.) in addition to hesperidin (50, 100, as well as 150 mg/kg orally) were given for 08 weeks. Hesperidin administration significantly reduced vincristine-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations (p <0.05). Hesperidin also reduced the inflammation IL-10, and increased in IL-1ß, and TNF-ɑ. Hesperidin also reduces oxidative stress (LPO, NO level) and increases at (GSH, SOD, CAT levels) that vincristine caused. Hesperidin can alleviate the painful states brought on by vincristine-induced painful neuropathy, which might also be explained by its anti-inflammatory effects and following reduction of oxidative stress.

4. Apurinic Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 Gene Polymorphism Association with Total Antioxidant Level in Automobile Technicians
Wathiq Kh Mohammed, Nafaa F Muften, Mariam A Toama, Abas O Hadi, Kareem N Hussain, Rathab A Ahmed
The association of apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) gene polymorphism with total antioxidant level in automobile technicians was proposed in the present study, using APE1 Asp148Glu (rs3136820) variation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant levels (TAO) were depended in a case-control study, the results showed the mean of age (33.30 ± 1.94) years, body mass index (BMI) (26.19 ± 3.53) kg/m2 and work period (7.68 ± 4.9) years, the ROS level non-significant changes between cases and control (p 0.567) and significant elevation in TAO (p 0.000), The APE1 Asp148Glu (rs3136820) genotyping produced three genotypes (TT, GG and TG). The results of APE1 genotyping distribution showed non-significant association of Asp148Glu (rs3136820) with automobile technicians GG (p 0.8636), GT (p0.0718), also allele frequency didn’t associate with cases (p 0.8434), non-significant association of APE1 genotypes with smoker (p 0.1656), hookah (p 0.1001), alcohol uptake (p 0.8012) and chronic disease (p 0.6981), The ROS levels according to APE1 genotypes show non-significant variation (p 0.976) among genotypes. The TAO level according to APE1 genotypes showed significant differences among GG and TG in control group while significant elevation in TAO between TG genotypes in cases and control groups. The current study concluded that the APE1 gene polymorphism APE1 Asp148Glu didn’t associate with automobile technicians with long exposure to lead and cadmium, but it was associated with elevation in TAO level in workers.

5. In-vitro and In-vivo Studies of Anti-inflammatory Potential of Compounds Derived from Piper mullesua
Kaur Arvinder, Sohpal VK, Ahmed Zabeer, Saroch Diksha
The identification and development of new anti-inflammatory drugs continue to benefit greatly from the use of natural substances and their synthetic counterparts. Studies have been conducted on a compounds obtained from the Piper mullesua plant. The current work aims to use in-vitro and in-vivo experiments to investigate these substances’ anti-inflammatory properties. Our investigation’s findings showed that various substances had varying percentages of cell viability on RAW 264.7 cells. These substances were also tested for suppression of nitric oxide. Novel approaches to the creation of pharmaceuticals have demonstrated the potential of natural product derivatives. This study set out to investigate PM208-209’s potential anti-inflammatory properties. The impact of PM208-209 on inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, PM208-209 demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in mice, as evidenced by the suppression of vascular permeability and migration of leukocytes. The information gathered suggested that PM208-209 should be investigated further in terms of pharmacological research and could be regarded as a possible therapeutic anti-inflammatory option.

6. A Novel Approach for Estimation of Zotepine in Tablet Dosage Form
Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna, Priyanka V Deulkar
An antipsychotic medicine zotepine used to treat schizophrenia and mania. A novel stability-indicating method with a reversed-phase ultra-fast liquid chromatography (RP-UFLC) system has been developed to estimate zotepine in dosage forms as tablets. A Shimadzu UFLC system with a Zorbox C18 column and PDA detector was employed for the chromatographic analysis. At 1.0 mL/min flow rate, acetonitrile: 10 mM tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulfate (42:58) as a mobile phase. UV wavelength of detection is 221 nm. Concentration range between 0.1 and 50 μg/mL, Beer-Lambert’s law was followed. The linear regression equation was y = 171935x + 11975 (r2 = 0.9999). The limit of detection (LoD) was found to be were 0.0312 μg/mL and limit of quantitation (LoQ) 0.0975 μg/mL. Method validation and a forced degradation study were carried out per ICH guidelines. The proposed approach is straightforward, reliable, accurate, and exact. It can be used to estimate the amount of zotepine in tablets.

7. The Assessment of Ferulic Acid in Rats with Vincristine-Induced Neuropathy
Vinod R Patil, Chandrashekhar D Upasani
The main goal of the current investigation was to find out how ferulic acid (FA) affected the neuropathic pain that vincristine caused in rats. Rats were given vincristine to cause painful neuropathy. To measure the mechanical dynamic allodynia, cold allodynia, degree of mechanical hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia, and muscle relaxant rota rod, respectively. Several pain-sensitive tests, including the von frey hair test, pinprick, hot plate, and rota rod, were carried out on various weeks (0, 4 and8 weeks) as indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress the IL-1β, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), tissue parameters like Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase & Mg2+ ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) level, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidase (LPO), NO level were assessed. Gabapentin (30 mg/kg i.p.) in addition to FA (50, 100, as well as 150 mg/kg orally) was given for 08 weeks. FA administration markedly decreased vincristine-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations (p < 0.05). FA also reduced the inflammation IL-10 and increased IL-1β and TNF-α. FA also reduces oxidative stress (LPO, NO level) and increases at (GSH, SOD, CAT levels) that vincristine caused. FA can alleviate the painful states brought on by vincristine-induced painful neuropathy, which might also be explained by its anti-inflammatory effects and following reduction of oxidative stress.

8. Evaluation of Antiulcer Activity for Selective and Functional Millet using Pylorus Ligation Induced Ulcer in Rat
Archana V Vanjari, Subhash T Kumbhar
Although millet has long been thought to have gastroprotective properties, much research does not assess its efficacy as a treatment for stomach ulcers. Currently, medication therapy is the primary clinical treatment for stomach ulcers. Antacids, cytoprotective medicines, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), H2 histamine receptor antagonists have many side effect and poor patient compliance. Hence, inexpensive, easily accessible, and with less negative effects, millets are an excellent and traditional source in the treatment of a variety of diseases like ulcers. In the present research, pearl millet, finger millet and sorghum millet formulation is used and toxicity and antiulcer activity are determined on wistar rats grouped in six different groups consisting of control, disease, standard, millet formulation, glycerin (gly.) vehicles and millet along with glycerin vehicle. After the test item was administered once at a solitary dosage of 2000 mg/kg, none of the treatment group animals showed several clinical indications of toxicity or mortality. In antiulcer activity, ulcer scoring was found to be less in group treated with millet and glycerin than in the diseased group and standard group and %inhibition was also increased in groups treated with millet with glycerine. Total acidity and pepsin estimation was done and these values for the millet group with glycerine were found within limit compared to disease control. The millet and glycerine treatment significantly inhibited lesions associated with stomach ulcers.

9. Formulation and Evaluation of Bioadhesive Pulsatile Drug Delivery System of an Antihypertensive Drug
Bhagyesh U Janugade, Neelam Singla
The current research aimed to prepare and estimate bioadhesive pulsatile drug delivery system (BPDDS) of an antihypertensive drug, losartan potassium, containing the formulation of a fast-dissolving core tablet and a combination of core tablet to polymer coating to formulate (BPDDS) tablet through a direct compression procedure. The coating was completed by utilizing polymers ethyl cellulose and carbopol 934. Pre-compression and post-compression parameters, drug release, lag time and mucoadhesive examination was entirely assessed for the formulations. Altogether, estimation tests were found to be inside parameters. The expected lag time for hypertension is 8 hours; hence this lag time was achieved by using a bioadhesive pulsatile system. The optimized formulation showed 8 hours lag time with appropriate mucoadhesion for an equivalent period. Therefore, the BPDDS was greatest preventative substitute for drug which are the highest absorption in the stomach and for drugs which used to treat diseases with a circadian rhythm.

10. Synthesis, DNA Binding, Molecular Docking and Anticancer Studies of Copper (II), Nickel (II), and Zinc (II) Complexes of Primaquine-based Ligand
M Gnana Ruba Priya, Lal Prasanth ML, Lalchand D Devhare, Shaik K Yazdan, Sachinkumar Gunjal
In a research study, a metal-based complex demonstrated anticancer properties. The process involved the synthesis of a compound called 7-chloro-N-[5-(diethylamino)pentan-2-yl]-N-[sulfanyl(carbonothioyl)]quinolyn-4-amine, which incorporated a primaquine-based dithiocarbamate ligand. This synthesis method utilized sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide at temperatures of 0 to 5℃. Nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) ions were employed as the metal-complexed ligands through various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques that enhanced their purity. Metal compounds, such as cisplatin and its analogs, were widely used to treat different cancer types. Presently, researchers are exploring alternative metal-based complexes as potential agents against cancer, aiming to mitigate toxic effects linked to medications made of platinum. Investigations conducted in-silico revealed that the ligand preferred interacting with DNA’s minor groove, assembling a single hydrogen bond between an adenine hydrogen atom and the oxygen element of the carbonyl compound in the pyrrolidinone unit. Compared to cisplatin, copper complexes can overcome drug resistance by lowering their toxicity. The findings indicate that these primaquine analogs have the potential to lay the foundation for a novel and efficacious category of cancer chemotherapeutics.

11. Method Development and Validation for Assay and Related Substance of Imatinib Mesilate in Bulk and Tablet Dosage form using RP-HPLC
Anand G Kshatriya, P Andal, Ashok Mhaske
A new method was developed and validated to assay imatinib mesilate and its impurities in drug substance and dosage forms. The developed method can be utilized to determine drug content and its related substances. The method validation study proves that the method is accurate, precise, specific and robust. The imatinib mesilate has five specified impurities and can be easily determined using this methodology. All impurities and imatinib peak are resolved using XB ridge C18, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm column. A mixture of acetate buffer pH 9.5 and a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile in gradient mode are separated. The wavelength is selected at 264 nm with a column temperature of 30°C and a run time of 45 minutes. Linearity covered from 0.3 to 1985 μg/mL. The method has been validated as per ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. Forced degradation study is performed using this method and proved that the method is stability-indicating and suitable for use.

12. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Antihyperlipedemic Polyherbal Formulation
Ankur Agrawal, Subodh K Dubey
Cardiovascular diseases, particularly hyperlipidemia, remain a significant global health concern, prompting the need to investigate alternative therapeutic approaches. This research focuses on the pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of an innovative polyherbal formulation developed for its potential antihyperlipidemic properties. The pharmacognostic assessment thoroughly examines the morphological, microscopic, and macroscopic characteristics of the individual plant constituents utilized in the formulation. Additionally, organoleptic properties were utilized to set quality parameters.
Subsequent phytochemical analysis aimed to recognize and enumerate bioactive moities present in the formulation. Customary procedures were employed to levy the charisma of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponin, terpenoids, and other secondary metabolites recognized for their therapeutic potential. Antioxidant assays were conducted for both individual components and the herbal tablet.
The study delves into the synergistic interactions among the constituents to pinpoint and quantify specific chemical compounds responsible for the antihyperlipidemic effects. The outcome of this analysis offer broad indulgence of polyherbal formulation’s pharmacognostic and phytochemical traits, laying the groundwork for its therapeutic potential in managing hyperlipidemia.

13. Polyherbal Formulation for Atherosclerosis: GC-MS Fingerprinting, In-vivo Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities
Sireesha Rayadurgam, Manikandan Krishnan
Atherosclerosis is a prolonged inflammatory disease affecting large and medium-sized arteries, requiring a phytotherapeutic approach that incorporates multiple bioactive elements and a multi-target strategy. A novel polyherbal formulation has been formulated to treat atherosclerosis. The methanolic extract of the formulation has been characterized using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprinting analysis. The extract was further screened for antioxidant activity like DPPH radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and antibacterial activity like Resauzarin assay as most of the identified compounds are with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Upto 38 phytocompounds were tentatively identified by GC-MS characterization using NIST library. Scavenging activities were observed more in the DPPH assay, ranging from 33.33 to 86.68% than in the hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay which ranged from 31.05 to 81.66%. In the resauzarin assay, the plant extract displays substantial antibacterial activity compared to the positive control chloramphenicol. The DPPH and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity results indicate that the extract has significant radical-scavenging properties compared to the positive control ascorbic acid. Based on MIC values in antibacterial assay, the extract exhibits potential antibacterial activity, stating its stability towards bacterial growth.

14. Pharmacokinetic Study of Aloin Nanoparticulate: Enhanced Oral Formulation Bioavailability
Rishika Chauhan, Balwan Singh, MP Singh, Anuj Malik
This research aimed to prepare and assess an aloin nanoparticle that might increase its oral bioavailability. Utilizing the nanoprecipitation process, aloin Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticulate was formulated and studied for the best strategy based on their characteristics and in-vitro release. The aloin nanoparticle stability research was evaluated at room temperature for a duration of three months. Additionally, pharmacokinetic (PK) tests were analyzed by using various parameters and experiments done by taking female wistar albino rats, with weights of approximately (150–200 gm). The animal was appropriately given the proper housing according to the protocol and placed in a period of twelve hours day and night. The drug was administered for 72 hours at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. of all the aloin nanoformulations developed, the one with the best size of particles was 98.5 nm with an entanglement efficacy of 98.09%. The results show that when compared to pure aloin, aloin PLGA nanoparticulate has a higher bioavailability.

15. Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulation for Antihyperlipidemic Activity
Ankur Agrawal, Subodh K Dubey
Hyperlipidemia, characterized by elevated plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins, emerged as a decisive menace for cardiovascular disorders. Imminent side effects linked to synthetic drugs; there is a growing interest in exploring herbal remedies for managing hyperlipidemia. This study delves into examining the antihyperlipidemic effects of a polyherbal formulation composed of extracts from Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (leaves and stems), Cymbopogon citratus (leaves), and Allium sativum (bulbs).
The PHF was orally administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. Results revealed a noteworthy reduction in serum and liver biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic rats treated with PHF. Additionally, the extract demonstrated a noteworthy decrease in the action of HMG-CoA reductase, indicating a potential mechanism for its antihyperlipidemic activity.
To sum up, PHF administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited effective antihyperlipidemic activity in both animal models. The observed inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase enzyme pathway suggests a plausible mechanism of action for the extract’s therapeutic effects. These findings contribute to the expanding body of evidence supporting the clinical relevance of herbal drugs in hyperlipidemia treatment, offering a potential avenue for developing alternative and safer therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular health.

16. Simultaneous Estimation of Montelukast and Doxofylline in Bulk Drug and Tablet Dosage Form by UHPLC Method
MA Patil, Rahul K Godge, KV Dhamak, SB Mhaske
The study’s primary goal is to create a novel ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) technique that is exact, sensitive, and accurate. The primary goal is to calculate the dosages of montelukast and doxofylline in both pharmaceutical and bulk forms. A C18 (AGILENT) column was used to achieve the chromatographic separation of the drug and contaminants. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% OPA and 57:43% v/v methanol (a pH of 4.2 with TEA). The detection was performed at 278 nm utilizing UV detection. According to the results, dinoxyline and montelukast were effectively eluted at retention durations of 3.523 and 4.918 minutes, respectively, with the flow rate adjusted at 1.0 mL/dinoxyline, with good resolution. The suggested method demonstrated linearity in the dosage ranging from 1 to 5 μg/mL of montelukast and 40 to 200 μg/mL of doxofylline. The range of recovery percentages for montelukast and doxofylline is 100.565 to 101.061%. The method’s validation was carried out in compliance with the specifications of the International Symposium on Harmonisation, resulting in good precision, sensitivity, accuracy, linearity, specificity, and robustness. In conclusion, the developed method successfully separates and estimates doxofylline and montelukast. Its application in routine analysis of these compounds in pharmaceutical formulations is viable and reliable.

17. Molnupiravir Bioanalytical Method Development and Validation in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS Detection and Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study
Konatham TK Reddy, MA Haque
This work aims to propose a novel method for detecting the concentration of molnupiravir in rat plasma that has been developed and verified. This approach makes use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. Furthermore, the method’s pharmacokinetic applicability in rats was assessed. Phenyl, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm analytical column, operating at room temperature, was utilized to accomplish separation. The investigation employed a mobile phase consisting of a 40:60 v/v combination of 0.1% tri fluoro acetic acid and methanol at a 1.0 mL/min flow rate and an injection volume of10 μL. The liquid chromatography (LC) procedure was carried out for four minutes. In +ESI mode, the mass spectrometer was in operation. The determination of the mass-to-charge ratio transitions for molnupiravir and D7-Molnupiravir (m/z 330.34→82.46 and 337.46→286.11, respectively) was accomplished through the utilization of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM. The concentration ranges for molnupiravir were determined to be 6.25 to 50.00 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient 0.9996. The precision and accuracy of HQC, MQC, LQC, and LLQC were found to be 98.34, 98.83, 98.13, and 97.85%, respectively. In pharmacokinetic studies, it was observed that molnupiravir exhibited an average AUC0-t value of 65 ng-hr/mL and a Cmax value of 43.120 ng/mL in rats. In conclusion, the validated created approach has effectively demonstrated the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters subsequent to the oral administration of molnupiravir in wistar rats.

18. In-silico Docking and ADME Studies of Natural Phytoconstituents from Different Medicinal Plants as Potential HIV Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Manisha Kotadiya, Ravi Ajudia
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious global public health concern, having claimed more than 35 million lives to date. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase is an essential enzyme for viral replication. If the enzyme is blocked, viral replication may be dramatically reduced. Several human immunodeficiency virus medicines are available, though better effective treatments are always needed due to the drug confrontation and negative outcomes. According to prior research, several natural substances have a high affinity for the human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase enzyme. Flavonoid glycosides are some of these chemicals. This work aimed to get more ideas about phytocompounds with human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory effects utilising docking. From the results, the most suggested phytocompounds, those with the highest negative free energy to make complex were menthoside, morindin and sesaminol glucosides. This was due to the interactions of all three phytocompounds with key amino acid residues: Leu 100, Val 179, Tyr 318, Tyr 188, Val 106, Lys 101, Gly 190, His 235. Flavonoid glycoside (Menthoside) showed lowest binding energy with a docking score -10.6 kcal/mol.

19. Forced Degradation Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Determination of Vildagliptin, Metformin Hydrochloride and Remogliflozin Etabonate in Bulk and its Formulation by RP-HPLC
Kagarana CS, Patel KN, Patel AB
A simple and efficient stability-indicating method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of vildagliptin, metformin hydrochloride and remogliflozin etabonate in bulk and was applied on marketed formulations. KH2PO4 buffer (10 mM): Acetonitrile (70:30% v/v) at pH 5 was used as a mobile phase. Detection of drug peaks was at 215 nm by UV detector. The method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 2.5 to 7.5, 25 to 75 and 5 to 15 μg/mL for vildagliptin, metformin hydrochloride and remogliflozin etabonate, respectively. The limit of detection (LoD) and quantitation (LoQ) were found to be 0.137 and 0.415 μg/mL for vildagliptin, 3.737 and 11.326 μg/mL for metformin hydrochloride and 0.348 and 1.055 μg/mL for remogliflozin etabonate. Hydrolysis by HCl, NaOH, hydrogen peroxide, UV light and temperature were performed on a formulation which proves that the proposed method was specific.

20. In-vitro and In-vivo Anticancer Activity of Indigofera cordifolia against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma
Sayed Sana, J Risy Namratha
The research study investigated the anticancer properties of Indigofera cordifolia in relation to ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. The substance was administered intraperitoneally at 10 mg per kilogram of body‑weight. The extract was supplied nine successive days and mice were euthanized after 24 hours since the previous dosage and after fasting for 18 hours. The antitumor impact was evaluated by measuring tumor dimensions, counting viable & non-viable cancer cells, measuring the weight of tumor, & analyzing hematological considerations of the host harboring EAC. A histopathological examination of the liver sections was conducted. The study found a statistically considerable (p < 0.001) improvement in endurance times for tumor-bearing mice treated with ethanolic extraction of I. cordifolia. The extract also reduced the weight of subjects with EAC tumors. Hematological analyses indicate a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) levels in mice treated with EAC, while extract-treated animals showed a restoration of Hb levels close to normal. Noted with a statistically significant decrease (p <0.001) in red blood cell count up & boost in white blood cell count in mice supplied with the extract/fraction compared to those treated with EAC. The study stated that extract had noteworthy anticancer activity, which was equivalent to that of doxorubicin. The histological sections of the liver tissue showed enhanced hepatic architecture following treatment with a 400 mg/kg dosage of the test extract.

21. Nutritive Value and Antioxidant Activity of Mamao (Antidesma thwaitesianum) Fruit Juice
Pimporn Thongmuang, Kanittada Thongkao, Kanyapat Petcharaporn, Yuttana Sudjaroen
The ripped “Mamao” (Antidesma thwaitesianum) fruit is naturally eaten and contained bioactive constituents with health promoting benefits to consumers i.e., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic activities. Local-made juice was concerned on its quality, aims of this study were determined anthocyanin and tannin contents of mamao juice. The nutritional composition contained in juice and antioxidant activity were also evaluated. This juice was provided high calcium and dietary fiber, while low calories from fat. There was contained tannin content (3.64 mg/mL) and very high amount of anthocyanin (1,202.43 mg of cyanindin-3-glucoside equivalent, CE/L), which were implied that this juice was good taste by lack of astringent taste, and intensive red grape-like color with strong antioxidant activity. Mamao juice was possessed strong DPPH radical scavenging activity in both of fat soluble (879.38 mg of trolox equivalent, TE/100 mL) and water soluble (653.14 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent, AE/100 mL) environments, which were related to high content of anthocyanin. In this study, we were use anthocyanin content for monitoring of the quality of this juice. For further study, this research is need to conduct on application of phytochemical contents with sensory evaluation on process of juice production.

22. Unveiling Cytotoxic Potential of Herbal Extracts: Plectronia parviflora and Agave cantula against MCF and HCT Cell Lines
Sandeep R Cheruku, Shaheedha SM
Cancer is a global health challenge that requires novel therapeutic approaches. This study investigates hydroalcoholic extracts and compounds isolated from Plectronia parviflora and Agave cantula. Using them as cancer therapies will shed light on their potential as cytotoxic agents. Microscopic confirmation of complete dissociation followed DMEM medium supplemented with 10% FBS cultivation of HCT-15 and MCF-7 cell lines. As controls, cells were introduced without samples at varying concentrations. After the medium was removed, a 24-hour incubation was followed by rinsing the cells in PBS. Trypan blue stain (0.4%) was used to determine cell viability. Upon introducing cells to fresh medium, triplicate samples were introduced. After 18 hours of incubation at 37 ± 1°C, MTT (mg/mL) was added to all wells and incubated for an additional 4 hours. Subsequently, DMSO was introduced, and absorbance readings were taken at 570 nm using a photometer. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were calculated using established formulas. Cytotoxicity analysis revealed distinct patterns in both HCT-15 and MCF-7 cell lines. Among the extracts, hydroalcoholic extracts of P. parviflora exhibited notable cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 108.46 and 133.37 μg/mL for HCT-15 and MCF-7, respectively. A. cantula extracts displayed variable cytotoxicity, with IC50 values 115.35 and 115.94 μg/mL for HCT-15 and MCF-7. Notably, isolated compounds from these plants exhibited unique cytotoxic profiles with IC50 values of IF-PL-57.82 and 53.72 mg/mL and IF-AC-72.81 and 72.36 mg/mL for HCT-15 and MCF-7. As potential cancer therapy agents, hydroalcoholic extracts of P. parviflora and A. cantula reveal cytotoxic potential. The distinctive cytotoxicity profiles among extracts and isolated compounds underscore the complexity of their mechanisms. Further exploration of the mechanisms and synergies with existing anticancer drugs is required to elucidate these findings, offering exciting prospects for the future.

23. Association of Illegal Behavior with GST Isoforms Null Genotyping in Methamphetamine Abuse Cases
Abdulnaser Saud, Zahraa A A Zaid, Zahraa H A Alzahraa, Rathab A Ahmed
The present study aims to detect the association of illegal behavior with GST isoforms in methamphetamine abuse cases. The present study targeted two GST isoforms included, GSTT1 and GSTM1. The results found a strong association between GSTT1 null genotyping and meth addiction cases (p 0.0078) that were more frequent in cases (46.80%) than the control group (17.24%), non-significant relation was observed between GSTM1 and GSTM1 null genotyping (p = 0.1122). Also, non-significant changes in the genotyping GSTT1 null GSTM1 and GSTM1 null GSTT1, and the normal GSTM1+GSTT1 genotyping with null genotyping of both genes. The distribution of GST null genotyping according to sex found non-significant differences observed between male and females in all genotypes GSTT1 (p = 0.1181), GSTM1 (p = 0.6525), GSTT1 null GSTM1 and GSTM1 null GSTT1 (p = 0.8226), finally GSTT1+GSTM1 with null both genes was (p = 0.158).
The null GSTT1 was more frequent in cases without illegal behavior (60.86%) in non-significant differences (p = 0.1125). Null genotyping of GSTM1 more frequent in cases without illegal behavior (43.47%) but didn’t observe in illegal behavior cases in significant differences (p = 0.0143). Non-significant difference was recorded (p = 0.1935) in companies between GSTT1+ GSTM1 null genotyping. Finally, the differences between GSTT1 and GSTM1 and null both genes weren’t observed in cases with illegal behavior than in cases without illegal behavior that recorded in (25%) in significant differences (p = 0.0231). The results concluded that the null genotyping didn’t associate with illegal behavior represented by agitation and agitation with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between meth abuse and GSTT1 null genotyping.

24. In-vitro and In-silico Docking Studies of Active Constituents of Momordica charantia and Emblica officinalis as Potential Alpha-Amylase Inhibitors
Kratika Daniel, Vivek Daniel, Charanjeet Singh, Anil K Gupta, Yashwant
Introduction: Commercially available oral hypoglycemic drugs are known to be potential alpha-amylase inhibitors that reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. Natural drugs are nowadays very popular in the treatment of diabetes.
Aim and Objectives: This study investigated in-vitro alpha-amylase inhibition of Momordica charantia and Emblica officinalis and studied the interaction between active phytoconstituents and alpha-amylase enzyme.
Method: Active constituents of both fruits were identified, docking studies were performed using Autodock Vina, and interactions were studied using PyMOL and Discovery Studio. The alpha-amylase inhibitory potentials of the fresh juice were investigated at the concentration of the fresh juice with alpha amylase enzyme and starch solution at 565 nm was observed.
Result: With the docking studies, it was observed that momoridicin I and II showed better interaction with alpha-amylase enzyme (PDB ID: 1B2Y) and showed binding energies at -8.2 and -8.4 Kcal/mol, respectively. The fresh juice of both fruits showed the most effective alpha-amylase inhibition and IC50 values found at 440 and 312 μL/mL, respectively.
Summary and Conclusion: The attempt to study in-silico docking studies and in-vitro alpha-amylase enzyme inhibition were successfully performed. Comparatively, M. charantia showed more enzyme inhibition at low concentrations.

25. Assessment of Cyperus articulatus for Antidiabetic Effects in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model
Susmita Dhar, Samaresh Datta, Akash Yadav
Hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and renal glycosuria are all symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM), also known as diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemia, there is a possibility that the illness could result in a number of different complications, some of which include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal disease, stroke, foot ulcers, visual damage, nerve damage, and cognitive impairment. The principal objective of this research was to regulate whether or not a methanolic extract of Cyperus articulates (MECA) rhizome possessed an antidiabetic effect. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of MECA as an antidiabetic agent, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used in an experiment involving thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In the aforementioned experiments, it was discovered that in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats, MECA at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced blood glucose levels from ‘254.41 ± 11.7 to 98.50 ± 2.5 and 283.83 ± 27.8 to 96.35 ± 3 mg/dl respectively, while glibenclamide-treated rats had a decrease in blood glucose from 291.12 ± 17.1to 91.50 ± 1.7 mg. This decrease was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when compared to the healthy control group. The effects of MECA on TBARS, GSH, and catalase in experimentally diabetic rats were found to be more pronounced than in the saline control group, and a greater rise in lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney was seen in the diabetic group than in the saline group. Liver and kidney TBARS levels were observed to be considerably (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced after MECA treatment, as were GSH levels in the STZ-control group and catalase activities in the experimental rats.

26. Pharmacological Evaluation of Sedum lineare Thunb Extract: Acute Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Effects in Swiss Albino Mice
Sunil Kumar, AKS Rawat, Peeyush Bhardwaj
Aim: This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity and anticonvulsant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Sedum lineare Thunb in Swiss albino mice.
Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity was evaluated by administering a high dose (2000 mg/kg) of the hydroalcoholic extract and monitoring mortality, behavioral changes, body weight, and food/water consumption. Hematological parameters and organ histopathology were analyzed to assess systemic effects. The anticonvulsant activity was explored using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and picrotoxin-induced seizure models at various extract doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg).
Results and Discussion: The acute toxicity study revealed the safety of the hydroalcoholic extract, with no observed mortality, behavioral changes, or adverse effects on body weight and food/water consumption. While hematological changes were statistically significant, their clinical relevance requires further exploration. Histopathological examination confirmed the absence of organ toxicity. In the anticonvulsant assessment, the hydroalcoholic extract exhibited a protective effect against PTZ-induced seizures, significantly delaying jerk onset at the highest dose. Although not prevent clonic convulsions entirely, it dose-dependently reduces mortality rates. In the picrotoxin model, particularly at 250 mg/kg, the extract significantly increased clonic convulsion latency and suppressed mortality, indicating a potential modulatory role against seizures.
Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of S. lineare Thunb demonstrated favorable acute toxicity and promising anticonvulsant effects in Swiss albino mice. The observed hematological changes warrant further investigation for clinical relevance, and additional studies, including long-term assessments and biochemical analyses, are recommended to comprehensively evaluate the extract’s safety and therapeutic potential. These findings support further exploration of S. lineare Thunb as a potential candidate for neurological disorder interventions.

27. Solubility Enhancement of Palbociclib Supersaturable Self-Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System by Central Composite Design
Rajinikanth Chandran, Kathiresan Krishnasamy
Nowadays, solid self-nano-emulsifying supersaturable drug delivery systems (S-SNEDDS) are being investigated to overcome the limitations of self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). The current study established S-SNEDDS for better drug dissolution and stability. S-SNEDDS were made with saturated solubility capryol® 90, labrosol®, and transcutol® HP. The composition was optimized using ternary phase diagrams. Palbociclib-SNEDDS created droplet size (Y1), polydispersity index (PDI) (Y2), and 15-minute drug release (Y3) responses using the central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). To optimise SNEDDS (S1) and evaluate S-SNEDDS, several precipitation inhibitors (PIs) were introduced. The best formulation, S1, had a minimum particle size of 129.34 nm and a maximum zeta potential (ZP) of 28.6 ± 2.12 mV. Unlike other inhibitors, methylcellulose kept the medicine supersaturated. The optimized formulation (F3) had a higher ZP (-24.6 ±1.8 mV) and smaller particle size (118.42 ± 1.26 nm), making it more stable than regular SNEDDS amorphous palbociclib was found in S-SNEDDS utilizing differential scanning calorimetry (DLS) and X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD). F3 released >99% in 90 minutes, compared to 19% for pure drug dispersion and 95% for SNEDDS. Results showed that S-SNEDDS formulation improved palbociclib solubility and stability.

28. Exploring the Anti-hyperlipidemic Potential of Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr) Leaf Extracts: A Study on Triton-induced Hyperlipidemia Rat Model and Oxidative Stress
DA Helen Sheeba, R Gandhimathi
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are greatly affected by hyperlipidemia, characterized by elevated blood lipid levels. The potential adverse effects of conventional pharmacological interventions have prompted the exploration of natural drugs for combinatorial therapy of hyperlipidemia management. Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr), a plant species with traditional medicinal use, has shown potential anti-hyperlipidemic effects in animal models.
Materials and Methods: The study evaluated chloroform (HEC) and ethanol (HEE) extracts of R. hypocrateriformis (Desr) in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia in Sprague Dawley rat model at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Parameters such as body weight, lipid levels, lipid parameters, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed.
Results and Discussion: There was an increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides in the triton-induced group and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increased HDL were observed with treatment with HEC and HEE extracts. It was also found that the extracts significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels, suggesting a potential reduction in atherosclerosis risks. The atherogenicity index was significantly decreased in the treatment groups, supporting their anti-atherosclerotic potential. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced antioxidant defenses, reducing oxidative stress. Histopathology of liver tissue revealed the potency of extracts in control of tissue loss, lymphocyte infiltration, and fatty accumulation by triton induction.
Conclusion: The study demonstrates the potential of R. hypocrateriformis (Desr) extracts as a natural therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia management. The extracts exhibited anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects, offering a multifaceted approach to combat hyperlipidemia and related complications. Future research should focus on identifying bioactive compounds, elucidating underlying mechanisms, and conducting clinical trials for human validation. R. hypocrateriformis (Desr) presents a promising area for drug development and nutraceutical research, with the potential to improve hyperlipidemia management and cardiovascular health.

29. Nootropic Effect of Premna mucronata Roxb Leaves on Scopolamine Challenged Alzheimer’s Disease in Rats
Humera Sadia, G Sumalatha
The leaves of Premna mucronata Roxb were selected for this study due to their ability to enhance cognitive function and memory in Swiss albino rats. Each mouse group was provided with scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) intraperitoneally per kg body‑weight, as well as two split doses of methanol extraction of P. mucronata Roxb-MEPM with 200 & 400 mg/kg (oral), for a duration of7 days. In order to assess memory and learning, researchers employed sophisticated behavioral models such as the Morris water maze and raised plus maze. However, scopolamine is a naturally occurring substance that induces a cognitive state used as an interoceptive model. One-way ANOVA & Dunnett’s multiple comparison tests were employed with p < 0.05. The outcomes of this study showed that MEPM (p < 0.05) enhanced short-term & abstraction remembrance at dosages of 200 & 400 mg/kg. Additionally, there was a remarkable reduction in transfer latency on the sixth and seventh days, indicating improved learning and memory by navigating through the complex maze and reducing the time it takes to escape from the Morris water maze. Results indicate that P. mucronata Roxb showed considerable memory-enhancing efficacy in all the screening models tested.

30. Efficacy of Oral Tramadol vs Tizanidine for Controlling Intraoperative Shivering among Patients undergoing Spinal Anesthesia: A Prospective Comparative Study
Dinesh Kumar P, Arun Kumar B, R Brindha, S B Janani Eswari
Background: Shivering is one of the most frequent postoperative side effects for patients receiving spinal anesthesia. The frequency of shivering varies but is generally between 40 and 50%. The presence of vasodilatation prior to shivering indicates that shivering among patients sustaining neuraxial anesthesia has been a typical thermoregulation mechanism. This study assessed and compared the efficiency of oral tizanidine and tramadol in lessening shivering intraoperatively among patients sustaining spinal anesthesia for urological procedures.
Materials and Methods: The Department of Urology conducted this prospective, randomized comparative study of a tertiary care institute for a six-month period. About 100 patients who underwent spinal anesthesia in the Department of Urology for various procedures were selected into the study and assigned into the groups randomly (50 in each group). Group A included the patients who were given oral tramadol 50 mg for 90 minutes before surgery. Group B included the patients who were given oral tizanidine 4 mg for 90 minutes before surgery.
Results: The mean age in the oral tramadol group (Group A) and oral tizanidine group (Group B) are 39.7 and 42.4 years, respectively. The oral tramadol (Group A) comprised 39 males and 11 females. The tizanidine group (Group B) comprised 37 males and 13 females. The oral tramadol group showed greater shivering than the oral tizanidine group.
Conclusion: Oral tramadol and oral tizanidine have comparable efficacy to control intraoperative shivering, while oral tizanidine has more sedative effects than oral tramadol.

31. Development of Piribedil Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Incorporated in Nasal In-situ Gel by DoE
Chekkilla Bhargavi, Pathuri Raghuveer
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are a promising drug delivery platform for regulated, controlled release and targeted distribution. The current study aimed to prepare stable piribedil-loaded nanoparticles with optimized intranasal delivery. Using A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design (BBD), regression analysis, and 3-D response surface methodology (RSM) plots, the influence of independent process variables, like drug-to-lipid ratio, conc of poloxamer 407 and conc of glyceryl monostearate, on dependent variables, such as entrapment effectiveness and the vesicle size of piribedil SLNs, was assessed. The formulated SLNs exhibit a spherical morphology and exhibit a low degree of crystallinity. The nanoformulation exhibited a higher release of medication compared to the piribedil suspension. The 12-hour drug release demonstrated the use of controlled-release medicine delivery. By adding hyaluronic acid to intranasal formulations, the average particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP) were all considerably raised. The saturation solubility of nanosized piribedil was 7.1 times that of the unprocessed medication. The nanosized formulation had a greater flux than the pure piribedil reference sample. R3 had a permeability coefficient (Kp) of 0.022 cm h−1, while F3 had a higher value of 0.108 cm h−1. Compared to R3, F3 diffused 15.68 μg cm−2 of the drug in the first 15 minutes. Because of their large surface area, nanoparticles enhance diffusion. This study reveals that Piribedil-containing SLNs may be more therapeutic than traditional formulations.

32. Dose-Dependent Effect of Cardioprotective Properties of Azilsartan in Experimental Model of Myocardial Infracted Diabetic Rats
Shailaja S Shirsath, Kishor V Otari, Sameer Narayan Goyal
This investigation aimed to investigate whether azilsartan, a drug that acts as both an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a limited PPAR-γ inhibitor, can prevent AMI in rats that were administered isoproterenol. The study aimed to determine if azilsartan treatment could reverse the hemodynamic, biochemical, and histopathological variations observed in the rat myocardium. The damaging effects of isoproterenol on the heart were evident from the significant reduction in SAP, DAP, and MAP, in addition to in indicators of MI contraction as well as relaxation ( ± LVdP/dtmax) together through a surge in LVEDP, an indicator of pre-load. Additionally, the actions of important enzymes like CK-MB, LDH, along with antioxidant enzymes for example, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in adding to the stage of glutathione (GSH), were notably reduced. An elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a marker of oxidative stress, accompanied this. In this study, rats were pre-treated with different doses of azilsartan (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg bw) orally for 14 days before being induced through isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. The outcomes of the examination presented that azilsartan had a protecting outcome on the myocardium in this experimentally induced model of myocardial infarction (MI). The treatment with azilsartan improved various parameters, positively impacting the damaging effects caused by isoproterenol (ISO).

33. HPTLC Finger Print Development and Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Alstonia scholaris Linn. Root Extract
Saurabh Sharma, Swapnil Goyal
Aim: The present research is grounded in a comprehensive approach encompassing pharmacognostic study, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profiling, and the preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticles derived from the aqueous root extract of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R. Br.
Methods: Successive extraction of root parts was conducted, and preliminary phytochemical screening was employed to identify the presence of primary and secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, glycosides, and tannins. HPTLC densitometric analysis of the aqueous root extract was performed using the CAMAG HPTLC system, yielding chromatograms scanned at wavelengths of 254 and 366 nm. The study further delves into the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, utilizing the aqueous root extract. The reduction of silver ions and the subsequent formation of silver nanoparticles were monitored using a UV-vis spectrometer.
Results: Phytochemical screening confirmed the diverse array of primary and secondary metabolites present in the aqueous root extract. HPTLC densitometric analysis provided chromatographic results, offering insights into the chemical composition at specific wavelengths. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the plant extract demonstrated successful reduction of silver ions, with further investigation of particle size distribution through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) revealing morphological characteristics of the prepared silver nanoparticles.
Conclusion: The findings from this multidisciplinary study shed light on the pharmacognostic attributes, chemical composition, and green synthesis potential of A. scholaris Linn R. Br. The documented presence of bioactive compounds and the successful synthesis of silver nanoparticles underscore the therapeutic potential of this plant. These results contribute to understanding the plant’s medicinal properties and hold promise for future applications in healthcare and nanotechnology.

34. A Novel Metered Dose Inhalation Formulations with Formoterol 6 Mcg and Beclomethasone 200 Mcg by Using Breath Actuated Inhaler
Musale VP, Shah PJ
Metered spray inhalers represent a broadly utilized dosage form for delivering anti-asthmatic drugs to the pulmonary system. The drug-device combination formulation, which includes beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and formoterol fumarate (FF), are widely employed for the treatment of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). The current formulation available in the market contains both active ingredients, FF and BDP, dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 134a and ethanol are commonly used together as a co-solvent. However, individuals with religious or cultural concerns may opt to avoid using inhalers containing alcohol. In such cases, they may prefer non-alcoholic alternatives that are also accessible in the market. This study presents an innovative formulation strategy for metered-dose inhalers based on HFA that are non-alcoholic in combination therapy of FF and BDP inhalers. The novelty of the recently developed formulation lies in the substitution of ethanol with PEG 1000 as a co-solvent. Additionally, PEG 1000 serves the dual function of acting as a dispersing agent, thereby stabilizing the developed formulation. Moreover, it facilitates the delivery of synergistic effects by lubricating the valve components, ensuring smooth and flawless spray performance. The assay results for FF were 99.7 and 98.4%, while for beclomethasone, they were 101.0 and 99.7%, respectively, for pMDI and breath actuated inhaler (BAI). The percentage of emitted dose was 43.7 and 44.2% for pMDI, and 42.9 and 49.8% for BAI. Overall, both the developed conventional pMDI formulations and BAI exhibited efficient performance characteristics with equivalent performance.

35. A Rapid, Selective and Sensitive Electrospray Ionization Assisted LC-MS Method for Ranolazine and Identification of Its Two Potential Genotoxic Impurities
Nagasurendra R V, Devanna N
A rapid, sensitive and selective electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach was developed to find and quantify the two genotoxic RANO contaminants (A and G) and forced degradation products of RANO in formulations of pharmaceutical drugs. X Select CSH C18 (100 x 3.0 mm, 2.5 μm) instrument was utilized for the separation with mobile phase containing of ammonia solution (A) and methanol (B) in gradient elution. About 254 nm as detection wavelength and 0.3 mL/min as flow rate were maintained. RANO has been degraded under stress conditions like thermal, oxidative, hydrolytic, peroxide, photolytic, acid and base, conditions. The resultant RANO products of degradation were well separated from RANO and its contaminants. Based on ICH rules the validation process was complying with the acceptance of precision, linearity, robustness and accuracy. To quantify the constituent contaminants (A and G), a positive electrospray ionization was connected to a triple quadrupole mass detector. The contaminants were determined in terms of LoD and LoQ values of 0.075 and 0.25 ppm, respectively, using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode.

36. In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Glabridin in Combination with Oroxylin-A
Ujwal B Vyas, Khobragade KS, Vyas PU
There has been a significant increase in interest in the study of free radicals due to shifting dietary and environmental patterns. Our bodies can become exposed to diverse physiochemical circumstances, pathogenic states, or distinct endogenous systems that produce free radicals. Oxidative stress is a condition caused by the body’s exposure to free radicals. We have to give the body an antioxidant source when it can’t handle more oxidative stress. A material that prevents oxidative damage to a target molecule, which is mostly brought on by free radicals, is referred to be an antioxidant. Antioxidants are essential for treating numerous ailments or are used as a supportive treatment for a wide range of disorders brought on by or made worse by oxidative stress. Glabridin and oroxylin-A are well-known active phytoconstituents with high anti-obesity activity. Antioxidants’ hypolipidemic action and potential are very helpful in the treatment of disorders associated with obesity. The current investigation attempts to assess the antioxidant capacity of both oroxylin-A and glaciridin. Ascorbic acid was utilized as the reference antioxidant agent for comparison while evaluating the antioxidant activity. According to the findings, both active ingredients exhibit substantial antioxidant activity more than 65% greater than regular ascorbic acid. When combined with oroxylin-A, glabridin exhibits even greater antioxidant activity more than 80% higher than that of regular ascorbic acid.

37. Exploring the Binding Affinity and Molecular Interactions: A Comprehensive Study on the Molecular Docking of Benzimidazole Derivatives
Akshada A Koparde, Rutuja S Patil, Shraddha D Patil, Anup A Patil, Namdeo R Jadhav
The aim of this research work was to study the comparative binding affinities of benzimidazole derivatives (2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole and 2-phenyl benzimidazole) against COX, LOX, and estrogen receptor. Benzimidazole stands as a vital heterocyclic aromatic organic molecule, playing a pivotal role in medicinal chemistry due to its essential pharmacophore and structural significance. The three-dimensional structures of COX, LOX, and the estrogen receptor were sourced from the PDB database. Concurrently, the structures of the benzimidazole derivatives, namely 2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole and 2-phenyl benzimidazole, were obtained from the PubChem database. Docking studies were conducted using the PyRx software. A total of nine modes for each receptor were generated, and 2E77 was selected as the best dock. The docking result shows that the interaction of 2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole with E77 has the highest binding energy. A total of nine modes for each receptor were generated, and 1CX2 was selected as the best dock. The docking result shows that the interaction of 2-phenyl benzimidazole with 1CX2 has the highest binding energy. The in-silico studies show that 2-phenyl benzimidazole has more binding energy with receptors as compared to 2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole.

38. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel 2-Azetidinones Compounds
Jawarkar SG, Game MD
A series of 2-azetidinone derivatives were synthesized by the formation of triazole, followed by synthesis of Schiff’s bases by condensation of various substituted aldehydes. The Schiff’s bases further reacted to chloroacetyl chloride in the presence of triethyl amine, and undergoes cyclocondensation to give substituted 3-chloro-1-(3-mercapto-5-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-4-phenylazetidin-2-one which on further reaction with ethyl chloroacetate, gives substituted ethyl 2-((4-(3-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenylazetidin-1-yl)-3-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)thio)acetate. Synthesized compounds were by characterized by fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H, 13C), and mass spectroscopy. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for its in-vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity results revealed that A-VI, A-IX, A-XVIII, displayed equipotent activity when compared with the standard drug. The compounds with p-chloro and p-nitro group exhibited the most potent antimicrobial agent.

39. Methanolic Extract of Neurocalynx calcinus for Promoting Wound Healing: Characterization by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Anita A, Kalpana Diwekar, Geetha KM
Wounds are physical injuries caused to living tissues due to discontinuation, disruption of cellular function, anatomical rupture, and functional issues in the concerned parts. Wound healing is an intricate restoration of damaged tissue by anabolic progression due to enhanced cellular function, matrix signaling, and various physiological processes. Still, a satisfactory solution is not viable for complete wound healing. Need of the hour is a wound healing product that is natural and easily available with a reduction in pain and finances, as well as restorations of tissue integration, with a minimum scar and quick healing. Based on ethno-pharmacological studies, Neurocalynx calcinus (Rubiaceae) was chosen for comprehensive research on in-vitro and in-vivo wound healing investigation. This plant is called “Pacha chedi” and is native to the jungles of Kerala and south India. The plant is reported to have antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and it also showed significant wound healing, burn healing, and immune-enhancing properties. Several chemicals, such as flavonoids, were discovered in the NCME extract through ultra-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis (UPHPLC-HRMS). Additionally, solutions with various NCME crude concentrations made with this extract were assessed for their anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and acute dermal healing processes in a rat excision wound model and safety. The results of histopathology demonstrated the best rate of wound contraction. Compounds like glucoside, kaempferol, and quercetin ellagic acid were identified in NCME and are known as wound healers. The result also showed that NCME extract has good antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. It can probably be the next target for a novel drug from a phytochemical background, and it can play a significant role in accelerating wound healing by supporting traditional use.

40. Analysis of the Validity of Urine LAM ELISA for Tuberculosis Infection
Zhao Junpeng, Richard Avoi, Azman Atil
Objective: To explore the validity of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay technology for detecting MTB infection in the double infection of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) population with sputum-producing problems, and to explore the background value and medical reference value range of urinary LAM in the general population and people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS population).
Method: About 307 individuals from the general population group, HIV/AIDS population group, TB population group and HIV-TB population group provided by Seventh Hospital of Tangshan city were selected for early morning urine analysis. LAM ELISA competition method and double antibody sandwich method were used to detect the concentration of LAM in urine. Standard curves of LAM optical density OD value were drawn. The differences in LAM concentration in different groups of urine were calculated, and the diagnostic validity of LAM ELISA techniques was explored.
Result: (1) The corresponding curve formula of the ELISA competition method was y = 1.696-0.087x+3.100/x2; The corresponding curve formula for the double antibody sandwich method was y = -0.205+0.587x-0.097×2+0.001×3. (2) In LAM ELISA competition method, the difference in LAM OD values between the TB population group and the general population group was statistically significant (t = 3.393, p < 0.05), and the difference in LAM OD values between the HIV-TB population group and the HIV/AIDS population group was statistically significant (t = 2.294, p < 0.05); The difference in LAM concentration between TB population group and general population group was statistically significant (t = -4.642, p < 0.05), and the difference in LAM concentration between HIV-TB population group and HIV/AIDS population group was statistically significant (t = -4.737, p < 0.05). In LAM ELISA double antibody sandwich method, there was a statistically significant difference in LAM OD values between TB population group and the general population group (t = -2.566, p < 0.05), and there was a statistically significant difference in LAM OD values between HIV-TB population group and HIV/AIDS population group (t = -3.212,p < 0.05); The difference in LAM concentration between TB population group and general population group was statistically significant (t = -5.722, p < 0.05), and the difference in LAM concentration between HIV-TB population group and HIV/AIDS group was statistically significant (t = -8.118, p < 0.05). (3) Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) curve analysis showed that in the LAM ELISA competition method, the SPE of TB infection in the HIV-TB population group diagnosed with urine LAM was higher than those in TB population group, with a statistically significant difference (F = 31.227, p < 0.05). Compared to the general population group, LAM ELISA competition method SEN in TB population group was lower than that in the ELISA double antibody sandwich method, and the difference was statistically significant (F = 15.667, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The validity of urine LAM ELISA technology in the HIV-TB population group with TB infection was better than that in TB population group, and the validity of the LAM ELISA double antibody sandwich method was better than that in ELISA competitive method. The feasibility of urine LAM ELISA technology in HIV-TB was worthy of recognition, and the technology could be further improved and promoted.

41. Comorbid Cholesterol (2%) Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis and Isoproterenol Hydrochloride Induced Myocardial Infarction
Saraswathi K, Naga Kavitha CH
Cardiovascular diseases remain a primary cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction playing significant roles. Using a rabbit model, this experimental investigation aimed to explore the combined effects of coexisting conditions, specifically a 2% cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis and isoproterenol hydrochloride-induced myocardial infarction. New Zealand white rabbits were utilized for this study, leveraging their metabolic similarity to humans, which has been pivotal in lipid-lowering drug research. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits have notably contributed to the discovery of statins, the primary treatment for hyperlipidemic patients worldwide. After 12 weeks of treatment, rabbits subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) and Isoproterenol hydrochloride (ISO) exhibited significant increases in cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and other atherogenic markers compared to normal rabbits. In contrast, Spirulina treatment (33 mg/kg B.wt/66 mg/kg b.wt.) markedly reduced cholesterol, TG, VLDL, LDL, and improved high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels while enhancing cardiac antioxidant activity. Our findings underscore Spirulina’s potential in alleviating diet and ISO-induced atherosclerosis and cardiac toxicity, suggesting its promise for preventing atherosclerosis-associated cardiac injury in patients.

42. Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Solid SMEDDS of Itraconazole in Effervescent Granules Form
Manisha R Patil, Sanjay K Kshirsagar
This investigation assessed nine formulations of liquid self-micro-emulsifying drug delivery systems (L-SMEDDS) for itraconazole (ITZ). The most effective formulation (ILS6) consisted of 40% clove as the oil, 40% Kolliphor CS 20 as the surfactant, and 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as the co-surfactant. ILS6 displayed a droplet size of 130 to 165 nm, well below 200 nm, and a polydispersity index (PDI) value of 0.47 to 0.73, indicating the development of an emulsion with nanosized droplets and even spreading. The finalized formulation demonstrated stability under numerous conditions and achieved supreme drug loading capacity. The optimized L-SMEDDS was solidified into solidified SMEDDS (S-SMEDDS) utilizing sylloid 244 FP, resulting in a free-flowing powder without drug interactions. The effervescent system was successfully formulated by incorporating S-SMEDDS with different excipients. The selected effervescent system passed quality control and stability tests. The effervescent system exhibited a rapid and pH-independent release profile. The combined impact of SMEDDS and the effervescent system collectively enhanced the solubility and dissolution of itraconazole.

43. Assessment of Biochemical Markers for Early Detection and Monitoring of Cardiovascular Diseases: Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure
Sarath M Nair, Ashutosh Pareek, Mohammad C Jamali
This paper comprehensively analyzes biochemical markers for early detection and monitoring of myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). It begins by examining traditional biomarkers like troponin for MI and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for HF, discussing their roles, limitations, and clinical challenges. The study then explores emerging genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic biomarkers, assessing their potential for more precise and personalized diagnostics than traditional markers. Additionally, the thesis investigates how these novel biomarkers can be integrated with digital health technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, to enhance diagnostic accuracy and develop patient-specific treatment strategies. It also considers the role of these biomarkers in preventive cardiology, particularly in identifying individuals at risk before symptoms appear. The thesis concludes by emphasizing the importance of advanced diagnostic tools in early detection and monitoring of MI and HF, the promising future of personalized medicine in cardiovascular disease care, and suggests directions for future research. The overall aim is to contribute to improved patient outcomes and better management of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) globally.

44. Alternative Approaches to Antibiotics in Dentistry: Probiotics, Antimicrobial Peptides in Periodontal Disease
Reghunathan S Preethanath, Merlin Jayaraj, Nagaland T, PS Archana
Background: A common oral health issue, periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation and eventual tooth loss of the periodontal tissues and bone that surround and support each tooth. Probiotics and antimicrobial peptides have emerged as potential adjunctive therapies due to their ability to modulate the oral microbiota and combat pathogenic bacteria.
Materials and Methods: Patients with periodontitis were the subjects of a randomised controlled experiment. Two groups of participants were formed: one receiving probiotics and the other receiving antimicrobial peptides, in addition to standard periodontal treatment. Clinical parameters, such as clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD), were measured before and after six months of therapy.
Results: Both probiotics and antimicrobial peptides demonstrated significant improvements in PPD and CAL compared to baseline values. In the probiotics group, mean PPD decreased from 5.6 ± 0.8 to 3.2 ± 0.6 mm, while CAL improved from 6.8 ± 1.2 to 4.5 ± 0.9 mm. Similarly, in the antimicrobial peptides group, mean PPD decreased from 5.8 ± 0.7 to 3.1 ± 0.5 mm, and CAL improved from 7.0 ± 1.0 to 4.4 ± 0.8 mm.
Conclusion: Both probiotics and antimicrobial peptides show promise as adjunctive therapies in the management of chronic periodontitis. Their use alongside standard periodontal treatment leads to significant improvements in clinical parameters, suggesting their potential efficacy in combating periodontal disease. Further research is warranted to explore their long-term effects and optimal dosage regimens.

45. The Role of Anti-Caries Agent Sodium Fluoride Application in Rampant Caries Patients
Shadab Ahmed, Nagaland T, PS Archana, Merlin Jayaraj
Background: Rampant caries poses a significant challenge in dental practice, particularly in patients with compromised oral health. Sodium fluoride (NaF) has long been recognized for its caries-preventive properties due to its ability to enhance remineralization and inhibit demineralization of dental enamel. However, its specific role in managing rampant caries remains a subject of investigation.
Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial involving 50 patients diagnosed with rampant caries was conducted. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received topical applications of NaF and group B received standard oral care without NaF application. The NaF group received biweekly applications of 2.26% NaF gel for a period of six months. Clinical evaluations and radiographic assessments were conducted at baseline and after the intervention period.
Results: Following the six-month intervention, patients in group A demonstrated a significant reduction in caries progression compared to group B. The mean number of new carious lesions was 3.2 ± 1.5 in group A, whereas it was 6.8 ± 2.3 in group B (p < 0.001). Additionally, radiographic analysis revealed a higher rate of remineralization in group A, with a mean increase in mineral density of 15.4 ± 3.8% compared to 5.6 ± 2.1% in group B (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Topical application of NaF demonstrated efficacy in managing rampant caries by reducing caries progression and promoting remineralization of dental enamel. Incorporating NaF into the treatment regimen for patients with rampant caries can serve as an effective preventive measure to mitigate the disease burden and improve oral health outcomes.

46. Effect of NSAIDs in the Tooth Movement in Orthodontic Treatment
Aparnna Dhayanidhi, Sai P Nagella, Narendra P Rai, Kelkar K Chandrashekhar, Prathap C Manivannan, Noor AA Arsheed
Background: Patients undergoing tooth movement in orthodontics often utilize non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) to alleviate inflammation and discomfort. On the other hand, the orthodontic profession is still debating whether or not NSAIDs slow down or hinder tooth mobility.
Materials and Methods: About 60 mouths that needed their teeth moved participated in a randomized controlled experiment. There were two groups of patients: Group A received NSAIDs (ibuprofen, 400 mg), while group B received a placebo. Tooth movement was measured using digital calipers at baseline and then at intervals of 4 weeks over a period of 12 weeks.
Results: The mean rate of tooth movement in group A was 1.5 ± 0.3 mm per month, whereas in group B it was 1.8 ± 0.4 mm per month. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the rate of tooth movement between the two groups, with group B demonstrating faster tooth movement compared to group A.
Conclusion: The administration of NSAIDs during orthodontic treatment appears to have a modest but statistically significant inhibitory effect on the rate of tooth movement. Clinicians should consider the potential impact of NSAIDs on treatment outcomes when managing pain and inflammation in orthodontic patients.

47. Effectiveness of Citrus paradisi Extract, its Synergistic Effect and Cytotoxicity when Incorporated into Tissue Conditioners against Candida Species
Anupama PD, Rajendra PB, Veena SA, Shashidhara SC, Santhanu SM
Purpose: One of the most common fungal infections seen in complete denture wearers is candidiasis. Unscrupulous use of tissue conditioners, in the long run, can lead to irreversible damage to the tissues if the underlying infection is not attended to in a timely manner. Carcinogenesis and environmental residues associated with synthetic antifungals are eliminating them from the market and herbal alternatives are replacing them due to lesser side effects. Since Citrus species are known for antifungal and antibacterial effects, the raw fruits of Citrus paradisi were selected for study. Materials and Methods: The fresh fruits of C. paradisi were hydrodistilated to obtain their volatile oil. Antifungal impact studies were conducted using agar diffusion and colony count techniques on certain Candidal strains from the ATCC. The research was conducted on human gingival fibroblasts to determine cytotoxicity, biofilm inhibition, synergistic action, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition (ZOI). Results: Volatile extract of C. paradisi showed higher efficiency compared to commercially available antifungals. Cytotoxic effects were less than the toxicity showed by commercial antifungals. Conclusion: C. paradisi oil extract showed antifungal effect on tested strains of Candida. In-vitro cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblast was less in comparison to flucanazole and amphotericin B.

48. The Role of Curcumin and Neem in the Form of Mouthwash in the Treatment of Aphthous Ulcer in the Oral Cavity
Sulabh Jain, Gayathri V Nair, Sukanta K Satapathy, Rohan Shinkre
Background: Aphthous ulcers are common painful lesions that affect the oral mucosa. Traditional treatments often include topical agents to reduce inflammation and promote healing. Curcumin and neem are two natural compounds with known anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, which may offer therapeutic benefits in the treatment of aphthous ulcers.
Materials and Methods: Aphthous ulcers were the target of this research, which sought to determine if a mouthwash containing curcumin and neem was effective in treating them. About 100 people with aphthous ulcers were part in a randomized controlled experiment. Participants were divided into two groups: one receiving the curcumin and neem mouthwash and the other receiving a placebo mouthwash. Treatment was administered twice daily for two weeks. Pain scores, ulcer size, and healing time were recorded at baseline and throughout the study period.
Results: When compared to the placebo group, the group that received the mouthwash containing curcumin and neem showed a substantial decrease in pain levels (p < 0.05). In the treatment group, the size of the ulcer reduced by 50%, whereas in the control group, it fell by 20% (p < 0.01). Ulcers in the treatment group healed an average of seven days faster than in the control group, which took twelve days.
Conclusion: According to the results of this research, a mouthwash that contains curcumin and neem might help alleviate discomfort, speed up the healing process, and ultimately speed up the treatment of oral aphthous ulcers. We need more studies to figure out what’s going on and how to make the best treatments.

49. Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin HCl Resin Complex
Charanjeet Singh, Anil K Gupta, Yashwant, Vijay Sharma
The primary goal of a number of research study in the pharmaceutical sector is to block the taste and enhance the palatability of the dosage forms for bitter taste API. Taste plays a crucial role in the formulation of dosage forms, and the bitter and unpleasant taste of medications, particularly in pediatric patients, can have negative psychological effects. This study aimed to assess the drug release characteristics from the drug-resin complex. The effectiveness of drug complexity depends on factors such as resin type, ratio, and mixing duration. In this study, we evaluated the complex formation process of ciprofloxacin with the resin and subsequently examined the release of the drug from this complex.

50. Comprehensive Evaluation of Antilithiatic Potential: In-vitro andIn-vivo Studies on Aqueous Extract and Fractions from Punica granatum L. Leaves
Keerthana Arra, Rajeshwari Pasupula, Supriya Rayana
The hydroalcoholic concentrate and its fractions of Punica granatum L. leaves were tested for antilithiatic activity. The evaluation includes in-vitro as well as in-vivo investigations. The extract and its fractions were tested in-vitro for their effects on urolithiasis-related processes such crystal formation, growth, & aggregation inhibition. In-vivo testing examined stone formation, growth, & dissolution in animal models with artificial urolithiasis after providing the extract and fractions. In-vitro, the hydroalcoholic extract & its components prevented crystal development, aggregation, and formation. These data imply that the extract & fractions may inhibit early stone growth, preventing urolithiasis. In animal models with artificial urolithiasis, the extract and fractions dramatically decreased stone load, with dichloromethane showing better antilithiatic effects. In addition, the therapy helped dissolve and pass stones. These findings demonstrate P. granatum L. leaves’ powerful antilithiatic capabilities, supporting their use in urolithiasis.

51. Impact of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl on Analgesic Efficacy and Side Effects in Post-Laparoscopic Vaginal Hysterectomy: A Comparison with Intraperitoneal Ropivacaine
Nandhini L, Arun Kumar B, R Brindha, Shanu S
Background: To evaluate whether using dexmedetomidine in conjunction with local anesthesia may prolong the period of pain relief after a vaginal hysterectomy and promote early mobility.
Method: This research compared and analyzed the results of 60 patients (ASA I–II, 30–60 years old) who had general anesthesia during their operation. Subjects were allocated at random to receive either dexmedetomidine (Group RF) or fentanyl (Group RD) in combination with local anesthesia. Post-operative analgesic consumption, pain scores, and time to initial ambulation were documented for 24 hours.
Results: Both groups had comparable baseline characteristics and hemodynamic stability. In group RF, the mean duration of analgesic medication use was considerably longer (4.93 ± 1.34 hours) compared to group RD (4.38 ± 1.43 hours), has 0.001 as the statistically significant p-value. Moreover, group RF had an earlier time to start ambulation.
Conclusion: In a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, dexmedetomidine, used as an adjuvant to local anesthesia, significantly prolongs post-operative analgesia and facilitates early ambulation compared to fentanyl, suggesting potential advantages.

52. Bupivacaine vs. Ropivacaine with Dexmedetomidine for Unilateral Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Adithya G Ashok, Naveena P, Arun K B, R Brindha
Background: Adult inguinal hernia repair is often performed under local anesthesia because to its ease of use, quick start, affordability, and prolonged post-operative pain management. The effectiveness and safety of two local anesthetic combinations for inguinal hernia repair field block are compared in this research.
Methods: Vinayaka Missions Kirupanandha Variyar Medical College and Hospital undertook a randomized controlled study. Men between the ages of 30 and 60 patients were scheduled for surgical inguinal hernia elective procedures and were categorized as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II and participated in the study. They were allocated at random to either ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine or bupivacaine + dexmedetomidine as a field block. The main measure of interest was the duration until the initiation of anesthesia. Additional outcomes encompassed the assessment of the quality of surgical anesthesia, changes in hemodynamics, post-operative pain levels, and any unfavorable incidents.
Results: The groups had similar demographics and baseline characteristics. There were no discernible variations between the groups in terms of hemodynamic changes, post-operative pain levels, surgical anaesthesia quality, and the time it took for anesthesia to take effect. Both groups had a low incidence of adverse events.
Conclusion: For healthy adults (ASA I and II) undergoing inguinal hernia repair, ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine as a field block appears to be as effective and safe as bupivacaine + dexmedetomidine, suggesting it could be a suitable alternative, particularly considering its favorable safety profile and potential for enhanced patient comfort. However, larger research is needed to validate these results.

53. A Prospective Study of the Efficacy of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 0.25% Bupivacaine with Dexmedetomidine as Post-operative Analgesia in Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Elective Lower Abdominal Surgeries
Arun Kumar B, Dinesh Kumar P, R Brindha, S Gokul
Background: Managing discomfort after surgery lower abdominal surgery is challenging, impacting recovery and patient well-being. This study compares the efficacy of two abdominis transversus plane (TAP) block formulations—0.25% bupivacaine and 0.25% bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine to optimize analgesia and reduce reliance on systemic medications.
Method: Focusing on elective lower abdominal surgeries, the study assesses the formulations’ performance. Key objectives include evaluating time to first rescue analgesia, length of time sensory block, quality of blockade, total rescue analgesia dose within 24 hours, and pain and sedation scores.
Result: Critical insights into the comparative performance of TAP block formulations are obtained. Findings encompass time to first rescue analgesia, sensory block duration, blockade quality, rescue analgesia dose, and pain and sedation scores, providing a comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness and potential side effects.
Conclusion: This study contributes clinical data to enhance post-operative pain management for lower abdominal surgeries. Anticipated outcomes involve improved patient comfort, quicker recovery, and the potential for more personalized approaches, ultimately advancing patient outcomes and pain management protocols.

54. Clonidine Enhances Bupivacaine-Lignocaine Supraclavicular Block for Upper Limb Surgery in Tertiary Care Hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu: A Prospective Study
Arjun Ganesan, K Viveka, Rasikapriya M, VA Sabapathy
Background and Aims: The novel amides bupivacaine and lignocaine are long-acting local anesthetics with distinct blocking properties. The quality of blocking peripheral nerve is enhanced when clonidine is combined with local anesthetics. This investigation aims to evaluate clonidine’s effects on the features of the brachial nerve plexus supraclavicular block induced by ropivacaine.
Material and Methods: Two groups of thirty adults each were randomly selected from a total of 60 patients. Group I: About 60 subjects will receive 15 mL each of lignocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine 2% with adrenaline (1:200000) combination. Group II: 30 subjects will receive a mixture of 15 mL each 0.5 and 2% bupivacaine and lignocaine, respectively with adrenaline (1:200000) combined with clonidine (30 mcg).
Results: Group II experienced sensorimotor block onset earlier than group I, with sensory block starting at 11.28 ± 1.53 minutes and motor block starting at 9.53 ± 1.32 minutes (19.06 ± 1.7 minutes for blocking sensory nerve and 15.33 ± 2.09 minutes for blocking motor nerve). p < 0.05 determined that both differences were statistically significant. The need for rescue analgesia was significantly higher in group A (p < 0.05). Blocking both sensory and motor nerve blocks occurred more quickly and lasted longer than expected. Hemodynamic measurements, including SPO2 (oxygen saturation), heartbeat, and cardiovascular blood pressure measurements (systolic and diastolic), did not show any discernible variation.
Conclusion: The supraclavicular brachial plexus block quality is greatly improved when clonidine is added to ropivacaine as an adjuvant. This results in a quicker onset of anesthesia, increased post-operative pain relief, an extended period of sensory and motor blockage, and none at all at the dose that is given.

55. Molecular Docking Analysis of Potentilla fulgens Polyphenols against Estrogen Receptors Involved in Breast Cancer
Sunita Deore, Vinod Wagh, Harshal Tare, Nandu Kayande, Ujjwala Thube
Breast cancer is still a major worldwide health issue, which makes the search for new treatment options necessary. Through their interactions with estrogen receptors (ERs), polyphenolic chemicals from Potentilla fulgens may prove to be effective therapeutics for breast cancer treatment. This work investigates this possibility using molecular docking analysis. A curated library of polyphenols was compiled from the PubChem database, ensuring diversity and biological relevance. Crystallographic structures of ERα and ERβ were selected, and molecular docking studies were conducted using the CB-Dock2 server. The results revealed intricate binding affinities, with compounds such as afzelechin, epiafzelechin, epicatechin, and catechin demonstrating robust interactions with both receptors. Structural analysis of cavity pockets in ERα and ERβ unveiled distinct features, highlighting variations in volume, center coordinates, and size. Comparison with the standard tamoxifen indicated nuanced binding patterns, suggesting potential alternatives or complementary agents. Epigallocatechingallate exhibited higher affinity for ERα, while afzelechin (4β→8) epicatechin and epiafzelechin (4β→8) epicatechin showed moderate binding favoring ERβ. These findings provide valuable insights into the molecular interactions of P. fulgens polyphenols with ERs, laying the groundwork for the development of targeted interventions for breast cancer.

56. In-silico Discovery of Potential Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cell Division Protein FtsZ Inhibitors: A Natural Ligand Piperine-Derived 3-Point Pharmacophore Screening and Structure-Guided Blind Docking Study
Sunita Deore, Vinod Wagh, Ujjwala Thube, Nandu Kayande, Harshal Tare
This research employs a computational strategy to identify potential inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ, a crucial cell division protein. The crystal structure of FtsZ was meticulously validated, serving as the foundation for pharmacophore-based virtual screening and subsequent molecular docking simulations. Piperine, a natural ligand derived from black pepper, guided the development of a 3-point pharmacophore model, which successfully screened a diverse chemical database. Ten top-ranking compounds emerged with promising pharmacophore scores, demonstrating potential interactions with the FtsZ binding site. Molecular docking simulations revealed specific compounds, including ZINC000012440615 and ZINC000014658239, displaying consistent preferences for pocket C5 and C1, respectively. The structural analysis of FtsZ unveiled a diverse set of pockets (C1–C5) with varying volumes and sizes, emphasizing the complexity of the protein’s architecture. These findings provide crucial insights into potential inhibitors for further experimental validation and drug development against M. tuberculosis.

57. Sensitive Quantification of Antiretroviral Trio in Plasma: Lamivudine, Zidovudine, and Nevirapine by LC-MS/MS with Abacavir
Ashwini Shelke, Tushar Lokhande, Vaishali Pardeshi
This study centers on creating and confirming a specialized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) bioanalytical technique for accurately measuring the levels of lamivudine, zidovudine, and nevirapine in human plasma. The approach utilizes abacavir as a reference point. The utilization of positive ionization mode, solid-phase extraction (SPE) technology, and the deliberate addition of formic acid in the mobile phase played a crucial role in enhancing the sensitivity of the approach. The purity advance C18 column exhibited superior performance, ensuring favorable peak shapes and responses even at low concentrations. Rigorous method validation, in accordance with international guidelines, confirmed the method’s reliability, meeting acceptance criteria for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Successful application to patient samples highlighted the method’s practical utility for routine monitoring and quality control in pharmaceutical and clinical settings. The paper discusses comprehensive findings, suggesting further optimization for simultaneous determination and emphasizing the potential for broader applications in pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring.

58. Comparative Study using Dexmedetomidine- Propofol vs Fentanyl- Propofol in Short Surgical Procedure a Prospective Randomised Study
G P Roshan, N M Jassim, Prabhu Thilaak, R Brindha
Background: I-gel is a supraglottic airway device (SGAD) in the second generation offers reduced air passage complications in contrast with other SGADs with inflatable cuffs. Propofol combined with opioids facilitates its insertion. This study aimed to compare dexmedetomidine and fentanyl pre-treatment for i-gel insertion under propofol anesthesia in terms of jaw relaxation, hemodynamic stability, and overall insertion conditions.
Methods: Methods: In this prospective, randomized trial, 60 individuals (18–60 years old, ASA I–II) were allocated at random to undergo anesthesia with either 1 μg/kg of fentanyl or 1 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine, followed by 2 mg/kg of propofol. Jaw relaxation, hemodynamic parameters (modified Lund and Stovener scheme), and propofol requirement were assessed.
Results: Both groups achieved comparable I-gel insertion conditions (excellent in 66.7% with fentanyl and 63.3% with dexmedetomidine). However, dexmedetomidine showed a significantly lower mean heart rate compared to fentanyl. Propofol requirements were slightly higher in the fentanyl group (2.03 vs. 1.40 mg/kg).
Conclusions: Comparable general conditions are offered by fentanyl and dexmedetomidine for i-gel insertion with propofol. While both offer hemodynamic stability, dexmedetomidine exhibits superior attenuation of the heart rate response and reduced propofol requirement, potentially leading to improved patient outcomes.

59. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Brivaracetam Extended-Release Tablets by QbD approach
Atul Pund, Atishkumar Mundada
This research article outlines a systematic and science-based approach to formulate extended-release tablets of brivaracetam (BRV) by means of quality by design (QbD) method. BRV, a potent antiepileptic drug, faces challenges due to its short half-life, necessitating twice-daily dosing and impacting patient adherence. The study focuses on addressing these challenges through the development of extended-release tablets, aiming for once-daily dosing to enhance patient compliance and adherence. QbD is a systematic approach to developing pharmaceuticals, focusing on proactive risk management and quality assurance. It is supported and recommended by regulatory bodies. QbD, seeks to enhance processes and guarantee consistent product quality by engaging in activities such as establishing target profiles and identifying crucial qualities. Feasibility trials involve the identification of optimal polymers and concentrations following USP regulations. Materials, including Vivapur 200, HPMC K4 M, Blanose 7H4XF, HPMC K-200, magnesium stearate, SYLOID 244 FPFP, and brivaracetam, are carefully selected. The formulation process includes precise weighing, blending, tablet compression, and quality control tests. Dissolution testing under simulated physiological conditions assesses drug release, with UV spectrophotometry quantifying brivaracetam release. Evaluation of pre-compression parameters ensures a thorough understanding of powder blend characteristics. The study further presents the results and discussion on physical parameters and dissolution studies of feasibility trial formulations. In conclusion, the research establishes a foundation for the formulation development of extended-release BRV tablets, emphasizing the importance of the QbD approach in achieving optimal drug release profiles. The identified formulation (BRERT-17) is highlighted as the most promising, paving the way for future advancements in epilepsy management with improved patient compliance.

60. Development of HPLC Approach for Anticancer Drugs Combination Assay: Determination of Stability Indicating Quality and Stabilities of Anticancer Drugs Studied under the ICH Outlined Degrading Conditions
Kolapaneni A Kumar, S Aravind, Sri C Annam, Mannam S Rao
The combined use of tegafur (TAR), gimeracil (GAR), and oteracil (OAR) is often employed for the therapy of malignant tumors. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) approach was developed to consistently and precisely measure GAR, OAR, and TAR in a combined pharmaceutical formula that uses a shorter operation time. The separation followed by assessment of GAR, OAR and TAR is done with C18 (Waters, USA) column (250; 4.6 mm; temperature 25˚C) and the mobile phase ratio used included 60% vol (0.1 M NaHSO4): 40% vol (methanol). Upon applying stress conditions, International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) recommended to GAR, OAR and TAR. The HPLC findings pointed out the nonexistence of any interference between the drugs under test and the degradation compounds. The stability indicating quality was established by the peak purity results for GAR, OAR, and TAR, which disclose that the test peaks (GAR, OAR, and TAR) were homogenous in all stress settings examined. From stability studies, we found that GAR showed significant degradation when rendered to dry heat, while TAR and OAR exhibited significant degradation after being exposed to acidic conditions. The suggested approach could potentially be implemented to assess the stability of GAR, OAR, and TAR under stress environments as well as to perform quality control checks on the three mentioned drugs in capsule doses.

61. Development and Evaluation of Trazodone Hydrochloride Tablets for Oral Drug Delivery Technology
Vijay Sable, Sanjay Wagh
Usually, conventional oral drugs such as tablets and capsules are formulated to rapidly release the active ingredient into the body when ingested orally. This facilitates speedy and complete assimilation of the medication into the circulatory system, resulting in a prompt onset of its effects. The term “modified release drug product” pertains to drugs that alter the timing and/or rate of drug component release. The objective of study was to develop and evaluate a matrix tablet that achieves prolonged release of trazodone hydrochloride. Trazodone hydrochloride is an orally administered novel antidepressant medication. Mood disorders, phobias, and social anxiety disorders are common indications for its usage. Two different forms of trazodone hydrochloride medications are now on the market: Rapid-release tablets and prolonged-release capsules. Effexor and Effexor XR are the brand names under which these drugs are marketed. Trazodone hydrochloride has a short biological half-life of5 hours, which means that it is necessary to take 2 to 3 dosages each day. The optimal daily dose falls within the range of 75 to 450 mg/day. Trazodone hydrochloride is a kind of medicine used for long-term treatment of depression. Thus, to decrease the occurrence of dosing, we chose to develop straightforward and cost-effective sustained-release tablets of trazodone.

62. Network Pharmacology of Ayurvedic Multicomponent Formulation Diabecon Containing Gymnema sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium and Asphaltum punjabinum with Special Reference to Antidiabetic Property
Vijay Sable, Ganesh Ahire
Network pharmacology, a burgeoning field amalgamating systems biology and computational biology, offers a promising avenue to unravel the intricate mechanisms of multi-component formulations in traditional medicine systems such as Ayurveda. This paper delves into the network pharmacology analysis of Diabecon, an Ayurvedic formulation comprising Gymnema sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Asphaltum punjabinum, with a focus on its antidiabetic properties. Leveraging information from diverse databases and employing tools like Cytoscape, we constructed pharmacological networks elucidating the interactions between bioactive and molecular targets, particularly in the context of diabetes. Our analysis unveils novel insights into the synergistic effects of the constituents of Diabecon, shedding light on their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications in managing diabetes mellitus. This research not only enhances our understanding of the pharmacodynamics of Diabecon but also paves the way for the identification of new therapeutic leads and targets for combating diabetes and related metabolic disorders.

63. In-silico Molecular Docking Studies of Methyl Oxadiazole Hybrids Inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment
Magesh M, Gandhimathi R
Memory loss and cognitive decline are the main signs of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative brain illness that affects millions worldwide. AD is linked to aberrant beta-amyloid, low acetylcholine, oxidative stress, inflammation, and T protein aggregation. Low acetylcholine levels are one of the most important factors in Alzheimer’s disease since they are essential for cognitive processing and memory. This is why we’ve concentrated on ACHEIs and the cholinergic system. We used in-silico testing to find new and effective oxadiazole acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study created, docked, and predicted numerous novel oxadiazole scaffolds to find Alzheimer’s disease cholinesterase inhibitors. Offline tools like Protein Data Bank for PBD protein file downloads and Marvin Sketch for chemical structure representation enhance internet resources like PubChem, Swiss ADMET, and PyRx 0.9 for molecular docking research. We used Swiss Protein Data Bank Viewer for protein synthesis and https://plip-tool.biotec.plip.index.html for active site pocket prediction. Study results suggest 108 oxadiazole hybrids were used. Most compounds had zero or one Lipinski rule of five (RO5) violation. ADME research shows that all of these medicines have perfect pharmacokinetic features, including blood-brain barrier penetration. The docking tests demonstrate that our compounds have high target receptor binding energies of 8.1 to 12.3 kcal/mol. Similar to donepezil(12.76 K/cal), 2, 19, and 36 had 12 kcal/mol binding energies, 4, 11, and 32 had 11.5 kcal/mol, while compound 18 had12.7 kcal/mol. Finally, our medications highly react with amino acid residues like Arg393, Arg525, Ala528 Asp400, and others. This binding approach is similar to donepezil, the gold standard. ADMET projections suggest these medications will have safer toxicological and pharmacokinetic profiles. The research aims to produce innovative AChE medications that restore brain acetyl choline levels, relieve Alzheimer’s disease symptoms and promote cognitive development.

64. In-silico Discovery of Potential Dengue Type 2 Virus NS1 Inhibitors: A Natural Ligand Zingerone-Derived 3-Point Pharmacophore Screening and Structure-Guided Blind Docking Study
Sunita Deore, Vinod Wagh, Mahesh Thorat, Shital Bidkar, Harshal Tare
This research endeavors to identify potential therapeutic candidates counter to DENV-2 NS1 through a computational approach. Utilizing the three-dimensional crystal structure of DENV-2 NS1 (PDB ID: 1OKE) as a molecular target, we employed a multi-step methodology involving ligand preparation, pharmacophore-based screening, and molecular docking simulations. Zingerone, a bioactive compound, served as the lead molecule for pharmacophore generation. Subsequently, a diverse set of compounds from the ChEMBL drug database was screened, and the top candidates were subjected to molecular docking studies. Noteworthy compounds, such as CHEMBL408701 (Taurolithocholic Acid) and CHEMBL4297253 (Mipicoledine), exhibited promising pharmacophore scores and binding interactions within specific pockets of DENV-2 NS1. Future drug development efforts against dengue virus infections can be built upon the study’s foundation, highlighting these compounds’ potential as inhibitors.

65. Evaluation of Anti-amnesic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Averrhoa carambola Leaves
Dinesh Kumar, Asheesh K Gupta, Navneet Verma, Sushil Kumar
The current research aims to screen the anti-amnesic and neuroprotective efficacy of ethanolic extract of Averrhoa carambola (EEAC) leaves. To fulfill the above purpose, phytochemical screening, quantity of total phenolic, flavonoids, behavioral study, biochemical study and histopathological study were performed. The results of phytochemical screening, quantities of total phenolic flavonoids, behavioral study, biochemical study and histopathological studies revealed the anti-amnesic and neuroprotective activity of the EEAC. EEAC shows anti-amnesic and neuroprotective activity due to numerous phytoconstituents and high amounts of phenolic and flavonoids. The results of this study show that the EEAC may be useful for managing amnesia.

66. Therapeutic Modifications to Correct Megaloblastic Anemia in Patients with Long Term Use of Metformin
Nishikant Ingole, Rohan Kalmegh
Introduction: Metformin is the first drug of choice for type 2 diabetes mellitus unless it is contraindicated. Patients with maximum metformin dose and for longer duration may suffer from megaloblastic anemia.
Material and Methods: A prospective, interventional, comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Type 2 diabetic patients on maximum metformin dose patients were advised to stop metformin and start long-acting insulin + DPPP4 inhibitors and injection of vitamin B12 to correct megaloblastic anemia.
Result: The Mean ± SD hemoglobin, MCV, serum vitamin B12 level before and after the therapeutic modification were 9.1 ± 0.89 and 12.8 ± 1.02 gm/dl, 106.7 ± 1.23 and 93.12 ± 5.56 fL, respectively, 254.14 ± 58.12 and 468.13 ± 69.32 pg/mL,.
Conclusion: Improvement in the Hemoglobin, MCV and serum vitamin B12 level suggestive of the cause of megaloblastic anemia was metformin.

67. Chronic Toxicity Investigations with Nilavembu Kudineer in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Asali AA Sukkur, Anbu JSJ Samuel, Sangeetha S, Anita GKA Vimala
The safety assessment of Nilavembu Kudineer (NVK), a polyherbal formulation with a wide spectrum of medicinal applications, was meticulously conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Over the course of 90 days, NVK was orally delivered at dosages of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg to test for chronic toxicity. The results of this research provide important information on the relative safety of NVK and its possible effects on human health. Neither death nor any treatment-related adverse clinical manifestations were recorded during the chronic investigation. Feed intake and body weight increase were similar across animals given NVK, with the exception of a little decrease in females in the 200 and 400 mg/kg groups. No adverse findings were found in the ocular investigations performed as part of the safety study. Comprehensive analyses of urinalysis, hematological parameters, and biochemical markers subsequent to NVK administration identified minor alterations in select parameters at distinct dose levels, without any overarching systemic effects. Importantly, both gross and histopathological examinations revealed an absence of lesions directly attributable to NVK treatment. The findings contribute substantial insights to the realm of herbal medicine, providing a solid foundation for the responsible integration of NVK into diverse healthcare contexts.

68. An LC-MS Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Ritonavir in Plasma Samples
Prathusha Katthala, Shivakumar Gubbiyappa
This project aims to create and verify a method using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to measure the amount of ritonavir in human plasma. Saquinavir will be used as the internal standard for this analysis. Chromatographic isolation was processed HYPURITY ADVACE 50 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm (Make: Thermo scientific) analytical column with mobile phase composition of methanol and ammonium acetate 5 mm buffer in the ratio of 85:15% v/v. Detection was processed in a positive ionic approach and the parent and product ion transitions were monitored at 721.30/296.10 for ritonavir and 671.30/570.30 for saquinavir (API 2000). The measurement of the linearity curve for regression analysis The correlation coefficient (r) exhibited a remarkable value of over 0.99 within the concentration range of 8.004 to 1600.001 ng/mL

for ritonavir. All eight batches showed no significant matrix effect. It was found that the standardized matrix factor had a precision of 1.90% at the LQC level and 2.38% at the HQC level. It was 0.992 for LQC and 1.005 for HQC when the IS factor was taken into account. Ritonavir had a general recovery rate of 89.07%, with a range of accuracy from 0.85 to 2.55%. The internal standard drug saquinavir had an average recovery rate of 90.18%, with a range of accuracy from 1.89 to 3.40%. The developed method was successfully validated and can be utilized for the assessment of ritonavir in biological matrices in industries, forensic labs, quality control labs, and bioavailability studies.

69. Piper mullesua: Traditional Uses and Pharmacological Potential
Kaur Arvinder, Sohpal VK, Ahmed Zabeer
Piper mullesua, also referred to as “Mullesua,” is a member of the Piperaceae family of plants. This paper aims to offer a comprehensive insight into the pharmacological potential and traditional applications of P. mullesua. Due to the plant’s medicinal qualities, it has historically been used in numerous indigenous medical systems. Recent scientific investigations have also noted its potential medicinal uses, including its antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. This paper highlights the active ingredients, traditional applications, and pharmacological properties of P. mullesua while summarizing the currently available research. The study implies that additional research is necessary to fully investigate its therapeutic potential and to pinpoint the underlying mechanisms of action.

70. Potential of Lactuca and Gyrocarpus Species: A Comprehensive Review
Surajit Maity, Gopal K Padhy, Lakshmi K Kanthal, Suman Pattanayak
Lactuca, a genus within the Asteraceae family, comprises a diverse group of herbaceous plants commonly known as lettuces. This review seeks to offer an extensive summary of Lactuca species, exploring their taxonomy, morphological diversity, nutritional content, medicinal properties, and potential agricultural and environmental applications. Lactuca runcinata, a species within the Lactuca genus, has been a subject of increasing interest in the field of pharmacology due to its potential medicinal properties. Based on recent studies, this review comprehensively examines the pharmacological activities associated with L. runcinata. The focus encompasses various aspects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, and other relevant pharmacological activities, shedding light on the therapeutic potential of this plant. Gyrocarpus, a distinctive genus within the family Hernandiaceae, comprises a group of intriguing flowering plants with a global distribution. Despite its relatively lesser-known status, botanists and researchers have been drawn to Gyrocarpus because of its distinctive traits and possible uses. This review strives to thoroughly examine Gyrocarpus, encompassing its taxonomy, morphology, ecological significance, phytochemistry, and potential uses in various fields. This plant species has a significant traditional usage history and is increasingly capturing the attention of the scientific community. This review seeks to offer a thorough examination of the therapeutic effects associated with Gyrocarpus asiaticus, relying on recent studies. The review encompasses diverse aspects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and other relevant pharmacological activities, shedding light on the potential therapeutic applications of this plant. This study’s primary objective is to comprehensively examine the chemical composition and medicinal properties associated with G. asiaticus Willd and L.R DC. These plants demonstrate significant antibacterial, anthelmintic, cardiotonic, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective properties. The evaluation of the toxicity of the plant extracts suggests their safety for animal consumption. G. asiaticus and L. runcinata contain diverse phytoconstituents that may contribute to their various pharmacological activities. This literature review serves as a foundational resource for phytochemical and pharmacological screening, affirming the safety of these plants for medicinal development. Researchers can leverage this information for further investigation and development of pharmaceutical interventions.

71. A Theoretical Review and Molecular Docking Study of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides
Yuvraj M Katu, Richa Jain
Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Linn is a tiny, procumbent herb that grows in a semiaquatic habitat and has spreading branches. It is a member of the Asteraceae family. In the practice of siddha, it serves as an energizing aid. A wide variety of ailments, including eczema, blood ailments, stomach worms, filaria, fever, skin illnesses, anti-helminthes, and jaundice, were alleviated with the help of this herb. Wound healing, antidiarrheal, antibacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects were among the observed benefits. The current article summarizes the many plant-related activities that have been documented.

72. Cyperus articulatus L.: A Review on Phytochemical & Pharmacological Exploration, and Effects on Human Health
Susmita Dhar, Samaresh Datta, Akash Yadav
Cyperus articulatus L., a member of the Cyperaceae family, is distinguished by delicate blooms at its tips. Traditionally used in northern Brazilian spas and artisanal colonies, the tubers sliced from the plant’s stalks emit a refreshing, woodsy, and spicy aroma. Beyond its aesthetic and aromatic appeal, the plant boasts significant medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Pharmacologically, it exhibits properties such as antimalarial, sedative, hepatoprotective, central nervous system (CNS) contraceptive, insecticidal, antibiotic, anticancer, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and anthococcosis medication. For instance, the chloroform extract of priprioca rhizomes revealed antimalarial metabolites, including “cyperotundone, alpha-cyperone, and mustacone.” The “C. articulatus rhizome decoction” contained sedative sugars, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, and polyuronides. Notably, the study did not detect metabolites related to hepatoprotection, contraception, and the central nervous system. Insecticidal activities were linked to the aromatic compounds, mono and sesquiterpenes, of the rhizome methanolic extract. Antibacterial activity, attributed to compounds and pinene, was found in ethanolic and chloroform extracts of rhizomes. The essential oil from C. articulatus exhibited anticancer effects, featuring sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. Phenolic chemicals in the essential oil were associated with antioxidant capabilities. Alkaloid chemicals in C. articulatus rhizome extract demonstrated anticonvulsant action, along with the presence of linoleic acid and mustakone metabolites. This study comprehensively explores the medicinal, therapeutic, and pharmacological benefits of C. articulatus.

73. Nardostachys jatamansi: A Review on Extraction Isolation Bioactivities of Phytoconstituents Chemical Structures and Traditional Uses
JM Mane, JS Jagtap, SS Chitlange, DH Nagore
Nardostachys jatamansi, commonly known as “jatamansi,” is a perennial herbaceous plant renowned for its medicinal properties. The rhizomes of N. jatamansi have been traditionally used in various medicinal practices owing to their therapeutic benefits. This abstract delves into the extraction process and isolation of phytoconstituents from N. jatamansi rhizomes, elucidating the extraction, purification, and structural analysis methods. The extraction of bioactive compounds from N. jatamansi rhizomes commonly employs soxhlet extraction, percolation, and maceration extraction techniques. These methods enable the efficient extraction of phytoconstituents from the plant material, ensuring optimal yield and purity. N. jatamansi has a rich history of traditional uses, including its application in Ayurvedic and traditional medicine systems for its diverse therapeutic properties. The rhizomes are reputed for their efficacy in treating various ailments, such as anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, and gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, the bioactivity of isolated phytoconstituents from N. jatamansi rhizomes has been extensively studied. These bioactive compounds exhibit a range of pharmacological activities, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. Structural elucidation of these phytoconstituents through advanced analytical techniques provides insights into their chemical composition and potential therapeutic mechanisms. The study concludes that the extraction, purification, and structural analysis of phytoconstituents from N. jatamansi rhizomes contribute to understanding its medicinal properties and pave the way for developing novel therapeutics with diverse pharmacological applications.

74. Herbal Immunotherapeutics in Diabetes: A Comprehensive Review on Plants Explored for Simultaneous Antidiabetic and Immunomodulating Effects
Nagamani C, Balaji P
This extensive review explores the intricate relationship between immunomodulation and diabetes mellitus (DM), emphasizing herbal interventions and formulations showcasing dual efficacy. Immunomodulation, characterized by interventions altering the host’s immune response, holds significant promise for addressing the complex pathophysiology of DM. An array of herbs reveals diverse mechanisms, ranging from down-regulating inflammatory markers to influencing glucose metabolism. In the domain of immunomodulation, herbs demonstrate the ability to modulate immune responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory cascades and regulating immune cell functions. Concurrently, formulations like HemoHIM and polyherbal formulations provide insights into their potential by lowering specific immune cells, presenting a dual-action paradigm for managing DM. The antidiabetic effects of these herbal interventions are elucidated, shedding light on their roles in mitigating insulin resistance, inadequate insulin secretion, and immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing cells. For instance, Gymnema sylvestre and Phyllanthus emblica exhibit antidiabetic effects by inhibiting α-glucosidase and regulating IL-17 expressions. HemoHIM and polyherbal formulation showcase efficacy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic models, accentuating their potential in diabetes management. The synergy between immunomodulation and antidiabetic effects underscores a holistic approach to DM management. Mechanisms span the modulation of immune system components to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, contributing to the comprehensive nature of these interventions. Future research in this field involves a deeper exploration of the specific molecular pathways these herbs engage. Rigorous clinical trials are imperative for validating efficacy and safety, facilitating the seamless integration of herbal interventions into mainstream diabetes management. This work signifies a dynamic and evolving field, offering the prospect of personalized and effective therapeutic strategies in DM management through the integration of herbal interventions.

75. Precision Medicine in Psychotherapy: The Past, Present and Future
Bhavatharini Sukumaran, Sharumathi SM, Rinu M Xavier, Arun KP, Deepalakshmi M
Precision medicine has sparked a fierce debate about the pros and cons of a more individualized healthcare strategy. Advances in precision medicine have challenged traditional paradigms of healthcare decision-making. Pharmacogenomics is part of precision medicine. Although genetic testing in drug therapy is still a relatively recent development, it is growing rapidly. Pharmacogenetic tests reveal genetic biomarkers that indicate a person’s drug susceptibility. They are increasingly being used to improve medication adherence; however, their utility in older people with polypharmacy remains to be well-studied. Mental illness is a major public health problem at both the individual and societal levels. Despite advances in psychopharmacology and better knowledge of therapeutic principles, there is still a long way to go to incorporate pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research into psychiatry’s clinical practice. Numerous genetic variants have been associated with anti-psychiatric responses and adverse effects of treatment. The aim of this review is to summarise responses to psychotropic drugs in the context of pharmacogenetic polymorphisms.

76. ISO 13485:2016 – The Gateway of Global or Regional Harmonization for Medical Device Regulations
Nitin M Jadhav, Raosaheb S Shendge
The present review article emphasizes the pivotal role of ISO 13485:2016 in facilitating the global harmonization of medical device regulations. Compliance with this standard is crucial for manufacturers aiming to access international markets, including India, Europe, and the USA. Harmonization of regulations simplifies the process of obtaining licenses and approvals, reducing burdens on manufacturers and enhancing patient safety. By implementing effective quality management systems, manufacturers can navigate the complex regulatory landscape and contribute to the global healthcare industry. The review article also underscores the diversity of medical devices available and acknowledges the substantial expansion of the Indian market. It discusses the stringent regulations outlined in the Indian Medical Device Rules (IMDR) 2017 and the challenges faced by nations in accessing high-quality medical devices. Furthermore, it touches upon the European Medical Device Regulations and the dynamic regulatory environment in the USA. In conclusion, the paper underscores the importance of ISO 13485:2016 in achieving global and regional harmonization of medical device regulations, thereby facilitating market access for manufacturers and confirming the assurance of safe and effective medical device products to patients worldwide.

77. Applications of Hafnium and other Transition Metals in Medicine – A Review
Vaishnavi Rajaraman, Padma Ariga, Saravanan Sekaran, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Deepak N Veeraiyan
Transition metals in the periodic table have been used in biological systems naturally. Synthetically, many materials have been used in the field of prosthodontics for the replacement of missing teeth. The research on these materials originally began from titanium which belongs to group 4 of the transition elements in the periodic table. Titanium has also established itself as the gold standard in prosthodontic and orthopedic replacements. After titanium, zirconium and hafnium were explored for the same purpose and till date researchers have been working on its feasibility. Extending this research, various metal options were studied by multiple biomaterial companies and researchers. Hafnium in the periodic table, which belongs to the group 4 elements, was also explored sufficiently. Nanoparticles are proven to have properties like strength, being lighter and cleaner, and contributing to smarter surface systems. This property has led to great contributions in the field of biomedical research and biomaterial development. Due to increased awareness of nanoparticles, metal nanoparticles are extensively studied for various biomedical applications. At the nanoscale, the properties of particles may change in unpredictable ways. This review highlights the use of transition metals in biology, including emphasis on the metal nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

78. Elevating Herbal Therapies: A Deep Dive into Standardization
Tamboli FA, Gaikwad DT, Salunkhe AA
Around 80% of the global population incorporates medicinal products made from herbs. Herbs play a major role in conventional medicine and are also frequently employed in naturopathic, homeopathic, ayurveda, and other healthcare practices. The herbal products are vulnerable to intrusion from numerous paths, degradation, and changes in their chemical structure because they are predominantly organic (plant-based). Hence, it is crucial to establish and implement quality control criteria for medicinal products made from herbs to guarantee both their safety and effectiveness. There are numerous factors in standardization alone, including gross morphology, microscopy, physical characteristics, and chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic fingerprinting. Standardization of herbal medications increases their security and therapeutic efficacy while potentially gaining global popularity. Because herbal remedies are derived from natural sources, adverse reactions, counterfeiting, and tampering are less likely. From this review, the concept of standardization of herbal drugs, as well as their classification, advantages, and limitations, is described. It also includes the need and scope for standardization of herbal drugs, its standardization method, and pharmacopeial standards.

79. Plants with Potential Neuropharmacological Activity: Plant-based Medicine for the Brain
Nripen Khare, Harshal Tare
This review article investigates the potential neuropharmacological activity of several plants in the context of plant-based medicine for brain health. The complex interplay of nature and neurology has aroused interest in exploiting plant-derived chemicals’ medicinal potential to promote cognitive enhancement, ease neurological illnesses, and safeguard brain health. This page gives an in-depth look at the neuropharmacologically active substances found in plants, ranging from alkaloids and flavonoids to terpenoids, and explains how they affect brain function. Traditional knowledge of plants used for neurological wellness is investigated, with a focus on cultural practices and historical applications. The review classifies plants based on their nootropic, anxiolytic, depressive, neuroprotective, analgesic, and sedative qualities, highlighting their potential to address various brain-related issues. Emerging research and future approaches highlight the changing environment of plant-based neuropharmacology, with a focus on safety and regulatory issues. The study highlights plant-based medicine’s prospective role in improving brain health and asks for more research and collaboration to uncover the full potential of nature’s neuropharmacological arsenal.

80. Asparagus racemosus: A Holistic Review of Its Traditional Uses and Modern Research
Barnali Sinha, Harshal Tare
This comprehensive review digs into the multiple significance of Asparagus racemosus, also known as shatavari, as both a beloved traditional cure and a topic of ongoing scientific research. The review weaves together the story of shatavari, from its deep roots in traditional medical systems to its incorporation into current healthcare procedures. The chapter discusses shatavari’s historical applications, particularly in women’s health and reproductive wellbeing, emphasizing its adaptogenic, hormone-balancing, and caring qualities. The investigation also extends to the herb’s phytochemical makeup, revealing the functions of saponins, steroidal glycosides, and flavonoids in the herb’s medicinal actions. The chapter details recent scientific research highlighting shatavari’s potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. Its function in treating illnesses such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and menopausal symptoms has received special attention. Safety issues, dosage recommendations, and potential contraindications are addressed to ensure responsible use. The paper concludes with observations on the synergistic interaction between traditional knowledge and current research, highlighting the significance of combining both to fully comprehend shatavari’s holistic potential. Shatavari’s dual significance as a valued embodiment of cultural history and a subject of rigorous scientific investigation emphasizes its ageless relevance in promoting wellbeing.

81. The Use of Biological Pigments in Cosmetics for Eco-friendly and Sustainable Coloring
Seemadevi Kadam, Sunita Deore, Harshal Tare, Vinod Wagh, Ujjwala Thube
Synthetic pigments have been used in the cosmetics industry for a very long time in everything from lipsticks to eye shadows. However, the hunt for sustainable and secure alternatives is driven by escalating environmental and health concerns. A feasible alternative that offers benefits in terms of biodegradability, sustainability, and safety is bacteria-based pigments. The potential of bacterial pigments in cosmetics is explored in this review article by focusing on their sources, extraction processes, and advantages over synthetic alternatives. The study also explores the safety and regulatory framework pertaining to bacterial pigments and presents actual case studies of their successful application in cosmetic products. A scenario on the potential impact of bacterial pigments on the cosmetics market is provided as a conclusion. The demand for various cosmetics is on rise and ever-increasing due to the inherent desire to look beautiful. A marked increase in women’s use of different cosmetic formulations has been witnessed in recent years. Varieties of cosmetics from different manufacturers are available in the market. Synthetic colors have been used in cosmetics for a long time, resulting in human health risks and environmental pollution. Therefore it is critical to search for novel natural pigments that are safe and alternative to synthetic ones. Compared to synthetic colors, microbial pigments show better biodegradability and greater compatibility with the environment.

82. Silver Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Agents: Mechanisms, Challenges, and Applications
Jyoti Yadav, Harshal Tare
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have garnered considerable attention for their potent antimicrobial properties and broad spectrum of applications in various fields. This review delves into the multifaceted realm of AgNPs as antimicrobial agents, aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of their mechanisms of action, challenges, and diverse applications. The article begins by tracing the historical significance of silver as an antimicrobial agents and transitions into the contemporary role of AgNPs in modern applications.
The synthesis of AgNPs is explored, encompassing diverse methods such as chemical, physical, and biological approaches. Particular emphasis is placed on green synthesis methods, which not only yield nanoparticles with controlled properties but also align with principles of environmental sustainability and biocompatibility. The review subsequently dissects the intricate mechanisms underpinning AgNPs antimicrobial process. The interaction of AgNPs with microbial cell membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disruption of vital microbial processes collectively contribute to their potent bactericidal and fungicidal activities.
However, the incorporation of AgNPs into various applications is not devoid of challenges. This article examines potential toxicity concerns, addressing issues related to stability, aggregation, and controlled release of nanoparticles, as well as the emergence of resistance mechanisms in microorganisms. Delving into the realm of applications, the review unveils AgNPs’ significance in biomedical and clinical settings, where they are employed in wound healing, medical devices, and infection control. Moreover, the environmental implications of AgNPs are explored, including their use in water and air purification, as well as potential roles in food and agricultural sectors.
Looking forward, the review discusses emerging trends and suggests future research directions. Combinational therapies, integration with advanced materials, and exploration of AgNPs’ potential in addressing global antimicrobial resistance are outlined as promising avenues. In conclusion, this comprehensive review underscores the vital role of silver nanoparticles as versatile and potent antimicrobial agents, shedding light on their mechanisms, challenges, and multifarious applications across diverse sectors.

83. Benzimidazoles in Medicinal Chemistry: Current Trends and Future Opportunities
Deepak Kumawat, Harshal Tare
Because of their various pharmacological actions and structural plasticity, benzimidazoles, a class of heterocyclic molecules, have received much attention in medicinal chemistry. This review paper aims to provide a complete overview of the current developments and future possibilities of benzimidazoles as promising candidates for the creation of innovative therapeutic medicines. The introduction discusses the importance of benzimidazoles in medicinal chemistry, emphasizing their wide range of uses, which include antibacterial, anticancer, and central nervous system actions. The structural properties of benzimidazoles and the effect of substituent changes on their biological activity are investigated, as well as crucial structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigations. The review looks into the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives, including both traditional and novel methods. The rise of microwave-assisted synthesis, green chemistry methodologies, and solid phase strategies for chemical manufacturing are explored. A thorough review of current breakthroughs in benzimidazole medicinal chemistry emphasizes the importance of target-based drug design, high throughput screening, and computational approaches in expediting drug discovery. As prospective directions for future research, the numerous applications of benzimidazoles in personalized medicine, nanotechnology-assisted medication delivery, and the examination of natural sources for chemical discovery are noted. However, concerns about toxicity, pharmacokinetic limits, and intellectual property difficulties have been raised, leading a cautious assessment of benzimidazole-based therapies. Benzimidazoles, medicinal chemistry, pharmacological activities, synthesis methodologies, structure-activity connection, drug discovery, and future possibilities are some of the keywords used in this study.

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