International Journal of

Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

ISSN: 0975 9506
Peer Review Journal

doi prefix: 10.25258/ijpqa

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1. Synthesize of New Ibuprofen and Naproxen Sulphonamide Conjugate with Anti-Inflammatory Study and Molecular Docking Study
Tagreed N-A Omar, Monther F Mahdi, May Mohammed Jawad Al-Mudhafar, ZainabBassim
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) contain free –COOH which thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs.  The esterification of this group is one of an approach to ultimate aim for reduce the gastric irritation; so in this study we synthesized and preliminarily evaluated new ester compounds as new analogues with expected selectivity toward COX-2 enzyme. Synthetic procedures have been successfully developed for the generation of the target compounds (III a and b). The synthetic approach involved multi-steps procedures which include: Synthesis of 4-hydroxy benzene sulphonamide ( I b ), synthesis of Naproxen and Ibuprofen acyl chloride and then  reacting them with 4-hydroxy benzene sulphonamide to form final compounds ( III a-b) .The structures of these compounds were identified and characterized using (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H NMR data and microanalysis (CHN).Pharmacological study as anti-inflammatory activities for the final compounds were studied in rats by induced edema type of inflammation. Moreover, the results of a docking study of compounds III a-b into the COX-2 binding site revealed that its mechanism was possibly similar to that of naproxen, a COX-2 inhibitor. The effect of them on COX-2 antibody was showed it could significantly inhibit COX-2 activity.

2. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and It’s Complications in Iraq
Qayssar Joudah Fadheel
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by long term elevation of blood glucose levels. A number of reasons that increase blood glucose level include (not enough insulin or oral diabetes drugs,too much food, adverse effects from other drugs, such as steroids, or conditions such as stress ,long- or short-term pain ,menstrual periods, dehydration). Objective: To assess the prevalence of type11 diabetic mellitus and its complications and comparison between different complications among people in Iraq. Patient: This is a randomize prospected, clinical study it was carried out in Iraqi Hospitals, Department of Medicine, emergency. This study was started at December 2016, this approved medical ethical community at University of Kufa. Methods: Sample of 100 cases (50 male and 50 female) in Iraq was selected in random manner and all the patients found in the Iraqi Hospitals at the time of visiting. Where directly meet the patients and collect data from each patient according to specific questionnaires: weight, height and blood glucose level were obtained. Materials: Blood glucose level was measure by using specific device and must keep it in suitable place with maintenance of sterility and recalibration. Further advices were taken from Departments of clinical/biomedical engineering and Local medical physics. Results: The prevalence diabetes mellitus complications among the study populationwas as follow:-(Diabetic neuropathy 98%), (Diabetes retinopathy 96%), (stroke 60%), (Diabetic nephropathy 36%), (Hypertension 63%), (foot problems 60%). A significant difference was founded between some diabetic complications, these were (Neuropathy & hypertension), (Retinopathy & hypertension), (Retinopathy & stroke), (Nephropathy & hypertension), (Nephropathy & Stroke), (Hypertension & Foot problems), (Foot problem & stroke), (Neuropathy & stroke). Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus complications was lying within that   reported in Iraq. There was a significant difference recorded between some diabetic mellitus complications. Early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and make program to the patient about lifestyle behavior were highly considered.

3. Determination some Immunological Aspects in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Qadisiyah Province
Syoof Khowman Alramahy, Akram Hadi Hamza
This study was carried out to study of some immunological aspects among the pulmonary Tuberculosis patients infected with causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A Total of 200 sputum samples were collected from patients attending the consultant Clinic for Chest and Respiratory disease center, Diwaniya. Control group (No=15) also included. According to acid fast stain of sputum, the patients were classified as positive (No=91,45.5%) and negative (No=109,54.5, Lowenstein­ Jensen medium used for the cultivation of samples, on which 70% of sputum samples where positive culture for this microorganism. The grown microorganism were identified as M. tuberculosis, based on positive A.F.B, Niacin producers ,negative for catlase at 68c. The mean IgG level was l184.053±76.684 mg/100 ml in tuberculosis group compared with 1016.533 ± 44.882 mg/100ml in control group, rendering the statistical difference significant. For IgA and IgM levels, they were at mean of 315.880±38.552 mg/100 ml and 119.527±8.464 mg/100 ml in control group compared with 396.358±38.776 mg/100 ml and 134.207±11.696 mg/100 ml in patients group respectively with significant difference.

4. Antibacterial Activity and Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis of Cladophora glomerate
Rusl Abed Al Rassul Ali, Ahmed S Dwaish
Filamentous specie of algae (Cladophora glomerata) collected from Baghdad University –Iraq were tested against bacterial species. Extracts of Cladophora glomerata species were prepared in acetone, hot and cold aqueous extracts.  four different concentrations (w/vol.) 12.5 ,25 ,50 and 100 mg/ml were made in each of the above mentioned extracts. Extracts were loaded on agar plates, containing test bacteria, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Klebseilla sp. and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hot and cold aqueous extracts were inefficiency in all bacterial species, while the hot acetone extract was efficiency for making extract that showed good zone of inhibition in bacterial species maximum up to 18 mm than the lower value was 7.5 mm. Chemical analyses showed that the active chemical compounds for hot acetone extract alga (Cladophora glomerata) extract was contains alkaloids, phenols, Tannins, Flavones, Resins and tannins. The acetone extract was further chemically characterized by using GC–MS in order to be tentative identify the compounds responsible for such activities. The main compositions were Methadone, Benzonitrile, bromobutyloxychalcone, Benzeneethanamine and Cyclodecasiloxane compounds which had antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that the acetone extract of C. glomerata exhibited appreciable antimicrobial activity and could be a source of valuable bioactive materials for health products.

5. Physiological and Chemical Study to Evaluation the Epidemiology of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia for Patients without a Family History of Cancer in Karbala City, Iraq
Humam Ali Hade, Rasha Hasan Jasim, Sattar Jasim Hatrosh
During the period from the beginning of February 2016 to the end of October 2017 in the Center of Oncology of Hematology of El-Hussein Medical city in Karbala, 30 samples were collected for patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia ranging between 1-13 years old (6,80 ± 3, 79) who didn’t have a family history of any cancer infection before receiving chemotherapy. The study was divided into two sections based on sex. The study included 19 males aged (1 – 12 years) and 11 females aged (1- 13 years old). The results showed significant differences in the levels of trace elements (Fe), (Cu), (Zn) and (Ni) in the serum. There was significant difference (p = 0.00) between the healthy and the patients who didn’t gain medicine. Also, significant differences were in levels of   fe) and Cu (cu) in serum samples in the samples of males and females with their peers in the control group. There were also significant differences when comparing the sexes in each of the two study groups. The results also showed significant differences in zn Blood samples for male and female patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia and healthy individuals, while significant differences of Ni (ni) between males and females of the infected group and healthy males.

6. Genotypic Study of Some Virulence Factors in Salmonella typhi Carrier Associated with Gall Bladder Chronic Infection
Zahraa Hameed Oda AL-Quraishi, PMahdi H AL-Amm
Introduction: A total of (50) clinical specimens were collected from patients suffering from gall bladder attending to AL-Sadder Medical City and AL-Furat General Hospital include (gall bladder tissue, stool and blood) during the period from December 2016 to September 2017 from different age and sex. Methodology: The identification of Salmonella typhi isolates were depended on colonial morphology and biochemical tests as a primary identification. The final identification was performed with the automated VITEK-2 compact system. Result: According to the results obtained by the VITEK tests, thirty five clinical isolates of   Salmonella typhi    were obtained. This study revealed that totally 35 (70%) positive result include that 23 (65.7%) isolates was positive from gall bladder tissue, 11 (31.4%) from stool and 1 (2.8%) from blood. The study investigated the virulence factors encoding genes of Salmonella typhi, which play a major role in enterococcus pathogenicity such as Vi (R1), Vi (R2), ViaB ,  InvA, SpvC, and  FimA. These genes have important role in invasion and adhesion. Conclusion: The study showed that the virulence factors of Salmonella typhi, which play a major role in their pathogenicity among gall bladder chronic infection.

7. Simple and Selective Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Loratadine Using Bromate-Bromide, Methyl Orange and Methylene Blue
Niranjani S, Venkatachalam K, Raju T
One indirect titrimetric and two indirect visible spectrophotometric methods were described for the determination of loratadine in bulk drug and in its formulations.  The methods used bromate-bromide, methyl orange and methylene blue as reagents.  In titrimetry (method A), loratadine was treated with a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture in acidic medium and the residual bromine was back titrated iodometrically after the reaction between loratadine and in situ bromine was ensured to be complete.  In spectrophotometric methods, the excess of bromine was estimated by treating with a fixed amount of either methyl orange (method B) and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm or methylene blue (method C) and measuring the absorbance at 680 nm.  In all the methods, the amount of reacted bromine corresponded to the loratadine content.  Titrimetric method was applicable over 1-8 mg range and the calculations were based on a 1:0.666 (loratadine:bromate) stoichiometric ratio.  In spectrophotometry, the calibration graphs were found to be linear over 150-350 and 1.75-3.5 μg mL-1 for method B and method C, respectively, with corresponding molar absorptivity values of 9.15 × 102 and 1.10 × 105 L mol-1 cm-1.  Accuracy and precision of the assays were determined by computing the intra-day and inter-day variations at three different levels of loratadine.  The methods were successfully applied to the assay of loratadine in tablet preparations and the results were compared with those of a reference method by applying Student’s t and F-tests.  No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical excipients.  The reliability of the methods was further ascertained by performing recovery tests by standard addition method.

8. In Vitro Anti Acne Activity of Methanolic Extract of Dried Fruit of Embelia ribes
Shyam Baboo Prasad, Meenu Bist
In current investigation, an attempt has been taken to explore the in vitro antiacne activity of methanolic extract of dried fruit of Embelia ribes. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the Embelia ribes fruits extract against test S.epidermidis, Propionibacterium acne and Malassezia furfur was found to be 500 µg/ml ,600µg/ml and 400µg/ml respectively. It clearly indicated that methanolic extract of dried fruit of Embelia ribes is promising anti-acne agent against the test microorganisms.

9. Potential uses and Analysis of Bioactive Natural Compounds of Peganum harmala
Israa Adnan Ibraheam, Haider Mashkoor Hussein, Imad Hadi Hameed
Peganum harmala is of Asian Origin and grows in the Middle East and in part of South Asia mainly in India and Pakistan. In Iran, and some countries in the Arab world such as, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, dried capsules mixed with other ingredients are placed onto red hot charcoal, where they explode with little popping noises in a way similar to American popcorn. Peganum harmala has been used to treat pain and to treat skin inflammations, including skin cancers. Some of these alkaloids such as harmaline, harmine, and norharmane are also endogenous compounds present in the body and since they have been found in high plasma concentrations in alcoholics, drug addicts, smokers, and patients with Parkinson’s disease, they are thought to be crucially involved in various central nervous system (CNS) problems. All of these effects represent an idea that P. harmala and its derivatives could be used for treatment of mood disorders and are potent alternatives for current anti-depression drugs.

10. Stability Indicating UV Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Omeprazole and Its Application to Content Uniformity Testing
Biju V M, Naga Gayatri S, Meenu P M
Omeprazole is a most commonly used antiulcer agent in clinical practices. A least time consuming efficient and simple ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the assay of omeprazole has been developed. The assay was based on the ultraviolet absorbance maxima at about 217.80 nm wavelength of omeprazole using sodium hydroxide as the solvent. In the present study comprehensive stress degradation was carried out according to ICH Q1 (R2) guidelines. The drug was subjected to acidic (0.1N HCl), basic (0.1N NaOH), oxidative (1% H2O2), photolytic and thermal degradation conditions. The developed UV spectrophotometric method showed high degradation under acidic condition, moderate degradation under basic, photolytic and thermal conditions. But it was relatively stable under oxidative conditions. The pathway for degradation has been proposed. The method was validated for Linearity, Accuracy, Precision, Specificity, Ruggedness and Robustness. The method shows good linearity in the range of 2-20μg/ml. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.1 μg/ml and 1.1 μg/ml. The %RSD was found to be with in limit i.e. <2%.The mean recovery of placebo was 100.68%. It can be concluded that the developed procedure is valid and can be applicable for determination of content uniformity for available brands of omeprazole. This method is applicable for the daily routine quality control quantitative analysis of omeprazole.

11. Cytotoxic Activity of Thymus vulgaris: Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity
Hussein J Hussein, Mohammed Yahya Hadi, Imad Hadi Hameed
Thymol, an antiseptic, is an active ingredient in various commercially produced mouthwashes such as Listerine. The medicinal properties of wild thyme have been extensively used in official and traditional medicine for many years and centuries, respectively. The herb is used in preparations of natural herbal remedies, such as syrups, tinctures, infusions, decoctions, tea, and oil. The increase in multidrug resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms has led to extensive phytochemical and pharmacological studies of T. vulgaris as an important source of medicinal substances with antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic properties and their effective medicinal application, as well as use in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. According to the PDR for Herbal Medicines, wild thyme is a component in various standardized preparations with antitussive effects, while alcohol extracts are integral components of drops used for coughs and colds.

12. Linum usitatissimum: Anti-bacterial Activity, Chromatography, Bioactive Compounds, Applications: A Review
Imad Hadi Hameed,   Israa Adnan Ibraheam
Flax is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. The flowers are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm in diameter, with five petals. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm in diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long. Flax is grown for its oil, used as a nutritional supplement, and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. Flax is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. Flax fibers are used to make linen. The Latin species name usitatissimum means “most useful. The oil is applied externally to treat joint and muscle pains, non-healing wounds, skin disorders. Flaxseed oil also helps in speeding up the healing of skin lesions and has proved very effective for everything acne, psoriasis, eczema, and sunburn. Omega-3 fatty acids offer protection against heart disease by getting to the membrane of body cells and acting as guards that admit only healthy substances and bar damaging ones.

13. Cytological and Histological Study of Adult and Neonate Epidermis in Thick and Thin Skin of Various Anatomical Sites
Hydar muhsin khalfa, Adnan Albideri, Haider salih jaffat
The integumentary system covers the surface of the embryo (skin) and its specialized skin structures including hair, nails, sweat glands, mammary glands and teeth. During fetal skin development, the epidermis changes from a single layer of ectodermal cells at 7–8 days of gestation into a more apparent stratified, keratinized epithelium at 22–24 weeks. The aim of the study is to identify the histological and cytological changes that take place during neonatal and adult epidermis development. Human neonatal and adult samples were obtained from fully informed, consenting parent or releatives from Al-hilla mortary / Iraq. Neonatal  samples were obtained from neonates after sudden deaths from maternity wards. Anatomical Sites included abdomen, forehead, back, shoulder and feet sole. A totoal of 15 neonates and 10 mature adults  were used for this study. Fresh tissues were sectioned using a freezing cryostat. Tissues were sectioned at 5µm in -24°C and collected on microscopic slides. Slides were allowed to air dry for 30 min prior to hematoxyline and eosin staining. Tissues were also photographed using scanning electron microscopy SEM. Cytological measurements were taken using image j software and data was analysed using graph prism. Various cytological and histological changes takes place during neonatal and adult and epidermis  development. Our study shows the stages of fair follicule formation as well as number of nucleated layers present at each stage of development and at different anatomical sites. Major histological changes takes places during the transition frm a neonate to a mature adult including the number of basal cells and epidermal thickness depending on the anatomical site.

14. The Effect of the Quantity and Quality of Water on the Weight and Rates of Germination of OryzaSativa of the Family Gramineae in Iraq
Fadhil al-Ibraheeimi, Naseer Majid, Amel Ajel Ali
The experiment was conducted in Kufa district Najaf  Province fromthe periodof (1/8/2015)to(13/8/2015) to find out  the effect of water amount used for seeds irrigation (50,100,150 ml water / kg soil).And water quality(drang water 2900 Micro Siemens \ cm, river water 673 EC) Micro Siemens \ cm), tap water (EC 627 Micro Siemens \ cm) on seed weight and germination percentage Oryzasativa taking Sample between other day from sowing till 13thday Results showed that there were an increase in seed weightwith irrigation with 150 ml/kg soil and tap water it reach the percentage of %311.1، 173.3 %,respectively.Germination percentage also increase to reach 100% at the 6th  dayfrom sowing with treatment 1 Mean while germination percentage of 100%was appear in the8th day but with aquality of water of 100 ml/kg Soil .This situation continued until the end of experiment after13 th day of Sowing Nevertheless ,Seed weight was different at the end of the experiment at the above two treatment whilel, germination Percentage 100% after passing 13 day for tap Water treatment.

15. Ace Gene Polymorphism Insertion Deletion Association with Prostate Cancer
Hasanain Ali Shubbar, Mahfooda Abbas Umran
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene carries two alleles: insertion (I) and deletion (D) polymorphism inside its intron 16.  The study investigation the association between genetic polymorphisms and prostate patients. Materials and Methods: 75 prostate cancer patients, 75 prostate benign and 81 healthy were included. The ACE I/D genotypes were determined by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) Results showed for ACE gene polymorphism at that DD allele relation with prostate cancer p-value 0.0001** and prostate benign relation with ID allele p-value 0.0097**. This study aimed to detecting genetic early marker in angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene Iraqi patients with prostate carcinoma.

16. Effects of Turmeric and Cinnamon Powder on Performance and Immune Traits of Broiler Chickens
Kadhim S Kadhim
This experience was done to impact assessment of turmeric and cinnamon powder added of a commercial broiler fed on the performance and immune response. Three dietary processing (50 chicks per treatment) with (2) duplicate (25chicks perduplicate) of broiler strain (Cobb) at one day old, G1 (as control group) chicks fed on basal nutrition without any supplement. however, G2 and G3 nutrition on feed supplemented with 0.5 and 0.5% cinnamon powder and turmeric powder respectively to the end of the study (35 days) to examine the broiler implementation and immune function. The results of experiment that the two treated groups had a useful effect on the antibody titer against (NDV), (IB), bursa index and spleen index. The rise levels of Immunostimulatory were theorize as the signal of anti-virus action of turmeric and Cinnamon. on the other hand.  The results showed significant (p<0.05) advance of performance in treatment groups compared with control group. finally, cinnamon powder and turmeric powder complement in broiler feeds was advantageous to chickens performance and immune status.

17. Study of Catsper1 Protein Levels in Unexplained and Idiopathic Infertile Men
Hayder L F AL-Msaid, Alaauldeen S M AL-Sallami
Catsper 1 is an important protein involved in calcium channel synthesis. These channels are essential for the hyperactivity of sperm flagellum, chemotaxis towards the egg, capacitation and acrosome reaction. Data analysis from unexplained infertility (n=50), idiopathic infertile men (Asthenozoospermia (n=50), Oligozoospermia (n=50)), and Normospermia fertile men as a control (n=26). The expression of CatSper1 protein expression in spermatozoa was reduced in unexplained infertility (mean± SD. Error 64.32±2.5 and in Asthenozoospermia 46.6±2.1and Oligozoospermia 53.86±4.1 while significant increase was observed in Normospermia fertile men 115.19±2.3. CatSper1 protein expressions was shown to have a positive correlation between sperm concentration, Sperm Progressive motility percentage and sperm normal morphology present in idiopathic infertile men respectively (r= 0.822, r = 0.651 and r = 0.742). A positive correlation was found between CatSper1 protein expression and sperm concentration, Sperm Progressive motility percentage and sperm normal morphology present in unexplained infertile men Respectively (r= 0.845, r = 0.576 and r = 0.582). The present study shows the importance of protein catsper 1 in infertile men and its positive correlation with sperm parameters.

18. Effects of Bacterocin from MRSA and Nigella Sativa (seed oil) against Biofilm from MRSA
Mais E Ahmed, Alaa Raheem Kadhim
A many risk challenge in (settings hospital) are multi- bacteria are antibiotic-resistant. Some type strains that ability adhesion surface-attached bio-film census. Fifteen MRSA isolates were considered as high biofilm producers Moreover all MRSA isolates; M3, M5, M7 and M11 produced biofilms but the thickest biofilm seen M7strain. The MIC values of N. sativa oil against clinical isolates of MRSA were between (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) μg/ml While MRSAcin (50, 75, 100, 125) µg\ ml. All biofilms treated with MRSAcin and Nigella sativa developed a presence of live cells after cultured on plate agar with inhibition zone between MIC (18 – 15) and (14- 11)mm respectively.Yet, results showed that MRSA supernatant developed a inhibitory effect then habitat oil . Significant differences (P<0.05) were found in O.D. and viable count between pre and post treatment of M7 strain biofilms. Unlike the Nigella oil treatment which left live some bacterial cells, MRSA supernatant (MRSAcin) left no live cells.

19. Isolation and Detection of Candida tropicalis from Aborted Placenta in Al-Najaf city/Iraq
Humam Kasem Hussein
Background: Candida tropicalis is one of the most causes of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in women. Systemic candidiasis and candidemia may also occur in pregnancies. Objective: This study was carried out to detect and isolate of this yeast from aborted placenta, which may cause severe complications such as spontaneous abortion. Materials and methods: Fresh aborted placenta were collected and washed by normal saline to remove the blood. Then, cut it into portions and place it in test tube containing 5 ml of normal saline. Finally, shake for 10 minutes, after that, cultured for microbial isolation. Isolation and detection were done by some conventional methods with Api candida and CHROMagar. Results: The results showed that four isolates of C. tropicalis (2%) were isolated from two hundreds samples from placenta of aborted women. Conclusions: Even with its rare occurrence, C. tropicalis has the ability to initiate intrauterine infection.

20. The Toxicity of Castor Beans and its Treatment with Doxycycline in Local Rabbits
Nael Mohammed Sarheed, Osamah Faisal Kokas, Doaa Abd Alabas Muhammed Ridh
The plant of castor is widely spread in the Iraqi land, and characterized with containing ricin toxin, which has a very serious effects, and because the seeds of this plant scattered in the agricultural soil and rivers water, which increases the exposure of humans and animals to these beans. Objective: This experiment was designed to study the effect of high concentration of castor bean powder in some physiological and biochemical parameters and changes in some tissues of the body, as well as trying to use doxycycline to reduce the effects of ingestion of these seeds. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 24 local rabbits were raised and fed in the Animal House of the Faculty of Medicine / Al-Muthanna University, then divided into four groups and treated for three weeks (21 days), Control group: treated with normal saline solution (0.9) orally throughout the experiment, G1: was treated orally with a concentration of 25 mg / kg of castor bean powder daily during the experiment, G2 : orally treated 25 mg / kg of castor bean and 25 mg / kg of doxycycline, G3: orally treated 25 mg / kg of castor powder with 50 mg / kg of doxycycline daily throughout the trial period. Results: The results of the experiment showed significant changes     (P <0.05) in all physiological and biochemical blood tests when compared with control group. There was a significant decrease in PCV, Hb, RBC, T.protein and body weights, while demonstrated a significant increase in WBC, Urea, Creatinine, ALT, AST and ALP, with distortions in liver and kidney of animals that treated with Castor beans. In contrast, the treatment with doxycycline and caster beans showed significant improvement reflected by a normal proportion in physiological tests and biochemical tests with improvement in the tissues when compared to control group. Conclusions: It can be concluded from this study that castor bean has high toxic and pathogenic effects that may be dangerous to the life of the organism. Therefore, it is advisable to be cautious of these pills and avoid exposure to them, also recommended to take high concentrations of doxycycline treatment when infected with castor bean poisoning.

21. The Effect of Smoking on Hemoglobin Concentration and Packed Cell Volume and Comparing them Between Smokers and Non- smokers in Diyala Province/Iraq
Hind Taher Qadir
Background: Smoking is a habit or pursuit in which smoker burn a substance (usually is a dried plant) and the resulting smoke enters the lungs through the mouth It is affecting on the health of human and causing serious conditions. Objective: This study aims to compare the effect of smoking on hemoglobin concentration and the packed cell volume between smokers and non-smokers persons attending to the health centers. Subjects and Methods: The study included two groups: Thirty nine smoker individuals and fifteen non- smoker individuals who attending Balad-Roze health center and Saray Baquba health center. This study was conducted for the period from 1stNovember 2014 to 1st March 2015. Results: The age of the studied groups range between 10-70 years. The results obtained  that there is  increase in the concentration of the Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume  in smoker group compared with non-smokers and both of Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume mean of their concentration were related with increase of age. In Addition the mean of Hemoglobin   and Packed cell volume was increase with smoking period. Conclusion: This study concluded that the smoking effect on Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume.


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